# All Questions

**3**

votes

**1**answer

70 views

### Optimal lower bounds for the sum of digits in base $b$

Let $b \geq 2$ be an integer and let $s_b(n)$ be the sum of the digits of the base-$b$ representation of the nonnegative integer $n$
(e.g., $s_{10}(726)=7+2+6$). From the weak law of large numbers, it ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

7 views

### Formula for Value of Games Without Saddle Points

I've read that the value of a game with payoff matrix
[ a b ]
[ c d ]
that has no saddle points is
(ad − bc)/(a + d − b − c).
Does anyone know what the general ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

16 views

### Bounds for Betti numbers

Why the graded Betti numbers of ideal $I \subset k[x_1 , \cdots , x_n]$, are bounded by the graded Betti numbers of $\mathrm{gin}(I)$?
(Where $\mathrm{gin}(I)$, is the generic initial ideal of $I$ ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

16 views

### In a Simplicial group the Degenerate elements don't intersect the kernel of the face maps.

Let $G_{\bullet}$ be a simplical group. I denote by $D_n \subset G_n$ the subgroup generated by all the degeneracy maps $s_i:G_{n-1} \to G_n$.
I also denote $$M_n = \bigcap_{i>0} \mathrm{Ker} d_i ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

16 views

### Geometric meaning of the black hole horizon

It is widely accepted that the singularity of the Schwarzschild metric at the event horizon is purely an artifact of the coordinates and no physical singularity exists at the horizon. However, as ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

6 views

### Appropriately choosing the parameter so that one function maximizes while other minimizes

Suppose we have two functions $f$ and $g$ of some variables $x,y,z\in R$. Our goal is to appropriately choose the values of $x,y,z$ such that $f$ is maximized while $g$ is minimized.
Here, I am not ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

23 views

### numerical and functional mixed optimization problem $\max f - \min f +\int_{-1}^1 (f'(x)-x)^2dx$

Given a function $g(x)$ and its domain, we want to get another function $f(x)$ whose derivative is approximately $g(x)$, but so that $f(x)$ itself has small variation. For example, for ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

157 views

### Estimates on derivatives of Bessel function

In Duke, Friedlander and Iwaniec's Erratum on "Bounds for automorphic L–functions. II"
They have the following estimates for derivatives of Bessel functions: For $k \geq 2$
\begin{align}
& ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

381 views

### Failure of diamond at large cardinals

What is known about the failure of $\Diamond_{\kappa}$ (diamond at $\kappa$) for $\kappa$ (the least) inaccessible, (the least) Mahlo and (the least) weakly compact.
Remark. The problem of forcing ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

127 views

### Asymptotic formula for the number of ways to write a number as the sum of $k$ triangular numbers

How would one derive an asymptotic formula for the number of representations of a number $n$ as the sum of $k$ numbers of the form $\frac{m(m + 1)}{2}$
I think that one could use the circle method, ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

12 views

### Sign of Laplacian in a N-Dimensional Space Under Other Specific Conditions

Consider that $f: \mathbb{R}^N \to \mathbb{R} $ is infinite times differentiable and is smooth over the entire domain. Take $N$ to be large. Also at point $\mathbf{x_0}$:
$$
...

**9**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Has the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra been proved using just fixed point theory?

Question:
Is there already in the literature a proof of the fundamental theorem of algebra as a consequence of Brouwer's fixed point theorem?
N.B. The original post contained superfluous ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

167 views

### Measure concentration for law of large numbers

The classical law of large numbers states that
$$\frac1k\sum_{i=1}^k X_i \rightarrow \mathbb{E} X_1$$
for i.i.d. $X_1, X_2, \ldots$ with finite $L^1$ norm.
I was wondering whether is it possible to ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

621 views

### The “Level N modular equation for delta” in characteristics 3, 5, 7 and 13

When $N > 1$, the modular forms $\Delta(z)$ and $\Delta(Nz)$ are algebraically independent over the complexes, and the same then is true of their expansions at infinity. But using the fact that
the ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

391 views

### Edge Covering Shortest path

I have a graph of Points G(V,E) and I want to find the shortest path covering all the edge, I want the minimum number of edge repetitions .
Which is the best way to reduce this problem to well know ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

133 views

### Literature on Exponential of a Quadratic Form

Let $A_i$, $i=1,\dots,L$ be given $N\times N$ positive definite real matrices. I have this sum of exponentials
\begin{align}
...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

83 views

### The topology of the classifying space of U(n)

In $\textit{Atiyah and Bott: The Yang-Mills equations over riemann surfaces}$, there is a sentence about the topology of BU(n) (i.e. the classifying space of U(n)):
Here $K(\mathbb{Z},n)$ means the ...

