# All Questions

**9**

votes

**1**answer

234 views

### Fundamental units with norm $-1$ in real quadratic fields

If we have distinct primes $p \equiv q \equiv 1 \pmod 4,$ with Legendre $(p|q) = (q|p) = -1,$ there is a solution to $u^2 - pq v^2 = -1$ in integers and the fundamental unit of $O_{\mathbb ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

84 views

### Radon-Nikodym derivative as a limit of ratios

This question is related to Radon-Nikodym derivatives as limits of ratios.
Let $F$, $G$ be sigma-finite measures (or at least probability measures) on $\mathbb{R}$ such that $F \ll G$.
The theorem ...

**11**

votes

**3**answers

488 views

### sums of fractional parts of linear functions of n

As $\alpha$ and $\gamma$ range uniformly over $[0,1]$, what is the typical (e.g. median or root-mean-square) order of magnitude of $C_m (\alpha,\gamma)$ := $\sum_{1 \leq k \leq m} \left( {\rm ...

**114**

votes

**83**answers

26k views

### Examples of great mathematical writing

This question is basically from Ravi Vakil's web page, but modified for Math Overflow.
How do I write mathematics well? Learning by example is more helpful than being told what to do, so let's try to ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

319 views

### Nuclear operators/spaces and transfer operators

While studying for my thesis (in dynamical systems) I've encountered multiple times with the concept of nuclear operators and nuclear spaces, often linked with the works of Grothendieck. For example, ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### What numbers can be approximated “pretty well” by rationals?

More precisely, what real numbers $r$ have the following property: for any $\epsilon > 0$ there exist infinitely many pairs $(p, q)$ of integers such that
$$\left| \frac{p}{q} - r \right| < ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

155 views

### If a faithfully flat extension of dg/A_$\infty$-algebra is formal, is the original algebra formal (over positive characteristic)?

Proposition 6.2 of Formality of DG algebras (after Kaledin) by Lunts reads (with a few additions to clarify notation):
Let $k$ be a field of characteristic 0. Let $A$ be an $A_\infty$ algebra ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

144 views

### Are there genera for algebraic cobordism?

For real and complex manifolds, we can form the (oriented) cobordism ring $\Omega$, and a genus is defined to be a ring homomorphism
$$\varphi:\Omega\otimes\mathbb{Q}\to R$$
where $R$ is any ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

853 views

### A Question on Random Matrices

Consider the following $n\times n$ random matrix $V_{n}$ where the $(p,q)$ entry is given by
$$
V_{n}(p,q):= \frac{1}{\sqrt{n}}\exp(2\pi i(p-1) x_{q})
$$
where $x_{1},x_{2},\ldots,x_{n}$ are iid ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

204 views

### Can one always Decide whether a Systems of Nonlinear Equations with Bilinear terms is Feasible?

I have come to a point in my PhD research were i need to prove that a particular decision procedure is decidable or not. And if i can solve the sub-problem described below, i shall have proved it. The ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

223 views

### Is this Grothendieck trace map an isomorphism?

Let $A$ be a commutative ring and let $S := \operatorname{Spec}(A)$. Let
$$ g : Y \to X $$
be a proper, birational morphism of separated schemes of finite type over $S$, where $X$ is affine and ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

86 views

### Chern-Simons form and Rarita-Schwinger operator

The Rarita-Schwinger (RS) operator naturally generalizes the Dirac operator and in Physics it describes particles with spin-3/2.
I was wondering if there exists any reference concerning the ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

355 views

### Decidability survives new constants

Let $L$ be a finite first order language
and let $M$ be an $L$-structure with universe $\mathbb{N}$
that interprets all $L$-symbols as recursive sets
(so $M$ is a recursive $L$-structure).
Let ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

156 views

### Difference of the maximum eigenvalue of a graph with the one of one-edge-deleted subgraph

Let $G$ be a graph and $e$ be an edge of the graph $G$ such that the subgraph $G\setminus e$
is connected. The subgraph $G\setminus e$ is the subgraph of $G$ obtained by deletion of the edge $e$ of ...

