9
votes
1answer
234 views

Fundamental units with norm $-1$ in real quadratic fields

If we have distinct primes $p \equiv q \equiv 1 \pmod 4,$ with Legendre $(p|q) = (q|p) = -1,$ there is a solution to $u^2 - pq v^2 = -1$ in integers and the fundamental unit of $O_{\mathbb ...
3
votes
0answers
84 views

Radon-Nikodym derivative as a limit of ratios

This question is related to Radon-Nikodym derivatives as limits of ratios. Let $F$, $G$ be sigma-finite measures (or at least probability measures) on $\mathbb{R}$ such that $F \ll G$. The theorem ...
11
votes
3answers
488 views

sums of fractional parts of linear functions of n

As $\alpha$ and $\gamma$ range uniformly over $[0,1]$, what is the typical (e.g. median or root-mean-square) order of magnitude of $C_m (\alpha,\gamma)$ := $\sum_{1 \leq k \leq m} \left( {\rm ...
114
votes
83answers
26k views

Examples of great mathematical writing

This question is basically from Ravi Vakil's web page, but modified for Math Overflow. How do I write mathematics well? Learning by example is more helpful than being told what to do, so let's try to ...
12
votes
2answers
319 views

Nuclear operators/spaces and transfer operators

While studying for my thesis (in dynamical systems) I've encountered multiple times with the concept of nuclear operators and nuclear spaces, often linked with the works of Grothendieck. For example, ...
10
votes
2answers
1k views

What numbers can be approximated “pretty well” by rationals?

More precisely, what real numbers $r$ have the following property: for any $\epsilon > 0$ there exist infinitely many pairs $(p, q)$ of integers such that $$\left| \frac{p}{q} - r \right| < ...
6
votes
1answer
155 views

If a faithfully flat extension of dg/A_$\infty$-algebra is formal, is the original algebra formal (over positive characteristic)?

Proposition 6.2 of Formality of DG algebras (after Kaledin) by Lunts reads (with a few additions to clarify notation): Let $k$ be a field of characteristic 0. Let $A$ be an $A_\infty$ algebra ...
8
votes
0answers
144 views

Are there genera for algebraic cobordism?

For real and complex manifolds, we can form the (oriented) cobordism ring $\Omega$, and a genus is defined to be a ring homomorphism $$\varphi:\Omega\otimes\mathbb{Q}\to R$$ where $R$ is any ...
13
votes
1answer
853 views

A Question on Random Matrices

Consider the following $n\times n$ random matrix $V_{n}$ where the $(p,q)$ entry is given by $$ V_{n}(p,q):= \frac{1}{\sqrt{n}}\exp(2\pi i(p-1) x_{q}) $$ where $x_{1},x_{2},\ldots,x_{n}$ are iid ...
0
votes
1answer
204 views

Can one always Decide whether a Systems of Nonlinear Equations with Bilinear terms is Feasible?

I have come to a point in my PhD research were i need to prove that a particular decision procedure is decidable or not. And if i can solve the sub-problem described below, i shall have proved it. The ...
3
votes
0answers
223 views

Is this Grothendieck trace map an isomorphism?

Let $A$ be a commutative ring and let $S := \operatorname{Spec}(A)$. Let $$ g : Y \to X $$ be a proper, birational morphism of separated schemes of finite type over $S$, where $X$ is affine and ...
6
votes
0answers
86 views

Chern-Simons form and Rarita-Schwinger operator

The Rarita-Schwinger (RS) operator naturally generalizes the Dirac operator and in Physics it describes particles with spin-3/2. I was wondering if there exists any reference concerning the ...
2
votes
1answer
355 views

Decidability survives new constants

Let $L$ be a finite first order language and let $M$ be an $L$-structure with universe $\mathbb{N}$ that interprets all $L$-symbols as recursive sets (so $M$ is a recursive $L$-structure). Let ...
1
vote
2answers
156 views

Difference of the maximum eigenvalue of a graph with the one of one-edge-deleted subgraph

Let $G$ be a graph and $e$ be an edge of the graph $G$ such that the subgraph $G\setminus e$ is connected. The subgraph $G\setminus e$ is the subgraph of $G$ obtained by deletion of the edge $e$ of ...
12
votes
3answers
1k views

What are the endofunctors on the simplex category?

Is there a 'classification' of the endofunctors F: Δ --> Δ where Δ denotes the simplex category with objects [n] and the weakly monotone maps [m] --> [n] as morphisms (Actually, I ...
0
votes
1answer
228 views

Number theory question

Given $a$ and $b$ irrational numbers with $a/b$ also irrational, how do you prove that $( \{ na\} , \{ nb \})$ is dense in $[0,1] * [0,1]$ , where $n$ ranges over the integers? $\{x\}$ is the ...
1
vote
1answer
238 views

Subgroups of the union of conjugates

This question is an attempt to find a version of this question with a positive answer. In this question, we ask if one can find big subgroups in the union of conjugtes of small subgroups of finite ...
2
votes
1answer
398 views

About Sobolev embedding theorem of the case $W^{s,2}$.

