# All Questions

**4**

votes

**1**answer

219 views

### degree of polynomials in nullstellensatz

If $K$ is algebraically closed field, then consider $m$ polynomials $f_i$ for $i=\{1,\dots,m\}$ in $K[x_1,\dots,x_n]$ of degree $d_i$ each with no common root. We know there exists $g_i$ for ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

11 views

### When is a topological space the homotopy colimit of an open covering?

Suppose that $X$ is a topological space and $\left(U_i \to X\right)$ is an open cover. We can associate to it the Cech diagram of this cover $$C_U:\Delta^{op} \to Top.$$ I know that for many good ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

48 views

### Determinant of the oriented adjacency matrix of a tree

Let $(V,E)$ be a finite oriented directed graph, with vertices and edges ordered, and $M$ the $|V|\times |E|$ matrix with entries
$$ m_{ve} = \begin{cases} 1 &\text{if $e$ points at $v$}\\
-1 ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

9 views

### Unitary factor in polar decompositions

Let $A, B$ be $n$-square (Hermitian) positive definite matrices. Let $AB=U|AB|$ be the polar decomposition of $AB$. So $U$ is unitary (called the unitary factor of $AB$). What is the optimal constant ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

157 views

### Quasi-stationary distribution for a death process

In the paper, Survival in a quasi-death process by van Doorn and Pollett, the quasi-stationary distribution of a transient CTMC is discussed and QSD for a simple death process is derived.
Consider a ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

6 views

### Estimating polynomial approximation error in high dimension

Let $x \in [-1, 1]^d \subset \mathbb{R}^d$ be a $d$-dimensional variable and assume that -- given $n$ -- I have a way of computing a polynomial $p_n(x)$ of degree $n$ that approximates a smooth ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

176 views

### Inverted pair of complex analytic families

I read the following "problem" in an old set of notes of Morrow and Kodaira which focused on deformations of complex manifolds:
Find a pair of complex analytic families $\lbrace M_t\rbrace$ and ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

208 views

### If questions are formalized as ideals of a boolean algebra, what kind of algebra of questions appears from Stone representation theorem?

Affirmative propositions make up a Boolean algebra, and Boolean algebras became part of classical algebra for over one century ago - in this sense they are "simple". But I did not encounter in ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

11 views

### Name for class of contracting permutations

Let $S_n$ be the symmetric group. For any sequence of numbers $y=[y_1,y_2,\cdots,y_k]$, define the flattening operation as $\mbox{flat}_{k}(y)$ as a relabeling of $y_1,y_2,\cdots,y_k$ in terms of ...

**-1**

votes

**0**answers

45 views

### Calculating the quotient group $\mathbb{Z}\times\mathbb{Z}/<(1,1),(1,-1)>$ [on hold]

Let $G$ be the group $\mathbb{Z}\times\mathbb{Z}$ and $H$ be the subgroup of $G$ generated by $(1,1)$ and $(-1,1)$. I am trying to calculate the quotient group $G/H.$

**11**

votes

**3**answers

326 views

### Conjecture regarding closest point inside a discrete ball to a line

I'm a PhD student in image processing, where I've stumbled into a problem that seems to be essentially number theory. I've hunted around online and while I've found many results on similar problems, ...

**1**

vote

**3**answers

151 views

### Koebe–Andreev–Thurston theorem - where can I find a proof?

Koebe–Andreev–Thurston theorem (known also as the circle packing theorem) says that any planar graph can be realized by a set of (interior-) disjoint disks corresponding to vertices, such that two ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

303 views

### How large can you draw an island on a map?

A cartographer friend asked me this question: could you classify (shapes of) islands by how much space they occupy on a map (comparatively to how much space is occupied by water) if you draw them as ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

19 views

### Number of median graphs?

What is the number of $n$-vertex median graphs? These graphs generalize hypercubes and trees, and have many applications. It seems unlikely that a closed form expression is known, so I would also be ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

33 views

### Simplest form for sum of Binomial Expressions

How difficult is the problem of reducing the number of terms in a sum of binomial expressions? Formally:
Given $a_1, a_2, a_3, … a_n$, and $b_1, b_2, b_3, ... , b_n$, where $a_i, b_i \in \mathbb{Z}$, ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

14 views

### System of linear ODEs with hypergeometric coefficients

For quite some time I have been trying to solve the following system of differential equations for the two functions $G$ and $H$ defined on the interval $[0,1]$:
$$
\begin{align}x ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

81 views

### Norm of swapped power series in the unit disk

Suppose $f(z)=a_0+a_1z+\cdots+a_nz^n+\cdots$ is defined in the unit disk and $\|f\|_{\infty}\leq 1.$ Lets form another series $g$ by interchanging $a_1$ and $a_k$ i.e. ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

14 views

### Solutions for n such that the path number to the n-th node is also n in a complete, rooted, ordered k-ary tree

The path to find the $n$-th node within a complete, rooted, ordered $k$-ary tree can be represented by a number to the base $(k+1)$ that contains no zero digits. See A245905 in OEIS as an example for ...

