# All Questions

**2**

votes

**1**answer

49 views

### Fourier transform of a matrix represented compact lie group

In physics, I come across this kind of integration (in the nonlinear sigma model):
\begin{equation}
S[g] = \frac{1}{\lambda} \int d^dr\ \text{tr}[\triangledown g\triangledown g^{-1}]
\end{equation}
...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

6 views

### Classify set theories whose transitive models sharing the same sets of ordinals are equal

This question is a follow-up from my recent question, Classifying set theories whose standard models sharing the same ordinals are equal
Let's say that a (recursively axiomatizable) set theory $T$ ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

40 views

### Balanced binary code that “resists” local decoding?

I am looking for a construction that can be stated as the following coding problem: a binary code with good distance ($d = \Omega(n)$ where codeword length is $n$) that "resists local decoding" in the ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

99 views

### Does the weak Hadwiger conjecture imply the Hadwiger conjecture?

For any cardinal $\kappa$, let $K_\kappa$ denote the complete graph on $\kappa$. We consider the following statements:
(H) If $G$ is a graph and $\chi(G) = \kappa$ then $K_\kappa$ is a minor of $G$.
...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

13 views

### “All retracts are closed” as separation axiom

The starting point of this question is the fact that any retract of a $T_2$-space is closed.
Let's say a topological space $(X,\tau)$ is $T_{\textrm{rc}}$ if all retracts of $X$ are closed.
All ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

113 views

### Lurie's approach to the bar-cobar adjunction

I've been trying to read Jacob Lurie's approach to the bar-cobar constructions (Higher algebra §5.2 in the 2014-09 version) but I don't recognize what I know about these constructions. I wonder if ...

**14**

votes

**10**answers

2k views

### New proofs to major theorems leading to new insights and results?

I am wondering, historically, when has a new proof of an old theorem been particularly fruitful. A few examples I have in mind (all number theoretic) are:
First example is classical... which is ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

246 views

### Is the space of real conics with a singular point an orientable manifold?

Consider the space of non zero real homogeneous degree $2$ polynomials in three variables upto scaling. This space is $\mathbb{R} \mathbb{P}^5$. The zero set
of such a polynomial gives a real curve ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

138 views

### Question on a proof by Solonnikov,Ladyzhenskaya,Ural'tseva

I have already asked this question on Mathematics SE, because I suppose that it is not research level. But I haven't got an answer, possibly here someone can answer.
Let $G(t,x)$ be the fundamental ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

85 views

### Criterion for normality of a schematic image

Consider a projective flat morphism
$$
f\colon X\to Y
$$
between normal varieties. Let's say over the complex numbers. The geometric fibers of $f$ are all irreducible.
I would like a criterion to ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

189 views

### Classifying set theories whose standard models sharing the same ordinals are equal

Let's say that a (recursively axiomatizable) set theory $T$ extending ZF is "ordinal-categorical" if, whenever $M$ and $N$ are standard models of $T$ sharing the same ordinals, one has $M = N$. For ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

60 views

### When does Skolemization require the axiom of choice?

Skolemization is often used for eliminating existential quantifiers, which is often useful for proving theorems, especially in automated resolution theorem proving. Skolemization in first order ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

45 views

### Limit involving modified Bessel Function of the second kind

I'm looking for the following limit
$$\lim_{x\rightarrow 0} \frac{\sqrt{\frac{\text{BesselK}^{(2,0)}(0,x)}{\text{BesselK}(0,x)}}}{\log (x)}$$
I believe the limit is finite, and is near -0.578. ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

37 views

### Lefschetz fixed notation

If $f\colon X\to X$ is a self-map of a nice space with isolated fixed points, then the Lefschetz fixed point theorem relates a global number to local numbers. Some write: $L(f)=\sum_{x\in ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

218 views

### Unstable homotopy groups of spheres beyond Toda's range

In 1962 Toda published his book "Composition methods in homotopy groups of spheres", which contains computations of $\pi_{n+k}(S^n)$ for $k\le 19$ and $n\le 20$. The values of these groups are ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

91 views

### abelian $\ell$-adic representations in $\widehat{SL(2,Z)}$

In Grothendieck's Esquisse he claims that the action of
$$\text{Gal}(\mathbb Q)\to\text{Out}(\pi_1(M_{1,1})=\text{Out}(\widehat{SL(2,Z)})$$
obtained from the homotopy exact sequence of the étale ...

