Theorem 1.38 of Hatcher's Topology says that connected coverings of a (locally path-connected, and semilocally simply-connected) topological space $X$ are in bijection with conjugacy classes of subgroups of $\pi_1(X)$.
Since $\pi_1(X)$ is trivial for $X=\mathbb{R}$ or $X=S^n$ ($n>1$), there are no connected coverings.