Any set of values of $u$ at the vertices of $\Delta_k$ can be attained just by adding an affine function to $u$, which does not change $M[u]$. To see that the solution of your problem is not unique, consider $u(x,y)=ax^2+a^{-1}y^2+\mathrm{(affine\ terms)}$ with $a>0$. Clearly $M[u]=4$ for any $a$.
On the other hand, Theorem 1.6.2 in the book The Monge-Ampère equation by C. Gutierréz states that there is a unique convex solution of $M[u]=\mu$ (with $M[u]$ properly understood) with prescribed continuous boundary values in a strictly convex domain $\Omega$. Without strict convexity we can't allow arbitrary continuous boundary data; it must be at least consistent with some convex function in $\Omega$. (But I don't know if that's enough). The uniqueness part holds without strict convexity; see Corollary 1.4.7 in the same book.