**17**

votes

**6**answers

10k views

### Determinant of sum of positive definite matrices

Say $A$ and $B$ are symmetric, positive definite matrices.
I've proved that $\det(A+B) \ge \det(A) + \det(B)$ in the case that $A$ and $B$ are two dimensional.
Is this true in general for ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

35 views

### Method used in fmincon() of Matlab? [on hold]

We are using the Matlab optimization toolbox function fmincon() to solve a constrained minimization with only equality constraints. We wish to find out which particular constrained optimization method ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

172 views

### Bounds on the derivative of a Riemann map

Let U be a simply connected domain with smooth boundary in the complex plane, and let $\mathbb D$ be the unit disc. Is there a nice sufficient condition for the existence of a biholomorphic map ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

235 views

### Is there a general notion of semigroup action?

The analogous result to Cayley’s theorem or Yoneda lemma in semigroup theory represents semigroups as semigroups of functions from a set to itself. This suggests that a semigroup action consists of a ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

220 views

### Three old questions on the Sacks forcing

I came across the two following Qs in 1970.
Find reals $a,b$ such that $a$ is Sacks over $L[b]$ and vice versa $b$ is Sacks over $L[a]$. Note that a Sacks $\times$ Sacks generic pair definitely does ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

168 views

### Aspheric functors and Grothendieck fibrations

Following Grothendieck, let us say that a category is aspheric if its nerve is weakly contractible and a functor $u : \mathcal{A} \to \mathcal{B}$ is aspheric if for every object $b$ in $\mathcal{B}$, ...

**-6**

votes

**0**answers

160 views

### Who know about Rumek proof [on hold]

Rumek has actually shown that the usual ZFC axioms
for mathematics are in fact
inconsistent. For example, Rumek has been able to prove from the ZFC
axioms that both 2+2 = 4 and 2+2 = 5.
...

**16**

votes

**4**answers

719 views

+50

### What arrangement of unit cubes minimizes surface area?

For each of these two questions, one can assume that the arrangements are polycubes (for which a definition can be found in the excerpt-image below).
Question A. How does one arrange $n$ unit cubes ...

**12**

votes

**3**answers

343 views

### Is the sequence of Apéry numbers a Stieltjes moment sequence?

Consider the sequence of Apéry numbers
$$
A_n = \sum_{k=0}^n \binom{n}{k}\binom{n+k}{k}\sum_{j=0}^k \binom{k}{j}^3
= \sum_{k=0}^n \binom{n}{k}^2\binom{n+k}{k}^2 .
$$
In an email, physicist Alan Sokal ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

169 views

### Categories with binary relations as objects

For the category of functions, pairs of functions making commutative diagrams are the canonical morphisms $\alpha:f\rightarrow g$. For binary relations there is an alternative, to consider the ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

58 views

### Are Anderson $T$-motives motives for the function field analogy?

this question is related to this one Geometry for Anderson's motives?, though the previous one doesn't answer exactly my question.
Let $\mathbb{C}_{\infty}$ be the function field analog of ...

**48**

votes

**12**answers

14k views

### Top specialized journals

In geometry/topology, there are (at least) three specialized journals that end up publishing a large fraction of the best papers in the subject -- Geometry and Topology, JDG, and GAFA.
What journals ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

198 views

### On the positivity of matrices

For given $n$, the following $n\times n$ real matrix $M=M^{T}$ is called positive, if
$x^{T}M x\geq 0$
holds for all non-negative real $x_1,x_2,\cdots,x_n$,
where $x=(x_1,x_2,\cdots,x_n)^T$.
...

**9**

votes

**4**answers

704 views

### Elements of finite order of $\mathrm{PGL}(n,\mathbb{Q})$

For some research work, I need to know the classification of elements of finite order of $\mathrm{PGL}(n,\mathbb{Q})$, up to conjugation.
Since I essentially need $n\le 4$, I think that I can show it ...

**61**

votes

**11**answers

12k views

### What is an integrable system

What is an integrable system, and what is the significance of such systems? (Maybe it is easier to explain what a non-integrable system is.) In particular, is there a dichotomy between "integrable" ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

47 views

### Are all complex zeros of $Li_s(i)\, + \, Li_{1-\overline{s}}\,(-i)$ equal to the $\rho$'s?

Take the well known square relationship for polylogarithms:
$$Li_s(z)\, + \, Li_{s}(-z)=2^{1-s}Li_s(z^2)$$
Assume $z=i$:
$$Li_s(i)\, + \, Li_{s}(-i)=2^{1-s}Li_s(-1)=-2^{1-s}\,\eta(s)$$
with ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

257 views

### Forcing, cuts, and Dedekind-finite cardinalities

Tl;dr version: there are two natural classes of cuts in the nonstandard model of arithmetic consisting of the Dedekind-finite sets (if, in fact, they constitute such a model); both these classes are ...