**151**

votes

**87**answers

25k views

### Not especially famous, long-open problems which anyone can understand

Question: I'm asking for a big list of not especially famous, long open problems that anyone can understand. Community wiki, so one problem per answer, please.
Motivation: I plan to use this list ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

55 views

### Unbalanced equipartitions

Let $K$ be a compact convex set in the plane.
Say that a perimeter-halving partition of $K$
is a partition of $K$
into two pieces by a chord (a segment with endpoints
on the boundary $\partial K$) ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

108 views

### Is a free group a product of f.g subgroups of infinite index?

Let $F$ be a free group, and let $H,K \leq F$ be finitely generated subgroups of infinite index in $F$. Is it possible that for the set of products we have $HK = F$ ?

**4**

votes

**0**answers

289 views

### Zeta function double product

Is it possible to write the following double product in terms of the zeta function?
\begin{align}
&\prod_{i=1}^{\infty}\prod_{j=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{1-(p_i\ p_j)^{-s}}
\end{align}
Extending the ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

276 views

### How do small changes in a filtered complex affect the associated spectral sequence

I have recently been learning about spectral sequences, not in the context of any problem, but mostly out of curiosity. There are two questions that have occurred to me which I've been unable to ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

111 views

### Coherent cohomology of an abelian scheme and base change

Let $f\colon A \rightarrow S$ be an abelian scheme of dimension $d$. I would like a reference or an argument for the fact that $R^1f_* \mathcal{O}_A$ is locally free of dimension $d$ and that its ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

98 views

### intuitive interpretation of analytic spread

I am studying analytic spreads from Bruns-Herzog's book. The definition is clear but calculation of the analytic spread of an ideal is hard for me in practice. I wonder if it is hard for you too.
...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

28 views

### Higher moments of information and Renyi entropy

For a given discrete probability distribution, Shannon entropy can be though as an expectation value $\langle - \log p \rangle$ (see also: What is entropy, really?, What is the role of the logarithm ...

**0**

votes

**2**answers

93 views

### Probability spaces involved in using Bayesian Inference

I am currently reading "Statistical and Inductive Inference by Minimum Message Length" by C.S. Wallace. In this, Wallace gives a fairly informal account of Bayesian Inference which, in the case ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

91 views

### A bit of history of Verdier duality

I was wondering who originated the presentation of Verdier duality as an equivalence between categories of sheaves and cosheaves ?
I learnt it reading Jacob Lurie's Higher Algebra and Justin Curry's ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

155 views

### A More Advanced Version of Aluffi's Chapter 0

This is a crosspost of this question from MSE.
Paulo Aluffi's Book, Algebra, Chapter 0 aims to teach basic algebra from a categorical viewpoint. The first chapters of the book, however, introduce ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

197 views

### Modular forms and “too many symmetries”

How do we interpret Barry Mazur's quote of
Modular forms are functions on the complex plane that are inordinately symmetric. They satisfy so many internal symmetries that their mere existence ...

**-4**

votes

**0**answers

21 views

### Inverse Laplace Transformation [on hold]

I have a question about laplace transformation.
$\frac{8s+4}{s^2+23}$
I tried to split them. $\frac{8s}{s^2+23}$ is similar to cos and $\frac{4}{s^2+23}$ is similar to sin. Can anyone help?
...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

281 views

### Condition on a Hopf operad for tensor product in the base categoy to be a (categorical) coproduct for algebras

A Hopf operad will be an operad endowed with a coproduct $P(n) \longrightarrow P(n) \otimes P(n)$ which is compatible in the obvious sens with operad laws (no more structure is assumed a priori. ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

63 views

### automorphism of prime order for group of Lie type in

Thanks for any help.
Suppose $S$ is a simple group of Lie type of prime characteristic $p$. we know that every automorphism of $S$ is composite of inner, diagonal, field and graph automorphism of ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

182 views

### ULU Decomposition of a matrix

Let $g \in GL_n(\mathbb{F}_q)$. Is it true that we can always write $g = u_1lu_2$, where $u_1$ and $u_2$ are upper-triangular and $l$ is lower-triangular? Note that I'm not requiring that the matrices ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

677 views

### Higher level analogs of Nicolas-Serre theory

NICOLAS-SERRE THEORY
Let $F \in Z/2[[x]]$ be $x+x^9+x^{25}+...$, the exponents being the odd squares, and $V$ be the space spanned by the $F^k$ with $k$ odd. Nicolas and Serre define formal Hecke ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

70 views

### equivalence in simplicial category

Let $(\mathcal{C},W)$ be a category with weak equivalences. One can build from $(\mathcal{C},W)$ its hammock localization $L^{H}(\mathcal{C},W)$ which is a simplicial category $\textit{ie}$ a category ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

