**7**

votes

**0**answers

403 views

### Evidence that Graph Isomorphism problem is not $NP$-complete

Graph isomorphism problem is one of the longest standing problems that resisted classification into $P$ or $NP$-complete problems. We have evidences that it can not be $NP$-complete. Firstly, Graph ...

**52**

votes

**8**answers

5k views

### Have you solved problems in your sleep? [closed]

I have hit upon major (for me—relative to my trivial accomplishments)
insights in my research
in various sleep-deprived altered states of consciousness,
e.g., long solo car-drives extending ...

**32**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Negative impact of wrong or non-rigorous proofs

The recent talks of Voevodsky (for example, http://www.math.ias.edu/~vladimir/Site3/Univalent_Foundations_files/2014_IAS.pdf), which describe subtle errors in proofs by him as well as others, as well ...

**34**

votes

**2**answers

4k views

### How did “normal” come to mean “perpendicular”?

How and when did the word "normal" acquire this meaning? When I first thought of this, I couldn't really come up with any explanation that wasn't complete speculation -- pretty much all I was able to ...

**5**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Why are we interested in the Fundamental Groupoid of a Space?

The classical version of the van Kampen theorem is concerned about the fundamental group of a based space. In fact, it says that the functor $\pi_1$ preserves certain types of pushouts in $Top_*$.
...

**19**

votes

**63**answers

12k views

### What's your favorite equation, formula, identity or inequality? [closed]

Certain formulas I really enjoy looking at like the Euler-Maclaurin formula or the Leibniz integral rule. What's your favorite equation, formula, identity or inequality?

**38**

votes

**30**answers

45k views

### What programming languages do mathematicians use? [closed]

I understand this might be a slightly subjective question, but I am honestly curious what programming languages are used by the mathematics community.
I would imagine that there is a group of ...

**25**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Does every set of reals contain a measure-zero set of the same cardinality? Does it contain a meager set of the same cardinality?

This question arises from an issue in my post on Ashutosh's excellent question on Restrictions of the null/meager ideal.
Question 1. Does every set of reals contain a measure-zero subset
of the same ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

242 views

### A commutative Banach algebra with an abundance of discountinuous functions

Let $A$ be the algebra of all bounded functions from $[0,\;1]$ to $\mathbb{C}$.
For $f\in A,\;$ $\omega_{f}$ is the standard oscillation function.. Each of the following two (equivalent) norms ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

303 views

### Number of Dyck paths with k returns and b peaks

The number of Dyck paths from the origin to $(2n,0)$ which touch the $x$-axis $k+2$ times ($k$ internal touches) is given by
$$\frac{k}{2n-k}{2n-k \choose n}.$$
The number of Dyck paths from the ...

**48**

votes

**22**answers

9k views

### How to respond to “I was never much good at maths at school.” [closed]

We've all heard it. I even got it in Norwegian recently. It's number 1 on the list of responses to the statement "I'm a mathematician.". Does anyone have any good comebacks? What other responses ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

201 views

### The weighting function for the infinite product of necklaces

Let us consider the limit $\lim_{n\to \infty}\prod_{p=1}^n N(p,a)$ where $N(n,a)$ is the number of fixed necklaces of length $n$ composed of $a$ types of beads.
Let's rewrite the product in a way ...

**87**

votes

**16**answers

11k views

### What is torsion in differential geometry intuitively?

Hi,
given a connection on the tangent space of a manifold, one can define its torsion:
$$T(X,Y):=\triangledown_X Y - \triangledown_Y X - [X,Y]$$
What is the geometric picture behind this ...

**81**

votes

**10**answers

9k views

### Are there any very hard unknots?

Some years ago I took a long piece of string, tied it into a loop, and tried to twist it up into a tangle that I would find hard to untangle. No matter what I did, I could never cause the later me any ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

753 views

### Examples of Einstein four-manifolds of negative sectional curvature

Are there any nontrivial compact Einstein four-manifolds of negative or nonpositive sectional curvature? by nontrivial we mean not quotients of $\mathbb{H}^4$, $\mathbb{C}H^2$, ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

514 views

### Green's function of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck operator

The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck operator $L$ is given by
$$
Lu = \Delta u- \frac{1}{2}x\cdot \nabla u.
$$
Is there a known closed form expression of the Green's function of $L$ on $\mathbb R^d$ (for $d\geq 2$ ...

**57**

votes

**22**answers

15k views

### What's the “best” proof of quadratic reciprocity?

For my purposes, you may want to interpret "best" as "clearest and easiest to understand for undergrads in a first number theory course," but don't feel too constrained.

