2
votes
1answer
49 views

Fourier transform of a matrix represented compact lie group

In physics, I come across this kind of integration (in the nonlinear sigma model): \begin{equation} S[g] = \frac{1}{\lambda} \int d^dr\ \text{tr}[\triangledown g\triangledown g^{-1}] \end{equation} ...
0
votes
0answers
6 views

Classify set theories whose transitive models sharing the same sets of ordinals are equal

This question is a follow-up from my recent question, Classifying set theories whose standard models sharing the same ordinals are equal Let's say that a (recursively axiomatizable) set theory $T$ ...
3
votes
1answer
40 views

Balanced binary code that “resists” local decoding?

I am looking for a construction that can be stated as the following coding problem: a binary code with good distance ($d = \Omega(n)$ where codeword length is $n$) that "resists local decoding" in the ...
5
votes
0answers
99 views

Does the weak Hadwiger conjecture imply the Hadwiger conjecture?

For any cardinal $\kappa$, let $K_\kappa$ denote the complete graph on $\kappa$. We consider the following statements: (H) If $G$ is a graph and $\chi(G) = \kappa$ then $K_\kappa$ is a minor of $G$. ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

“All retracts are closed” as separation axiom

The starting point of this question is the fact that any retract of a $T_2$-space is closed. Let's say a topological space $(X,\tau)$ is $T_{\textrm{rc}}$ if all retracts of $X$ are closed. All ...
9
votes
0answers
113 views

Lurie's approach to the bar-cobar adjunction

I've been trying to read Jacob Lurie's approach to the bar-cobar constructions (Higher algebra §5.2 in the 2014-09 version) but I don't recognize what I know about these constructions. I wonder if ...
14
votes
10answers
2k views

New proofs to major theorems leading to new insights and results?

I am wondering, historically, when has a new proof of an old theorem been particularly fruitful. A few examples I have in mind (all number theoretic) are: First example is classical... which is ...
4
votes
1answer
246 views

Is the space of real conics with a singular point an orientable manifold?

Consider the space of non zero real homogeneous degree $2$ polynomials in three variables upto scaling. This space is $\mathbb{R} \mathbb{P}^5$. The zero set of such a polynomial gives a real curve ...
2
votes
0answers
138 views

Question on a proof by Solonnikov,Ladyzhenskaya,Ural'tseva

I have already asked this question on Mathematics SE, because I suppose that it is not research level. But I haven't got an answer, possibly here someone can answer. Let $G(t,x)$ be the fundamental ...
1
vote
0answers
85 views

Criterion for normality of a schematic image

Consider a projective flat morphism $$ f\colon X\to Y $$ between normal varieties. Let's say over the complex numbers. The geometric fibers of $f$ are all irreducible. I would like a criterion to ...
10
votes
2answers
189 views

Classifying set theories whose standard models sharing the same ordinals are equal

Let's say that a (recursively axiomatizable) set theory $T$ extending ZF is "ordinal-categorical" if, whenever $M$ and $N$ are standard models of $T$ sharing the same ordinals, one has $M = N$. For ...
2
votes
1answer
60 views

When does Skolemization require the axiom of choice?

Skolemization is often used for eliminating existential quantifiers, which is often useful for proving theorems, especially in automated resolution theorem proving. Skolemization in first order ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Limit involving modified Bessel Function of the second kind

I'm looking for the following limit $$\lim_{x\rightarrow 0} \frac{\sqrt{\frac{\text{BesselK}^{(2,0)}(0,x)}{\text{BesselK}(0,x)}}}{\log (x)}$$ I believe the limit is finite, and is near -0.578. ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

Lefschetz fixed notation

If $f\colon X\to X$ is a self-map of a nice space with isolated fixed points, then the Lefschetz fixed point theorem relates a global number to local numbers. Some write: $L(f)=\sum_{x\in ...
15
votes
1answer
218 views

Unstable homotopy groups of spheres beyond Toda's range

In 1962 Toda published his book "Composition methods in homotopy groups of spheres", which contains computations of $\pi_{n+k}(S^n)$ for $k\le 19$ and $n\le 20$. The values of these groups are ...
3
votes
0answers
91 views

abelian $\ell$-adic representations in $\widehat{SL(2,Z)}$

In Grothendieck's Esquisse he claims that the action of $$\text{Gal}(\mathbb Q)\to\text{Out}(\pi_1(M_{1,1})=\text{Out}(\widehat{SL(2,Z)})$$ obtained from the homotopy exact sequence of the étale ...
151
votes
87answers
25k views

Not especially famous, long-open problems which anyone can understand

Question: I'm asking for a big list of not especially famous, long open problems that anyone can understand. Community wiki, so one problem per answer, please. Motivation: I plan to use this list ...
5
votes
0answers
55 views

Unbalanced equipartitions

Let $K$ be a compact convex set in the plane. Say that a perimeter-halving partition of $K$ is a partition of $K$ into two pieces by a chord (a segment with endpoints on the boundary $\partial K$) ...
4
votes
0answers
108 views

Is a free group a product of f.g subgroups of infinite index?