Let $s>n/2, \; f \in W^{s,2}(\Bbb R^n)$ . Then how can I show that there is an embedding into the space of uniformly bounded, continuous functions, that is, $$ |f(x)| \leqslant C\| f \|_{W^{s,2}}$$ ...
-1
votes
1answer
165 views

How to define an “anisotropic vector” for a given object? [closed]

Dear experts, I am looking for a way to define an "alignment vector" (or anisotropy or orientation vector?) for a given geometrical object. I am not sure how to put this into correct technical terms, ...
10
votes
1answer
865 views

Different uses of the word “ergodic”

There appear to be two definitions of the word ergodic. The dynamical systems definition says that a measure space $(X,\mathit B, \mu)$ and measure preserving transformation $T: X \mapsto X$ is ...
5
votes
1answer
257 views

Convex PBW bases

Given a reduced expression for the longest word $w_0$ in the Weyl group of $\mathfrak{g}=\mathfrak{n}^+\oplus\mathfrak{h}\oplus{n}^-$, one obtains a convex ordering on the set of positive roots, ...
18
votes
3answers
1k views

Minimal surface in a ball

Assume a minimal surface $\Sigma$ has boundary on the unit sphere in the Euclidean space and $r$ is the distance from $\Sigma$ to the center of the ball. Is it true that $$\mathop{\rm area} \Sigma\ge ...
5
votes
1answer
105 views

Poincare-Hopf theorem for polytopes?

Is there an analogue of Poincare-Hopf theorem for polytopes? I want to apply it in the following situation. I have a polytope in $R^n$ and a smooth explicitly given vector field in $R^n$. I want to ...
1
vote
1answer
82 views

Fixed submanifolds of the sphere at infinity of $\mathbb{H}^n$

Good afternoon, Take a submanifold $V$ of codimension $1$ of the sphere at infinity of $\mathbb{H}^n$ which is not the sphere at infinity of a totally geodesic hyperplane $\mathbb{H}^{n-1} \subset ...
13
votes
2answers
1k views

Has anyone implemented a recognition algorithm for totally unimodular matrices?

One of the consequences of Seymour's characterization of regular matroids is the existence of a polynomial time recognition algorithm for totally unimodular matrices (i.e. matrices for which every ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Decomposition of flat homogeneous Kahler manifolds

In a paper I am reading, it is claimed that a flat homogeneous Kahler manifold is a Kahler product $\mathbb C ^k \times T_1 \times \cdots \times T_s $ where $\mathbb C ^k $ is considered with its ...
0
votes
1answer
140 views

How to handle a scalar product in an integral?

I am having a problem with a certain inequality I try to understand. I think it's just a basic idia (/trick) I'm missing, but I can't seem to find it. Here's a simplification of the problem: $ ...
2
votes
3answers
783 views

How to characterize real square matrices A, such that v'Av >= 0, for all real vectors v with 1'v=0 (1 is the vector of all ones)?

I derive this question while trying to prove the monotonicity of a differentiable vector function $f(x)$ that maps from $X\subset R^n$ to $R^n$ (Here function $f(x)$ is called monotone if ...
24
votes
1answer
646 views

Complex manifold with subvarieties but no submanifolds

I previously asked this question on MSE and offered a bounty but received no responses. There are examples of compact complex manifolds with no positive-dimensional compact complex submanifolds. ...
5
votes
0answers
63 views

Historical perspectives on CAT(0) spaces

Does there exist a survey on the early developments of CAT(k) spaces, with the first motivations and the first problems considered? I looked at Bridson and Haefliger's book On metric spaces of ...
1
vote
1answer
684 views

nef divisor on surface

hello everybody. someone can suggest me some reference or an example of a divisor nef $D$ on a surface such that $D^{2}<0$ if it exists?
27
votes
7answers
8k views

Way to memorize relations between the Sobolev spaces?

Consider the Sobolev spaces $W^{k,p}(\Omega)$ with a bounded domain $\Omega$ in n-dimensional Euclidean space. When facing the different embedding theorems for the first time, one can certainly feel ...
19
votes
3answers
967 views

Obstructions for embedding a graph on a surface of genus g

Kuratowski's theorem tells us the complete graph $K_5$ and the bipartite graph $K_{3,3}$ are the only obstructions to a graph being planar, ie embeddable in the plane with no edge-crossings. Is ...
14
votes
3answers
4k views

Are the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta simple?