**81**

votes

**19**answers

12k views

### Do you read the masters?

I often hear the advice, "Read the masters" (i.e., read old, classic texts by great mathematicians). But frankly, I have hardly ever followed it. What I am wondering is, is this a principle that ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

381 views

### Relationship between Hochschild cohomology and Drinfeld centers

Let $HH_*(A,N)$ (or $HH^*(A,N)$) be the Hochschild homology (or cohomology) of an associative algebra $A$ with coefficients in an $A$-bimodule $N$.
I was reading nlab's entry on Hochschild cohomology ...

**27**

votes

**35**answers

4k views

### What are some mathematical sculptures?

Either intentionally or unintentionally.
Include location and sculptor, if known.

**43**

votes

**0**answers

3k views

### What is an étale theta function?

Let me start out by urging you to take seriously that whatever I write about the papers surrounding IUTT really are questions. If you would like to use it as a guide to the mathematics in any way, ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

371 views

### How to compute $\pi_{3}$ of $L(p,q)\# L(p',q')$?

Let $L(p,q)$ be a 3-dimensional lens space, and let $L(p',q')$ be another. Is there any known result concerning the 3rd homotopy group of the connected sum $L(p,q)\# L(p',q')$? If not, I am interested ...

**25**

votes

**10**answers

5k views

### real symmetric matrix has real eigenvalues - elementary proof

Every real symmetric matrix has at least one real eigenvalue. Does anyone know how to prove this elementary, that is without the notion of complex numbers?

**120**

votes

**6**answers

41k views

### Where to buy premium white chalk in the U.S., like they have at RIMS?

While not a research-level math question, I'm sure this is a question of interest to many research-level mathematicians, whose expertise I seek.
At RIMS (in Kyoto) in 2005, they had the best white ...

**45**

votes

**28**answers

26k views

### Applications of the Chinese remainder theorem

As the title suggests I am interested in CRT applications. Wikipedia article on CRT lists some of the well known applications (e.g. used in the RSA algorithm, used to construct an elegant Gödel ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

178 views

### Rank of a sequence of covariance matrices

Let $X_i$ ($i=1, \dots$) be an orthonormal basis for $L^2(\Omega, \mathbb P)$. In particular, it holds that
$$\mathbb E[X_iX_j] = \delta_{ij}.$$
Now take $Z\in L^2(\Omega, \mathbb P)$ and define ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

233 views

### New series for $1/\pi$ based on Ramanujan's ideas

In his classic paper "Modular Equations and Approximations to $\pi$ (1914)", Ramanujan gives a standard technique to obtain a general family of series for $1/\pi$ based on series for $(2K/\pi)^{2}$ in ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

212 views

### Asymptotic dimension of $C'(1/6)$ small cancellation groups

Do there exist finitely presented $C'(1/6)$ small cancellation groups with arbitrarily high asymptotic dimension?
To offer a little more motivation, Roe proves that all hyperbolic groups have finite ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

169 views

### Hankel matrix commuting with a Jacobi matrix

Assume the semi-infinite Hankel matrix $H$ with entries
$$H_{i,j}=\alpha_{i+j-1}, \quad i,j\geq1,$$
where $\alpha_{n}\in\mathbb{R}$, is given. It turns out that in some special situations a ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

345 views

### Topological retraction vs categorical retraction

Let $(X,\tau)$ be a topological space. We say that $A\subseteq X$ is a
topological retract if there is a continuous map $r:X\to A$ onto a subspace $A \subseteq X$ such that for all $a\in A$ we have ...

**59**

votes

**7**answers

9k views

### Is the boundary $\partial S$ analogous to a derivative?

Without prethought, I mentioned in class once that the reason the symbol $\partial$
is used to represent the boundary operator in topology is
that its behavior is akin to a derivative.
But after ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

148 views

+50

### Non invertibility of certain integral arising from group action

Let a compact topological group $G$ with invariant measure $\mu,$ acts on a simply connected compact topological space $X$ and $\rho$ is a $n$-dimensional unitary representation of $G$. ...

**6**

votes

**4**answers

317 views

### Breaking up the free Lie algebra into Gl irreps

The free Lie algebra $L(V)$ generated by an $r$-dimensional vector space $V$ is, in the
language of https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_Lie_algebra ,
the free Lie algebra generated by any choice of ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

584 views

### Hilbert Class Field Galois over Q?

So if we have a Galois extension $K/\mathbb{Q}$, then the Hilbert Class Field $H$ of $K$ is certainly Galois over $\mathbb{Q}$. But is the converse true? I know many examples of nongalois ...