Let $F$ be a free group, and let $H,K \leq F$ be finitely generated subgroups of infinite index in $F$. Is it possible that for the set of products we have $HK = F$ ?
4
votes
0answers
289 views

Zeta function double product

Is it possible to write the following double product in terms of the zeta function? \begin{align} &\prod_{i=1}^{\infty}\prod_{j=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{1-(p_i\ p_j)^{-s}} \end{align} Extending the ...
3
votes
1answer
276 views

How do small changes in a filtered complex affect the associated spectral sequence

I have recently been learning about spectral sequences, not in the context of any problem, but mostly out of curiosity. There are two questions that have occurred to me which I've been unable to ...
3
votes
1answer
111 views

Coherent cohomology of an abelian scheme and base change

Let $f\colon A \rightarrow S$ be an abelian scheme of dimension $d$. I would like a reference or an argument for the fact that $R^1f_* \mathcal{O}_A$ is locally free of dimension $d$ and that its ...
1
vote
1answer
98 views

intuitive interpretation of analytic spread

I am studying analytic spreads from Bruns-Herzog's book. The definition is clear but calculation of the analytic spread of an ideal is hard for me in practice. I wonder if it is hard for you too. ...
4
votes
0answers
28 views

Higher moments of information and Renyi entropy

For a given discrete probability distribution, Shannon entropy can be though as an expectation value $\langle - \log p \rangle$ (see also: What is entropy, really?, What is the role of the logarithm ...
0
votes
2answers
93 views

Probability spaces involved in using Bayesian Inference

I am currently reading "Statistical and Inductive Inference by Minimum Message Length" by C.S. Wallace. In this, Wallace gives a fairly informal account of Bayesian Inference which, in the case ...
6
votes
0answers
91 views

A bit of history of Verdier duality

I was wondering who originated the presentation of Verdier duality as an equivalence between categories of sheaves and cosheaves ? I learnt it reading Jacob Lurie's Higher Algebra and Justin Curry's ...
3
votes
1answer
155 views

A More Advanced Version of Aluffi's Chapter 0

This is a crosspost of this question from MSE. Paulo Aluffi's Book, Algebra, Chapter 0 aims to teach basic algebra from a categorical viewpoint. The first chapters of the book, however, introduce ...
4
votes
1answer
197 views

Modular forms and “too many symmetries”

How do we interpret Barry Mazur's quote of Modular forms are functions on the complex plane that are inordinately symmetric. They satisfy so many internal symmetries that their mere existence ...
-4
votes
0answers
21 views

Inverse Laplace Transformation [on hold]

I have a question about laplace transformation. $\frac{8s+4}{s^2+23}$ I tried to split them. $\frac{8s}{s^2+23}$ is similar to cos and $\frac{4}{s^2+23}$ is similar to sin. Can anyone help? ...
10
votes
1answer
281 views

Condition on a Hopf operad for tensor product in the base categoy to be a (categorical) coproduct for algebras

A Hopf operad will be an operad endowed with a coproduct $P(n) \longrightarrow P(n) \otimes P(n)$ which is compatible in the obvious sens with operad laws (no more structure is assumed a priori. ...
3
votes
1answer
63 views

automorphism of prime order for group of Lie type in

Thanks for any help. Suppose $S$ is a simple group of Lie type of prime characteristic $p$. we know that every automorphism of $S$ is composite of inner, diagonal, field and graph automorphism of ...
10
votes
1answer
182 views

ULU Decomposition of a matrix

Let $g \in GL_n(\mathbb{F}_q)$. Is it true that we can always write $g = u_1lu_2$, where $u_1$ and $u_2$ are upper-triangular and $l$ is lower-triangular? Note that I'm not requiring that the matrices ...
15
votes
1answer
677 views

Higher level analogs of Nicolas-Serre theory

NICOLAS-SERRE THEORY Let $F \in Z/2[[x]]$ be $x+x^9+x^{25}+...$, the exponents being the odd squares, and $V$ be the space spanned by the $F^k$ with $k$ odd. Nicolas and Serre define formal Hecke ...
0
votes
1answer
70 views

equivalence in simplicial category

Let $(\mathcal{C},W)$ be a category with weak equivalences. One can build from $(\mathcal{C},W)$ its hammock localization $L^{H}(\mathcal{C},W)$ which is a simplicial category $\textit{ie}$ a category ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

finding dominating cycles in $2K_2$-free graphs

A cycle $C$ in a connected graph $G$ is called dominating if its complement $V(G)-V(C)$ is an independent set. H.J. Veldman proved in 1983 (Disc. Math. v.43, 281-96) a general result that in ...
0
votes
0answers
55 views

