65
votes
25answers
24k views

What are the most misleading alternate definitions in taught mathematics?

I suppose this question can be interpreted in two ways. It is often the case that two or more equivalent (but not necessarily semantically equivalent) definitions of the same idea/object are used in ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

canonical metric of toric Kahler manifolds

Let $X$ be non-compact toric Kahler manifold associated to a Delzant polygon $P$ and $g$ be the canonical Kahler metric constructed by Guillemin. Is it true that the real part of $g$, as a ...
1
vote
0answers
7 views

numerical integration error bounds on the unit sphere

A sequence of points $x_1,x_2,\dots$ on the unit sphere $S^{D-1}$ is said to be uniformly distributed if \begin{align} \lim_{N \rightarrow \infty} \frac{1}{N} \sum_{j=1}^N f(x_j) = \int_{x \in ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Reed-Muller-Codes

Let $F$ be the field with two elements, $V_m=F^{2^m}$.Let $R(r, m)\subset V_m$ be the binary Reed-Muller Code. Define $R_m:=R(1, m)$. Then the dimension of $R_m$ is $1+m$ and its minimal distance is ...
-1
votes
0answers
62 views

Disprove this Piece of Jensen's Inquality “Black Magic”

Jensen's inequality states that if a real valued function $f(x)$ is concave, like $f(x)=\ln |x|,$ then $E(f(X))\le f(E(X)).$ A classic application of this is $E(X) \le \ln |E(e^{X})|.$ Now consider ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

LQR solution when there are linear terms in the cost function?

I am trying to solve the following Bellman Equation: $V(s) =\max_u \left[a'u - (u-s)'Q(u-s) + V(u)\right]$ In the equation above, $s,u,a\in \mathbb R^n$, $Q\in \mathbb R^{n\times n}$ is positive ...
4
votes
0answers
42 views
+100

Reduction of self-intersections without reducing the geometric intersection

Let $F$ be a hyperbolic surface. Given a closed curve $a$, let $\bar{a}$ denotes the free homotopy class of $a$. Let $i(\bar{a},\bar{b})$ denotes the geometric intersection number and $i(\bar{a})$ ...
2
votes
0answers
17 views

Categories in which an epimorphism applied to a non-monic epimorphism can be monic

Let $\mathcal{C}$ be a category, and let $A$, $B$, and $C$ be objects. Given $A \xrightarrow{f} B \xrightarrow{g} C$ such that: $f$ is both epic and monic $g$ is epic but not monic $gf$ is epic and ...
10
votes
3answers
297 views

“The Two Sheriffs” puzzle -2: threshold for security

I've already asked a question “The Two Sheriffs” puzzle with wrong assumption. Yoav Kallus in his amazing answer using Fano plane showed that the problem has a solution in the case of seven suspects. ...
-3
votes
0answers
29 views

Pascals triangle [on hold]

I was out sick for a fair bit and I come back and we are doing this! Can someone explain what I'm supposed to do or show me a video?? "Use Pascal's triangle and the regularity of decreasing powers of ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Largest subgroup of $SU(n)$ for which the adjoint action preserves specific inner product on $\mathfrak{su}(N)$

Given $A,B \in \mathfrak{su}(n)$ such that $K(A, B)=0$, I am looking for the largest subgroup $H$ of $SU(n)$ for which: $K \left(A, Ad_{U}(B) \right) = 0, \ \ \forall U \in H$ where $K$ is the ...
5
votes
0answers
222 views

Kernel of Bianchi operator: Is a (smooth tame) Frechet manifold?

Let $M$ be a smooth compact manifold, $\mathcal{S}=\Gamma(\odot^2T^*M)$ the (smooth tame) Frechet space of symmetric $2$-covariant tensors, and $\mathcal{M}=\Gamma(\odot^2_+T^*M)$ the (smooth tame) ...
3
votes
1answer
60 views

Real and imaginary part of an holomorphic function

I guess this could be a very elementary question. Anyway I can not find an answer in literature. Let $f:U\rightarrow\mathbb{C}$ be an holomorphic function on an upen subset $U\subseteq\mathbb{C}$. ...
4
votes
2answers
741 views

Efficient algorithms to determine the roots of: $p(x) = r^x $ in the finite field $GF(q)$, where $r$ a primitive root of the field

I need to make sure that no efficient (i.e., polynomial time) algorithm exists for the following problem: Exponentiating Polynomial Root Problem (EPRP) Let $p(x)$ be a polynomial with $\deg(p) \geq ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Will (general points + small number of arbitrary points) impose independent condtions on plane curves?