**77**

votes

**9**answers

6k views

### Why are flat morphisms “flat?”

Of course "flatness" is a word that evokes a very particular geometric picture, and it seems to me like there should be a reason why this word is used, but nothing I can find gives me a reason!
Is ...

**66**

votes

**14**answers

19k views

### Top specialized journals

In geometry/topology, there are (at least) three specialized journals that end up publishing a large fraction of the best papers in the subject -- Geometry and Topology, JDG, and GAFA.
What journals ...

**72**

votes

**8**answers

8k views

### What do heat kernels have to do with the Riemann-Roch theorem and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem?

I know the following facts. (Don't assume I know much more than the following facts.)
The Atiyah-Singer index theorem generalizes both the Riemann-Roch theorem and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem.
The ...

**17**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Quantitative lower bounds related to Zhang's theorem on bounded gaps

Let $\mathcal{H}=\left\{ h_{i}\right\} _{i=1}^{k}$ be an admissible set, and define $$\pi_{\mathcal{H}}(x)=\left|\left\{ n\leq x\ :\ \exists\ i,j\leq k,\ i\neq j\ \text{such that both }n+h_{i},\ ...

**25**

votes

**1**answer

705 views

### Making $\mathbb{Q}$-cohomology integral

Let $X$ be an algebraic variety (say, smooth and projective) over $\mathbb{C}$, and fix $$\alpha\in H^i(X^{\text{an}}, \mathbb{Q})$$
with $i>0$.
Does there always exist a variety $Y$ and a ...

**54**

votes

**20**answers

8k views

### What should we teach to liberal arts students who will take only one math course?

Even professors in academic departments other than mathematics---never mind other educated people---do not know that such a field as mathematics exists. Once a professor of medicine asked me whether ...

**48**

votes

**11**answers

5k views

### What is Quantization ?

I would like to know what quantization is, I mean I would like to have some elementary examples, some soft nontechnical definition, some explanation about what do mathematicians quantize?, can we ...

**10**

votes

**3**answers

953 views

### When did coordinate plane “as we know it” come into play?

This is a historical question that needs some background to make sense. Let me start with the longer version of the question:
When did negative numbers, algebra and coordinate plane come together?
...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

405 views

### An algebraic Hamiltonian vector field with a finite number of periodic orbits(1)

Edit: The previous version of this question contained 2 part. In this new version, I deleted the first part and move it to a new question.
Is There a polynomial Hamiltonian ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

238 views

### Intersections in almost complex manifolds

Question: Suppose $(M,J)$ is an almost complex manifold, and $X$ and $Y$ are two almost complex submanifolds (i.e. $J(T(X)) \subset T(X)$ and $J(T(Y)) \subset T(Y)$). Then must $X \cap Y$ also be an ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

162 views

### Characterization of certain analytic vector fields on $S^{2}$

Let $X$ be a real analytic vector field on $S^{2}$ which satisfies:
$X$ has a finite number of singularities on $S^{2}$
The equator is invariant under flow of $X$
3.$g_{*}X=\pm X$ where $g$ ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

275 views

### Two questions about universally measurable sets

I have two questions about universally measurable sets:
(1) Is there a universally measurable set of reals which does not have the Baire property?
(2) Is there a universally measurable set of reals ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

104 views

### Nontrivial norm values in rings of integers

Let $L=Q(\sqrt{d})$ for some SQF integer $d\equiv_4 3$ (the same can be asked for $d\equiv_4 1$). In this case the ring of integers of $L$ is $O_L=\{x+\sqrt{d}y \mid x,y\in Z\}$ so the norms of $O_L$ ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Where are Georg Cantor's Original Manuscripts?

Georg Cantor is famous for introducing transfinite numbers and set theory.
A main part of his mathematical point of view about this new type of "numbers" and this new "realm of mathematics" cannot be ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

459 views

### Lower-Hölder embeddings of the sphere

My question is very simple:
Given $d\ge 3$, does there exist $s\in (0,1)$ and an embedding $f:S^{d-1}\to \mathbb{R}^d$ such that
$$
|f(x)-f(y)| \ge |x-y|^s \quad\textrm{if } |x-y|<r,
$$
for ...

**29**

votes

**0**answers

808 views

### Does every smooth, projective morphism to $\mathbb{C}P^1$ admit a section?

Possibly this has already been asked, but it came up again in this question of Daniel Litt. Does every smooth, projective morphism $f:Y\to \mathbb{C}P^1$ admit a section, i.e., a morphism ...