**-1**

votes

**0**answers

14 views

### Region of Convergence [on hold]

Using the Laplace transform, I got a frequency domain function, i.e 1/(s+1) + 1/(s+2), so my radius of convergence for the function on the right is Re{s} > -1 and for the left function it is Re{s} ...

**15**

votes

**3**answers

276 views

### Can all $L^2$ holomorphic functions on a domain vanish at a particular point?

Let $\Omega \subset \mathbb{C}^n$. Is it possible that there is a point $p \in \Omega$ such that every $f \in A^2(\Omega) = L^2(\Omega) \cap \mathcal{O}(\Omega)$ has a zero at $p$? The space ...

**10**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Robotics, Cryptography, and Genetics applications of Grothendieck's work? [on hold]

I was reading about the passing of Alexander Grothendieck, and something caught my interest:
Mr. Grothendieck was able to answer concrete questions about these relationships by finding universal ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

25 views

### Is ther a dense subset of parameter plane, which is not an interior?

In case of parameter plane of complex quadratic polynomial :
is it possible to find part of parameter plane, scanned with given limited precision ( rasterised) where :
every pixel contains part ...

**-2**

votes

**0**answers

27 views

### An analytic characterization of eigenvalues of a Hermitian matrix

[..the following is trying to understand a certain argument of Terence Tao in a lecture notes of his..]
If $A$ is a Hermitian matrix with eigenvalues, eigenvectors $\{ \lambda_i , e_i \}_{i=1}^n$. ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

23 views

### Approximation of a degenerate continuous quadratic form

Let $a(\cdot)$ be a real positive definite function and let $b(\cdot)$ be a real function in $L^2$.
Consider:
$$
P_T(x)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{T}}\int_0^T\int_0^T a(u-v)b(u-x)b(v-x)dudv.
$$
The goal is to ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

12 views

### Probability of close approach for multivariate normal variables

The following problem comes from a physical model of two groups of particles in three dimensions. I need to know the probability that the two groups of particles approach each other within some ...

**4**

votes

**5**answers

154 views

### Books on the analysis of hyperbolic partial differential equations

Most of the present books on pde analysis deal with the elliptic partial differential equations. Is there some book related to rigorous analysis with hyperbolic pdes, and especially hyperbolic systems ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

89 views

### (Alternative) Presentation for the pure braid group of the sphere

First I need some notation (it's all standard I think). For a manifold $M$, let $F_nM = F_{0,n}M$ be the space of $n$-tuples of distinct points on $M$ ; let $B_nM = B_{0,n}M = F_nM / \Sigma_n$. When ...

**3**

votes

**9**answers

984 views

### functions of one complex variable: geometric theory

Can someone recommend a good textbook on functions of one complex variable which have good chapters on geometric theory, in English?
When I studied complex analysis, I used two
textbooks:
An ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

33 views

### Series of swapping terms

Suppose $f(z)=a_0+a_1z+\cdots+a_nz^n+\cdots$ is defined in the unit disk, $\mathbb{D}$, and $\|f\|_{\infty}\leq 1.$ Lets form a series $f_k$ by interchanging $a_1$ and $a_k$ i.e. ...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

+200

### The error in Petrovski and Landis' proof of the 16th Hilbert problem

What was the main error in the proof of the second part of the 16th Hilbert problem by Petrovski and Landis?
Please see this related post
Added : According to their method, what of the following ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

79 views

### Injectivity of Rewrite Rule in a Free Lie Algebra

Let $L$ be a free Lie algebra (over $\mathbb{Q}$) on generators $x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n$, and let $V_k$ be the subspace spanned by the $k$-fold brackets. Let $U_1 = \mathrm{span}\{ x_i | i< ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

138 views

### Monodromy of a punctured disc

I meet the following problem which I think related to the monodromy:
Let $D: = \{z \mid |z|<1 \}$ be a disc, and $U \to D$ be a variety fibred over $D$. For each point $t \in D \backslash \{0\}$, ...