**12**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### What are the endofunctors on the simplex category?

Is there a 'classification' of the endofunctors F: Δ --> Δ where Δ denotes the simplex category with objects [n] and the weakly monotone maps [m] --> [n] as morphisms (Actually, I ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

228 views

### Number theory question

Given $a$ and $b$ irrational numbers with $a/b$ also irrational, how do you prove that
$( \{ na\} , \{ nb \})$ is dense in $[0,1] * [0,1]$ , where $n$ ranges over the integers?
$\{x\}$ is the ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

238 views

### Subgroups of the union of conjugates

This question is an attempt to find a version of this question with a positive answer. In this question, we ask if one can find big subgroups in the union of conjugtes of small subgroups of finite ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

398 views

### About Sobolev embedding theorem of the case $W^{s,2}$.

Let $s>n/2, \; f \in W^{s,2}(\Bbb R^n)$ . Then how can I show that there is an embedding into the space of uniformly bounded, continuous functions, that is, $$ |f(x)| \leqslant C\| f \|_{W^{s,2}}$$ ...

**-1**

votes

**1**answer

165 views

### How to define an “anisotropic vector” for a given object? [closed]

Dear experts,
I am looking for a way to define an "alignment vector" (or anisotropy or orientation vector?) for a given geometrical object. I am not sure how to put this into correct technical terms, ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

865 views

### Different uses of the word “ergodic”

There appear to be two definitions of the word ergodic.
The dynamical systems definition says that a measure space $(X,\mathit B, \mu)$ and measure preserving transformation $T: X \mapsto X$ is ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

257 views

### Convex PBW bases

Given a reduced expression for the longest word $w_0$ in the Weyl group of $\mathfrak{g}=\mathfrak{n}^+\oplus\mathfrak{h}\oplus{n}^-$, one obtains a convex ordering on the set of positive roots, ...

**18**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Minimal surface in a ball

Assume a minimal surface $\Sigma$ has boundary on the unit sphere in the Euclidean space
and $r$ is the distance from $\Sigma$ to the center of the ball.
Is it true that
$$\mathop{\rm area} \Sigma\ge ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

105 views

### Poincare-Hopf theorem for polytopes?

Is there an analogue of Poincare-Hopf theorem for polytopes?
I want to apply it in the following situation.
I have a polytope in $R^n$ and a smooth explicitly given vector field in $R^n$.
I want to ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

82 views

### Fixed submanifolds of the sphere at infinity of $\mathbb{H}^n$

Good afternoon,
Take a submanifold $V$ of codimension $1$ of the sphere at infinity of $\mathbb{H}^n$ which is not the sphere at infinity of a totally geodesic hyperplane $\mathbb{H}^{n-1} \subset ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Has anyone implemented a recognition algorithm for totally unimodular matrices?

One of the consequences of Seymour's characterization of regular matroids is the existence of a polynomial time recognition algorithm for totally unimodular matrices (i.e. matrices for which every ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

39 views

### Decomposition of flat homogeneous Kahler manifolds

In a paper I am reading, it is claimed that a flat homogeneous Kahler manifold is a Kahler product $\mathbb C ^k \times T_1 \times \cdots \times T_s $ where $\mathbb C ^k $ is considered with its ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

140 views

### How to handle a scalar product in an integral?

I am having a problem with a certain inequality I try to understand. I think it's just a basic idia (/trick) I'm missing, but I can't seem to find it.
Here's a simplification of the problem:
$ ...

**2**

votes

**3**answers

783 views

### How to characterize real square matrices A, such that v'Av >= 0, for all real vectors v with 1'v=0 (1 is the vector of all ones)?

I derive this question while trying to prove the monotonicity of a differentiable vector function $f(x)$ that maps from $X\subset R^n$ to $R^n$ (Here function $f(x)$ is called monotone if ...

**24**

votes

**1**answer

646 views

### Complex manifold with subvarieties but no submanifolds

I previously asked this question on MSE and offered a bounty but received no responses.
There are examples of compact complex manifolds with no positive-dimensional compact complex submanifolds. ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

63 views

### Historical perspectives on CAT(0) spaces

Does there exist a survey on the early developments of CAT(k) spaces, with the first motivations and the first problems considered? I looked at Bridson and Haefliger's book On metric spaces of ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

684 views

### nef divisor on surface

hello everybody.
someone can suggest me some reference or an example of a divisor nef $D$ on a surface such that $D^{2}<0$ if it exists?

**27**

votes

**7**answers

8k views

### Way to memorize relations between the Sobolev spaces?

Consider the Sobolev spaces $W^{k,p}(\Omega)$ with a bounded domain $\Omega$ in n-dimensional Euclidean space. When facing the different embedding theorems for the first time, one can certainly feel ...

**19**

votes

**3**answers

967 views

### Obstructions for embedding a graph on a surface of genus g

Kuratowski's theorem tells us the complete graph $K_5$ and the bipartite graph $K_{3,3}$ are the only obstructions to a graph being planar, ie embeddable in the plane with no edge-crossings.
Is ...

