If the goal is to really learn statistical physics, I suspect Steve Huntsman's answer is probably correct.
It sounds like your goal is primarily to get a quick overview of how mathematicians use statistical physics, with lots of intuition, and lots of applications to nearby areas, but not necessarily much physics or any 'best possible' results. If that is the case, the Montanari/Mezard book `Information, Physics and Computation' is excellent. The emphasis is on teaching many different techniques, rather than on the statistical physics itself, and it is really written as a textbook rather than a reference book (i.e. the theorems are the easiest ones to understand, not the most powerful ones to use). In other words, it has exactly the mathematical underpinnings, but doesn't cover what many of the other books treat as central material.