**-5**

votes

**0**answers

33 views

### Calculus question on limts [on hold]

Can't solve this algebraically. Answer would be greatly appreciated. Thanks.
lim x->0 ( ( (sin^2 x)(1-cos x) ) / 2x^4 )

**10**

votes

**1**answer

596 views

### Tight prime bounds

This is a cross-post of this question on MSE. I would not usually do this, but have decided to in this case since it has had no responses having been posted as a bounty question. I did not delete the ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

44 views

### Difference between straight and piecewise linear and continuous embeddings of graphs / complexes in d-dimensional space?

Here is my main question: what is the difference between "straight" and "piecewise linear" and "continuous" embeddings of graphs/complexes in d-dimensional space?
Moreover I would like to know if any ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

250 views

### Examples of continuous differential equations with no solution

Several theorems regarding differential equations are true not only in finite dimension but also in infinite dimension Banach spaces. This is in particular the case for the Cauchy–Lipschitz theorem.
...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

23 views

### Ferenczi: minimal, uniquely ergodic, sublinear complexity systems are not strongly mixing

The following result is on page 26 of this paper by Ferenczi [PDF].
Corollary 3. A minimal and uniquely ergodic system of sub-affine complexity cannot be strongly mixing (i.e., $\mu(T^nA \cap B) ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

203 views

### Fixed point property for posets

Recall that a Partially Ordered Set (poset) $P$ has the fixed point property (FPP) if any order preserving function $f:P\longrightarrow P$ has a fixed point.
Theorm : Suppose $P$ and $Q$ are posets ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

122 views

### Quotient of Projective line over rationals with an infinite subgroup of PGL(2,Q)

I am looking for references for the following; how to calculate quotient of the projective line over the field of rationals with an infinite subgroup of PGL(2,Q), e.g, of the form
$
\left(
...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

196 views

### Trapping a particle

A particle starts a brownian walk in the middle of a long tunnel in the plane, at one end of the tunnel is a region Y of given area A.
Does the shape of region Y affect average time for the particle ...

**-4**

votes

**0**answers

61 views

### Free groups and varietal product [on hold]

I will be so thankful if some one help me.
My knowledge in free group is not deep.
Suppose $S$ is the variety of p-groups of class at most 2 and exponent p.
Question one) For any $n$, is there a ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

60 views

### $RUCar^{V}$-semiproperness implies properness

This is a claim in Shelah's Proper and Improper Forcing, more specifically Claim 2.3(1) of Chapter X (p. 484). The proof of the claim is "Easy" but I cannot quite figure it out. There must be some ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

119 views

### A question on certain elliptic PDE

Consider the elliptic PDE "CR"
$$\begin{cases} U_{xx}=V_{yy}\\U_{yy}=-V_{xx} \end{cases}$$
And its consequence "LAP" $$U_{xxxx}+U_{yyyy}=0$$.
Somehow, these equations are similar to the Cauchi ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

40 views

### Internal categories in an endofunctor category

Here we see the definition of an internal category in a monoidal category. We also know that endofunctor categories support a monoidal product which is actually functor composition. It is the case ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

489 views

### Matrices whose entries are essentially traces of products of unitary matrices.

A $n\times n$ matrix $A=[a_{ij}]$ is called "good", if there exists some $k$ and a set of $k\times k$ complex unitaries $U_i$, $1\leq i\leq n$ , such that $tr(U_i^{+}U_j)=ka_{ij}$, where $U^{+}$ ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

314 views

### Reference request: Book of topology from “Topos” point of view

Question: Is there any book of topology in the modern language of topos theory?
I refer to the (systematic, formalist) study of the category of sheaves on a site or the study of topology in a ...

**-1**

votes

**0**answers

12 views

### 3D Vector projection on a Plane [migrated]

I want to Project a Vector on to a Plane. Assume, you have a Central Point (1,1,1) and you want to move (0,0,3) in z-direction. How can I project the end of this movement (point) on a plane with ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

144 views

### Finite subgroups of mapping class groups

Given a closed, oriented surface $\Sigma$ of genus greater than 1, let $Mod(\Sigma)$ denote the mapping class group of orientation preserving diffeomorphisms of $\Sigma$ up to isotopy. Given any ...