**14**

votes

**3**answers

4k views

### Are the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta simple?

A few years ago, I found on arXiv an article in which the authors (I think they were at least two to write it) claimed to have proven that the non trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function were all ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

284 views

### Verlinde Formula and Theta Function Identities

The paper Fusion rules and modular transformations in 2D conformal field theory by Erik Verlinde mentions a simple case of rational conformal field theory, where the fusion algebra is just ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

477 views

### Are there homology groups for cosimplicial groups?

Hi,
Assume you have a cosimplicial group $G$, so that for each $n \ge 0$ there is a group $G_n$, and you have the usual cofaces and codegeneracies.
Is there a known way to associate to this a ...

**17**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### What is the geometric object corresponding to a subalgebra in a polynomial ring

Many introductory texts on algebraic geometry set up some sort of algebra-geometry dictionary in which radical ideals correspond to varieties, and so on. I am wondering if there is a geometric way to ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

273 views

### Asymptotics of A261668

In Uniform Approach to Double Shuffle and Duality Relations of Various q-Analogs of Multiple Zeta Values via Rota-Baxter Algebras, Proposition 10.8, Jianqiang Zhao mentiones the sequence:
...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

345 views

### non-Identity operator on a separable Hilbert space

Suppose $\mathcal{H}$ is a separable Hilbert space over $\mathbb{C}$ (countable dimensions) with inner product $\langle,\rangle$. Let $A$ be a bounded linear operator on $\mathcal{H}$, i.e, in ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Why we study Geometric invariant theory?

I am trying to learn Geometric invariant theory like it was introduced by Mumford. But I do not have a strong motivation and so I want to know the reason of studying Geometric invariant theory. I just ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

211 views

### Reference request: Beilinson-Bernstein for finite-dimensional reps and category O

I think I’ve once been told that under the Beilinson-Bernstein correspondence, finite-dimensional representations of a semisimple Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$ correspond to (twisted) D-modules on $G/B$ ...

**20**

votes

**7**answers

4k views

### Why is Lie's Third Theorem difficult?

Recall the following classical theorem of Cartan (!):
Theorem (Lie III): Any finite-dimensional Lie algebra over $\mathbb R$ is the Lie algebra of some analytic Lie group.
Similarly, one can propose ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Best-case Running-time to solve an NP-Complete problem

What is the fastest algorithm that exists to solve a particular NP-Complete problem? For example, a naive implementation of travelling salesman is $O(n!)$, but with dynamic programming it can be done ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

732 views

### Geometry behind Rees algebra (deformation to the normal cone)

Let me start with the formal definition of Rees algebra. If $A$ is a commutative ring over some field $k$, $I \subset A$ is an ideal, then Rees algebra is by definition
$$
R=\oplus_{i \in \mathbb{Z}} ...

**16**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Non finitely-generated subalgebra of a finitely-generated algebra

Ok, I feel a little bit ashamed by my question.
This afternoon in the train, I looked for a counter-example:
— $k$ a field
— $A$ a finitely generated $k$-algebra
— $B$ a $k$-subalgebra of $A$ that ...

**21**

votes

**2**answers

836 views

### Applications of Atiyah-Singer using pseudodifferential operators

Though the Atiyah-Singer index theorem holds for pseudodifferential operators, all the applications of the index theorem I know of only need it for Dirac-type operators. I know that pseudodifferential ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

173 views

### Fiberwise acyclic, locally acyclic morphisms

The quick definition of a map $f \colon X \to B$ of schemes being acyclic is that the natural unit of adjunction $\def\id{\operatorname{id}}\id \to f_* f^*$ is an isomorphism, where we take $f_*$ to ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

365 views

### $q_{S^*\omega}(X)=S^{\ast}q_{\omega}(X)$ ?

Definition: Let $(V,\Omega)$ be a symplectic vector space, we define
$\perp:\Lambda ^k(V^*)\to\Lambda ^{k-2}(V^{\ast})$
by $\perp(\omega)=i_{X_{\Omega}}(\omega)$
here if ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

812 views

### A question about Transfinite Induction

The Transfinite Induction says: Let $\mathbf{P}(x)$ is a property, assume that, for all ordinal numbers $\alpha $ : If $\mathbf{P}(\beta)$ holds for all $\beta < \alpha$, then $\mathbf{P}(\alpha)$ ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

577 views

### What is known about the connection of positive energy representations of loop groups and modular forms

At the end of Section 14.1 in Pressley, Segal "Loop Groups" there is the remark that
the partition function is a modular function in the sense that the Dedekind $\eta$ function is a modular form. I ...