30 views

### finding dominating cycles in $2K_2$-free graphs

A cycle $C$ in a connected graph $G$ is called dominating if its complement $V(G)-V(C)$ is an independent set. H.J. Veldman proved in 1983 (Disc. Math. v.43, 281-96) a general result that in ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

55 views

### Connected components $0-1$ matrices [on hold]

Let $M$ be a $0-1$ matrix.
Here a matrix has one component means we can traverse from a matrix entry $(i,j)$ which is $1$ to any other one by moving step of $(i\pm1,j),(i,j\pm1),(i\pm1,j\pm1)$ where ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

450 views

### Inequality for a gamma function

Let $s=\sigma+it$ and $\Gamma(s)$ be the Euler gamma function.
Does the inequality hold?
$$
\left|\frac{\Gamma(s)}{\Gamma(2-s)}\right|\leq |s|^{2(\sigma-1)},\, 1<\sigma<2,\, t>t_0>0.
$$
...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

129 views

+50

### Nonperiodic points of piecewise-linear homeomorphisms

Suppose $K$ is a compact polytope and $T$ is a piecewise-linear homeomorphism from $K$ to itself. Suppose also that $T$ is not of finite order (that is, for no $n \geq 1$ is it the case that ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

51 views

### Do we need Feller condition if the process jumps?

Consider the SDE:
\begin{equation}
dv_t = k(\theta - v_t) dt + \xi \sqrt{v_t} dW^{v}_{t}
\end{equation}
It describes a process $v_t$ which is a strictly positive if the drift is stronger enough, i.e. ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

35 views

### Complete solution set of a Convolutional Equation?

Here is a problem that am I stuck and I appreciate any help. In essence, I am trying to show that the only solutions for the described problem are the ones provided below. Best..
Setup: In what ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

129 views

### A question on models of set theory and Lebesgue measure

In a question and an answer at MO, Joel David Hamkins showed that (if ZFC is consistent) there are models of ZFC in which $V\neq HOD$ and every $\Sigma_2$-definable set has a definable member.
Let ...

**18**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Difficulty of factoring a Gaussian integer (compared to factoring its norm)

Given a Gaussian integer $G=a+ib$, with $gcd(a,b)=1$, a well-known strategy for factoring $G$ is to first compute its norm $N(G)=a^2+b^2$, factor the norm and finally recover the correct generator ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

137 views

### cycle class as Chern class

Let $X$ be a smooth projective complex variety and $Z \subset X$ a codimension $p$ closed algebraic subvariety. Then one can define the class of $Z$ in singular cohomology
$[Z] \in H^{2p}(X, ...

**52**

votes

**23**answers

15k views

### Open problems with monetary rewards

Since the old days, many mathematicians have been used to attaching monetary rewards to problems they admit are difficult. Their reasons could be to draw other mathematicians' attention, to express ...

**22**

votes

**3**answers

650 views

### Graduate program applications that require questionnaires and other non-letter material

In the December 2014 AMS Notices, a letter to the editor (http://www.ams.org/notices/201411/rnoti-p1311.pdf) by Deconinck and Medlock addresses the problem of (math) graduate programs requiring letter ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

82 views

### Roots in the solution

It is known that for a one-dimensional self-adjoint operator with periodic boundary conditions, the number of roots is directly related to the eigenstate this eigenfunction belongs to.
Now it is ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

133 views

### Is every projective space curve a set-theoretic intersection of two surfaces? What is known about this question?

I am sorry if this question has been already asked, couldn't find anything similar myself. I have recently recalled this long standing open problem of whether every curve in $\mathbb{P}^3(\mathbb{C})$ ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

423 views

### For what nonnegative measures $\mu$ does $\mu*e^{-|\cdot|}\in L^{\infty}$?

I am trying to characterize all measures on $\mathbb{R}$ such that
$$
\sup_{x\in\mathbb{R}} \: (\mu*f)(x)<+\infty,
$$
where $f(x)$ is some specific integrable functions, such as $f(x)=e^{-|x|}$, ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

24 views

### How do these two extensions of Sobolev spaces relate to each other?

In nonparametric statistics, the following space is often used
$$H_{per}^\beta := \left\{f:[0,1]\to\mathbb{R}:\,D^{\beta-1}f\,\text{absolutely continuous and } D^\beta f\in L^2[0,1], \\D^{k}f(0) = ...

**12**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Is there a natural measures on the space of measurable functions?

Given a set Ω and a σ-algebra F of subsets, is there some natural way to assign something like a "uniform" measure on the space of all measurable functions on this space? (I suppose first ...