People not originally from the US (or at least not from an English speaking country) tend to have a little more trouble with this question, because they have more difficulty understanding the following:
Traditionally in the United States, higher education is not specific training for a career. Rather, it is training to be a thoughtful contributing citizen. Skills necessary for being a thoughtful contributing citizen tends to be useful in all kinds of intellectual and non-intellectual work. Companies looking for intelligent employees therefore look for intelligent, hard-working people who have done well at studying something, not necessarily anything related to what they do.
As a graduate of a liberal arts college, I saw music majors and English majors get all kinds of jobs. What were the most common?
1) Sales. Plenty of companies need people to sell something. One might sell large software packages to businesses. One might sell re-insurance to insurance companies. One might sell medical devices to doctors. Since salespeople generally are mostly paid on commission, hiring a salesperson is low risk. Traditionally, salespeople know almost nothing about what they are selling; they are just good at convincing people to buy whatever they are selling.
2) Technical sales support. Someone has to understand what they are selling. Except technical sales support people are not actually experts in what is being sold. They've just had a little more training so they can answer the 98% of questions that aren't actually that technical.
3) Software. If you've learned how to program, the vast majority of jobs in the software industry don't require that much software engineering knowledge, and you've probably learned enough. We are not talking about making a database or operating system run faster; we're talking about changing the interface of MathOverflow to move the answer box 5 pixels to the right, or just making sure this webpage is displaying the answers to this question and not some other random question.
4) Consulting. There is both software consulting (see software) and management consulting. This involves being in a group that is hired to look at a company's operations, gather qualitative and quantitative data, and make recommendations. The whole point is that you are mostly not experts and therefore (at least supposedly) have a fresh view on what they are doing and can recommend the obvious stupid things they are missing.
5) Investment banking. See Sales, except you're selling financial products to companies. Except that in this industry, sales is frequently done in teams, so your role might be closer to that of a consultant (assembling data to support the sale) than an actual salesperson.