Connected components $0-1$ matrices [on hold]

Let $M$ be a $0-1$ matrix. Here a matrix has one component means we can traverse from a matrix entry $(i,j)$ which is $1$ to any other one by moving step of $(i\pm1,j),(i,j\pm1),(i\pm1,j\pm1)$ where ...
8
votes
2answers
450 views

Inequality for a gamma function

Let $s=\sigma+it$ and $\Gamma(s)$ be the Euler gamma function. Does the inequality hold? $$ \left|\frac{\Gamma(s)}{\Gamma(2-s)}\right|\leq |s|^{2(\sigma-1)},\, 1<\sigma<2,\, t>t_0>0. $$ ...
6
votes
1answer
129 views
+50

Nonperiodic points of piecewise-linear homeomorphisms

Suppose $K$ is a compact polytope and $T$ is a piecewise-linear homeomorphism from $K$ to itself. Suppose also that $T$ is not of finite order (that is, for no $n \geq 1$ is it the case that ...
2
votes
1answer
51 views

Do we need Feller condition if the process jumps?

Consider the SDE: \begin{equation} dv_t = k(\theta - v_t) dt + \xi \sqrt{v_t} dW^{v}_{t} \end{equation} It describes a process $v_t$ which is a strictly positive if the drift is stronger enough, i.e. ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

Complete solution set of a Convolutional Equation?

Here is a problem that am I stuck and I appreciate any help. In essence, I am trying to show that the only solutions for the described problem are the ones provided below. Best.. Setup: In what ...
3
votes
1answer
129 views

A question on models of set theory and Lebesgue measure

In a question and an answer at MO, Joel David Hamkins showed that (if ZFC is consistent) there are models of ZFC in which $V\neq HOD$ and every $\Sigma_2$-definable set has a definable member. Let ...
18
votes
1answer
1k views

Difficulty of factoring a Gaussian integer (compared to factoring its norm)

Given a Gaussian integer $G=a+ib$, with $gcd(a,b)=1$, a well-known strategy for factoring $G$ is to first compute its norm $N(G)=a^2+b^2$, factor the norm and finally recover the correct generator ...
3
votes
1answer
137 views

cycle class as Chern class

Let $X$ be a smooth projective complex variety and $Z \subset X$ a codimension $p$ closed algebraic subvariety. Then one can define the class of $Z$ in singular cohomology $[Z] \in H^{2p}(X, ...
52
votes
23answers
15k views

Open problems with monetary rewards

Since the old days, many mathematicians have been used to attaching monetary rewards to problems they admit are difficult. Their reasons could be to draw other mathematicians' attention, to express ...
22
votes
3answers
650 views

Graduate program applications that require questionnaires and other non-letter material

In the December 2014 AMS Notices, a letter to the editor (http://www.ams.org/notices/201411/rnoti-p1311.pdf) by Deconinck and Medlock addresses the problem of (math) graduate programs requiring letter ...
0
votes
0answers
82 views

Roots in the solution

It is known that for a one-dimensional self-adjoint operator with periodic boundary conditions, the number of roots is directly related to the eigenstate this eigenfunction belongs to. Now it is ...
9
votes
0answers
133 views

Is every projective space curve a set-theoretic intersection of two surfaces? What is known about this question?

I am sorry if this question has been already asked, couldn't find anything similar myself. I have recently recalled this long standing open problem of whether every curve in $\mathbb{P}^3(\mathbb{C})$ ...
0
votes
1answer
423 views

For what nonnegative measures $\mu$ does $\mu*e^{-|\cdot|}\in L^{\infty}$?

I am trying to characterize all measures on $\mathbb{R}$ such that $$ \sup_{x\in\mathbb{R}} \: (\mu*f)(x)<+\infty, $$ where $f(x)$ is some specific integrable functions, such as $f(x)=e^{-|x|}$, ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

How do these two extensions of Sobolev spaces relate to each other?

In nonparametric statistics, the following space is often used $$H_{per}^\beta := \left\{f:[0,1]\to\mathbb{R}:\,D^{\beta-1}f\,\text{absolutely continuous and } D^\beta f\in L^2[0,1], \\D^{k}f(0) = ...
12
votes
4answers
2k views

Is there a natural measures on the space of measurable functions?

Given a set Ω and a σ-algebra F of subsets, is there some natural way to assign something like a "uniform" measure on the space of all measurable functions on this space? (I suppose first ...

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