A few years ago, I found on arXiv an article in which the authors (I think they were at least two to write it) claimed to have proven that the non trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function were all ...
4
votes
1answer
284 views

Verlinde Formula and Theta Function Identities

The paper Fusion rules and modular transformations in 2D conformal field theory by Erik Verlinde mentions a simple case of rational conformal field theory, where the fusion algebra is just ...
6
votes
2answers
477 views

Are there homology groups for cosimplicial groups?

Hi, Assume you have a cosimplicial group $G$, so that for each $n \ge 0$ there is a group $G_n$, and you have the usual cofaces and codegeneracies. Is there a known way to associate to this a ...
17
votes
4answers
1k views

What is the geometric object corresponding to a subalgebra in a polynomial ring

Many introductory texts on algebraic geometry set up some sort of algebra-geometry dictionary in which radical ideals correspond to varieties, and so on. I am wondering if there is a geometric way to ...
7
votes
0answers
273 views

Asymptotics of A261668

In Uniform Approach to Double Shuffle and Duality Relations of Various q-Analogs of Multiple Zeta Values via Rota-Baxter Algebras, Proposition 10.8, Jianqiang Zhao mentiones the sequence: ...
2
votes
2answers
345 views

non-Identity operator on a separable Hilbert space

Suppose $\mathcal{H}$ is a separable Hilbert space over $\mathbb{C}$ (countable dimensions) with inner product $\langle,\rangle$. Let $A$ be a bounded linear operator on $\mathcal{H}$, i.e, in ...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

Why we study Geometric invariant theory?

I am trying to learn Geometric invariant theory like it was introduced by Mumford. But I do not have a strong motivation and so I want to know the reason of studying Geometric invariant theory. I just ...
4
votes
0answers
211 views

Reference request: Beilinson-Bernstein for finite-dimensional reps and category O

I think I’ve once been told that under the Beilinson-Bernstein correspondence, finite-dimensional representations of a semisimple Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$ correspond to (twisted) D-modules on $G/B$ ...
20
votes
7answers
4k views

Why is Lie's Third Theorem difficult?

Recall the following classical theorem of Cartan (!): Theorem (Lie III): Any finite-dimensional Lie algebra over $\mathbb R$ is the Lie algebra of some analytic Lie group. Similarly, one can propose ...
11
votes
2answers
2k views

Best-case Running-time to solve an NP-Complete problem

What is the fastest algorithm that exists to solve a particular NP-Complete problem? For example, a naive implementation of travelling salesman is $O(n!)$, but with dynamic programming it can be done ...
4
votes
1answer
732 views

Geometry behind Rees algebra (deformation to the normal cone)

Let me start with the formal definition of Rees algebra. If $A$ is a commutative ring over some field $k$, $I \subset A$ is an ideal, then Rees algebra is by definition $$ R=\oplus_{i \in \mathbb{Z}} ...
16
votes
3answers
2k views

Non finitely-generated subalgebra of a finitely-generated algebra

Ok, I feel a little bit ashamed by my question. This afternoon in the train, I looked for a counter-example: — $k$ a field — $A$ a finitely generated $k$-algebra — $B$ a $k$-subalgebra of $A$ that ...
21
votes
2answers
836 views

Applications of Atiyah-Singer using pseudodifferential operators

Though the Atiyah-Singer index theorem holds for pseudodifferential operators, all the applications of the index theorem I know of only need it for Dirac-type operators. I know that pseudodifferential ...
5
votes
0answers
173 views

Fiberwise acyclic, locally acyclic morphisms

The quick definition of a map $f \colon X \to B$ of schemes being acyclic is that the natural unit of adjunction $\def\id{\operatorname{id}}\id \to f_* f^*$ is an isomorphism, where we take $f_*$ to ...
0
votes
1answer
365 views

$q_{S^*\omega}(X)=S^{\ast}q_{\omega}(X)$ ?

Definition: Let $(V,\Omega)$ be a symplectic vector space, we define $\perp:\Lambda ^k(V^*)\to\Lambda ^{k-2}(V^{\ast})$ by $\perp(\omega)=i_{X_{\Omega}}(\omega)$ here if ...
6
votes
3answers
812 views

A question about Transfinite Induction

The Transfinite Induction says: Let $\mathbf{P}(x)$ is a property, assume that, for all ordinal numbers $\alpha $ : If $\mathbf{P}(\beta)$ holds for all $\beta < \alpha$, then $\mathbf{P}(\alpha)$ ...
12
votes
1answer
577 views

What is known about the connection of positive energy representations of loop groups and modular forms

At the end of Section 14.1 in Pressley, Segal "Loop Groups" there is the remark that the partition function is a modular function in the sense that the Dedekind $\eta$ function is a modular form. I ...

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