**-2**

votes

**0**answers

22 views

### why is $\frac {dy}{dx} dx = dy$? [migrated]

if $y$ is a function of $x$, why is $\frac {dy}{dx} dx = dy$? This has been bugging me. Why is it you can treat that as a fraction?
I would like the traditional calculus view first if possible, then ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

59 views

### Reducible reductive Lie subalgebras of so(p,q)

Is it true that $S(O(p) \times O(q))$ is the only proper subgroup of $SO(p,q)$ of full rank acting on the natural representation $\mathbb{R}^{p+q}$ of $SO(p,q)$ that stabilizes a $p$-dimensional ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

82 views

### Normal Variation on Manifolds

Let $M$ be a smooth surface and let $x,y \in M$. Let $d_{M}(\cdot, \cdot)$ be the geodesic distance metric on $M$, that is the length of the shortest geodesic curve on $M$. Let $\kappa$ be the maximum ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

110 views

### Some Questions from Reading on Wave Front Set from Hormander's Linear PDE Vol. 1

In Hormander's Linear PDE Vol. 1 (pg 252-253, before the definition of wave front set is introduced), Lemma $8.1.1$ says that if $\phi \in C_{0}^{\infty}$ and $v \in \mathcal{E}^{\prime}$, then ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

24 views

### Lifting $SHFC$ to non singular foliations

In this question we would like to complexify the idea in the following post.
We would like to lift a "singular holomorphic foliation by curves", briefly "SHFC", of $\mathbb{C}P^{2}$ to a ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

43 views

### Integral of Weingarten Map / Shape Operator

This Paper states that the Weingarten Map / The Shape operator $W_p$ of a two-dimensional surface $S\subset\mathbb{R}^3$ at a point $p$ can be expressed in the following way:
...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

135 views

### How to find the general solution of Mathieu differential equation?

Two solutions of the equation are the Mathieu sine and cosine and they form an orthogonal basis. The equation has arisen from the wave equation for an infinite string with a sinusoidal cross-section. ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

30 views

### Initial Value for an ODE Problem

I have the following ODE
$\mathbf{A}\dfrac{d\vec{y}}{dt}+\mathbf{B}\vec{y}=\vec{x}$,
where $\vec{y}$ and $\vec{x}$ are $n\times1$ vectors and are functions of $t$, and $\mathbf{A}$ and $\mathbf{B}$ ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

58 views

### Identifying a cohomology class arising from a Postnikov decomposition of BU(2)

For various reasons I'm currently interested in Principal $U(n)$-bundles $U(n)\hookrightarrow E\xrightarrow{p} S^m\times X_g$ over the Cartesian product of an $m$-sphere and a closed oriented surface ...

**-7**

votes

**0**answers

45 views

### A true-false exam has five questions. Andy is completely ignorant and so he tosses a fair coin to answer each question [on hold]

A true-false exam has five questions.
Andy is completely ignorant and so he tosses a fair coin to decide his answer to each question.
What is the probability that he scores at least four correct?

**2**

votes

**0**answers

38 views

### Powers of traces, integrals over spheres and class functions

I asked this on math.StackExchange a while back but got no answers. I hope I'll be forgiven for the double post.
Let $V$ be a complex vector space of dimension $\operatorname{dim}_{\mathbb C} V = n$, ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

76 views

### is there Oka-grauert principle for homogenous space

Suppose we have a fiberation over punctured disc(deformation of complex manifolds)each fiber is a Homogenous space, is the total space is a product of a fiber with punctured disc? What about fiber is ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

18 views

### Asymptotic variance for partial sum of a stationary process

Let $X = (X_1, \dots, X_n, \dots)$ be a sequence of random variables. We assume that the process X is stationary i.e. for any integer $k$, any set of indices $i_1 < \dots < i_k$ and any integer ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

95 views

### Flat manifolds and irreducible representations

Let $M$ be a compact Riemannian manifold with vanishing curvature of Levi-Civita connection. Such manifolds were classified by Bieberbach; sometimes they are called Bieberbach manifolds. According to ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

51 views

### Eigenvalue problem

I am studying torsional Alfven waves in spicules.
In this concern I have encountered the following equation:
$
\left(1-m^2 e^{-αz}\right)y''(z)+\left(4π i m ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

247 views

### Birkhoff Ergodic Theorem and Ergodic Decomposition Theorem for Continuous-Time Markov Processes

I have a couple of questions regarding ergodicity for Markov processes in continuous time. (In particular, the first question seems like it should be particularly basic, and yet I haven't managed to ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

200 views

### Groups with a unique composition series

Which finite groups $G$ have a unique composition series? I don't mean in the sense of the Jordan-Holder theorem, but rather actually unique.
Some examples are the cyclic groups $C_{p^n}$ and the ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

392 views

### Model structure for cooperads and for coalgebras

I am studying the homotopy theory of (algebraic) operads and I came up with several questions I am unable to answer to. I would like to stress that I don't have applications in mind, I just would like ...