It is well known that imposing vanishing at general points of $\mathbb P^2$ gives independent conditions on curves of degree $d$. Also, it is known a small number (something like $d+1$) points always ...
1
vote
1answer
118 views

Deterministic finite-state automaton driven by a Markov chain

I've stumbled on some problem, and I have the feeling that this is closed to something well-studied in dynamical systems. The problem is the following. Consider a finite-state automaton with state ...
17
votes
4answers
3k views

Integrals from a non-analytic point of view

I've mentioned before that I'm using this forum to expand my knowledge on things I know very little about. I've learnt integrals like everyone else: there is the Riemann integral, then the Lebesgue ...
4
votes
2answers
145 views

Obtain 4-manifolds by repeating surgeries of submanifolds in $S^4$

In his paper QFT and Jones Polynomials, Witten states: "It is a not too deep result that every 3-manifold can be obtained from or reduced to $S^3$ (or any other desired 3-manifold) by repeated ...
5
votes
3answers
145 views

Nontrivial solutions for $\sum x_i = \sum x_i^3 = 0$

For $x_i \in \mathbb{Z}$, let $\{x_i\}$ be a fundamental solution to the equations: $$ \sum_{i= 1}^N x_i = \sum_{i=1}^N x_i^3 = 0 $$ if $x \in \{x_i\} \Rightarrow -x \notin \{x_i\}$. For instance, a ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

McDuff's classification of symplectic manifolds

According to a theorem of McDuff, if $(X,\omega)$ is a closed symplectic 4-manifold, which contains a symplectic sphere of self-intersection +1, then $X$ is symplectomorphic to $CP^2$ blown up a few ...
4
votes
1answer
169 views

Spectrum of the Laplacian on p-forms on the sphere

In this paper the authors give an explicit description of the eigenforms and spectrum of the Laplacian acting on $p$-forms on the round sphere $S^n$, apparently citing an unpublished computation of ...
0
votes
1answer
120 views

Existence of a Lie algebra element orthogonal to the adjoint orbit of another element

Consider a compact, semi-simple, connected Lie group $G$ and its Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$. Denote the Killing form by $K$. Given a single $A \in \mathfrak{g}$ when (i.e. which groups and which $A$) ...
26
votes
7answers
8k views

Collecting proofs that finite multiplicative subgroups of fields are cyclic.

I teach elementary number theory and discrete mathematics to students who come with no abstract algebra. I have found proving the key theorem that finite multiplicative subgroups of fields are cyclic ...
2
votes
1answer
72 views

Charts needed for an atlas

I just read this question link and asked myself, if there is any easy way to decide how many charts you actually need to cover a given compact manifold in $\mathbb{R}^3$, maybe at least in this ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Example s.t. the unbased loop-space is not $\Omega X \times X$

For a connected pointed CW-complex $X$, let us write (as usual) $\Omega X$ for the space of based loops at $X$. I am looking for an example where the space $\Omega' X$ of all (unbased) loops in $X$ is ...
0
votes
2answers
142 views

divisor is big iff its birational pullback is big

In Kollár and Mori's Birational Geometry of Algebraic Varieties, the authors say a Cartier divisor is big iff its birational pullback is big (Definition 2.59 below). But I can't understand. Maybe the ...
5
votes
3answers
380 views

is there a global obstruction for a diffeomorphism to be an isometry?

Let $V$ be a finite dimensional vector space. Let us call an automorphism $T:V\rightarrow V$ admissible if there exists an inner product $\langle , \rangle$ on $V$ making $T$ an isometry. We know ...
2
votes
0answers
21 views

How to show the compatibility between Duflo isomorphism and Harish-Chandra isomorphism for semi-simples Lie algebras?

I was told that the Duflo isomorphism is compatible with the Harish-Chandra isomorphism when the Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$ is semi-simple. However I cannot see why this is true. All I can show is ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

When is a formula preserved under taking factors in a reduced product or the stalk in a Boolean product?

I want to know if there is a nice characterization of when a formula is preserved under taking reduced factors. We say that a formula $\phi$ is closed under taking reduced factors if whenever $I$ is ...
3
votes
0answers
84 views

Must an algebraic variety with trivial tangent bundle be an abelian variety?

Suppose $X$ is an algebraic variety with trivial tangent bundle $T_X$ (not only canonical bundle $K_X$), is it true that $X$ is an abelian variety? (For the complex manifold case this is not true due ...
12
votes
4answers
4k views

Non-mathematician submitting to top maths journal? [closed]

I am an amateur mathematician, and I had an idea which I worked out a bit and sent to an expert. He urged me to write it up for publication. So I did, and put it on arXiv. There were a couple of ...
18
votes
3answers
837 views

Which way for reading the proofs?

I am a master student in mathematics. For me a large part of doing mathematics is thinking about, reading and verifying the proof of theorems that I find them in my field of study. I can do this ...
5
votes
2answers
518 views

Mazur's torsion theorem on elliptic curves and its generalisations

I want to study Mazur's torsion theorem for elliptic curves over $Q$ and its generalizations for number fields, i.e., papers by Kamienny, Kenku & Momose, Filip Najman. So please suggest to me what ...
-2
votes
4answers
300 views

Studying topology: which first, algebraic or differential? [on hold]

I have recently studying the basics of topology (ideas in point set, connectedness compactness) and I want to continue my studies but i'm interested in both differential and algebraic topology. which ...
6
votes
3answers
984 views

Does any tensor category correspond to a bialgebra?

I wonder how strong the power of Tannaka philosophy is, and if we accept that a tensor category is a generalized bialgebra, what difficulties we will come up against ? Edit: Whether most tensor ...
2
votes
1answer
144 views

Uncountable cardinals and Prufer $p$-groups

Let $A$ be an elementary Abelian uncountable $p$-group. Is it known if there is an action of a Prufer $q$-group (here $q$ is a prime not necessarily distinct from $p$) $C_{q^{\infty}}$ onto $A$ such ...
3
votes
3answers
351 views

The free group of a group and the kernel of a canonical morphism

Let $G$ be a group and $F_G$ the free group on the set $G$. Then there exists a canonical surjective morphism ${\rm can}: F_G \to G \to 1$ constructed as follows: let $(e_x)_{x \in G}$ be a copy as a ...
2
votes
1answer
132 views

'Stalk' of vanishing cycles at $k$-point

I have a simple question on notation. Let $S$ be a Henselian trait with closed point $s$ (with finite residue field $k$) and generic point $\eta$. Let $X/S$ be a variety. Then, we have the functor ...
3
votes
0answers
111 views

Integer solutions of $x^2=4+8y^2+13z^2$

I have been looking for integer solutions of certain Diophantine equations, one of the simplest examples being $x^2=4+8y^2+13z^2$. The ideal answer would be a way to parametrize all the integer ...
-2
votes
0answers
49 views

Pure algebraic analogy of topological “MEAN”

Please first read the linked paper, then read my question A $k$- mean on a topological space X is a continuous map $F:X^{k}\to X$ which is invariant under permutations of $k$ elements and its ...
2
votes
0answers
201 views

dimension of induced comodule

Let $\pi : G \to H$ be epimorphism of Hopf superalgebras, where $G$ be an quantum super group of function on $GL(m|n)$, $H$ be an quantum group of function on $GL(m) \otimes GL(n)$; $W$ an finite ...
0
votes
1answer
63 views

Counting the orderings of outward-directed trees where the degree of each vertex is $2$

Let $T$ be a connected directed tree with the following properties: The degree of each vertex of $T$ is at most $2$ (I am sure there is a name for such a graph but I do not know it). $T$ has a ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Equivalence of Graphical model selection algorithms

Suppose, a jointly Gaussian random vector is denoted by $X \in \mathbb{R}^{p}$ and $X$ has a distribution given by $\mathcal{N}(\mu,\Sigma)$. It is known that estimating the graphical model that ...
0
votes
0answers
66 views

Volume of a complex manifold

Is there a theorem which states the following? Let $\mathcal{M}$ be a $k$ -dimensional complex submanifold of $\mathbb{C}^n, \ 1 \le k \le n$. Let $V \subset M$ be open, relatively compact in $M$, so ...
19
votes
0answers
547 views

Do there exist exotic 4-tori?

More precisely: are there known manifolds which are homeomorphic, but not diffeomorphic to the standard 4-torus? Are there any nice invariants distinguishing such manifolds? Related: if such a ...
1
vote
0answers
62 views

Why write GRR with the relative tangent sheaf?

The first published version of the Grothendieck-Riemann-Roch theorem, GRR for short, was written in the form $$ \operatorname{ch}(f_!\alpha).\operatorname{Td}(Y) = ...
1
vote
1answer
85 views

Given a multivariate polynomial with even degree, can we find its tightest convex polynomial 'envelop'?

To be specific, given a multivariate polynomial function $f: \mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ with even degree $2d$, can we construct a convex polynomial function $g$, such that: $\forall ...
7
votes
2answers
307 views

Markov processes lacking the Feller property

Let $E$ be a LCH second countable topological space and let $\mathcal{E}$ be its Borel $\sigma$-algebra. Let $(P_t)_{t \geq 0}$ be a conservative transition function on $(E, \mathcal{E})$. This ...
4
votes
1answer
44 views

Negatively curved metrics minimizing the length of a homotopy class of simple closed curves

Good afternoon everyone ! I have the following question of Riemannian geometry : Let $M$ be a smooth closed orientable manifold of dimension at least $3$, and let $\mathcal{T} = \{ $ smooth ...
1
vote
0answers
219 views

Total degree of a polynomial

Let $\mathsf{F,G}\in\Bbb R[x_1,\dots,x_n]$ be minimum multivariate polynomials of least total degree $\mathsf{degF}$, $\mathsf{degG}$ such that, given unequal $a,b\in\Bbb R$, $$\mathsf{F(p)}=a, ...

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