# All Questions

**3**

votes

**2**answers

156 views

### A question on certain elliptic PDE

Consider the elliptic PDE "CR"
$$\begin{cases} U_{xx}=V_{yy}\\U_{yy}=-V_{xx} \end{cases}$$
And its consequence "LAP" $$U_{xxxx}+U_{yyyy}=0$$.
Somehow, these equations are similar to the Cauchi ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

141 views

### Quotient of Projective line over rationals with an infinite subgroup of PGL(2,Q)

I am looking for references for the following; how to calculate quotient of the projective line over the field of rationals with an infinite subgroup of PGL(2,Q), e.g, of the form
$
\left(
...

**-1**

votes

**0**answers

37 views

### Machine learning approach [on hold]

I will illustrate my question my example
let us say, I want to build a classifier to label each word in a huge set or words into either "GOOD" or "BAD" word. I have a set of GOOD words and I have ...

**-4**

votes

**0**answers

33 views

### Lagrange error bound for the approximation of sinx≈x [on hold]

The problem is to bound the error of the approximation of sinx≈x on the interval [-1,1].
Here is what I tried/understand:
-I know this is a n=1, x is a 1st degree Taylor polynomial of sin x
-On the ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

47 views

### Different definitions of linkless graphs

Robertson, Seymour and Thomas defined linkless embeddings of graphs as follows:
An embedding of $G$ is linkless if every pair of disjoint circuits of $G$ have zero linking number (see here). However ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

66 views

### Difference between straight and piecewise linear and continuous embeddings of graphs / complexes in d-dimensional space?

Here is my main question: what is the difference between "straight" and "piecewise linear" and "continuous" embeddings of graphs/complexes in d-dimensional space?
Moreover I would like to know if any ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

183 views

### A random variation on Polya's orchard problem

Polya's orchard problem is as follows:
"How thick must the
trunks of the trees in a regularly spaced circular orchard grow if they are
to block completely the view from the center?"
See, ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

84 views

### Can the graph Laplacian be well approximated by a Laplace-Beltrami operator?

It seems rather well known that given a Laplace-Beltrami operator $\mathcal{L}_{M}$ on a manifold $M$ we can approximate its spectrum by that of a graph Laplacian $L_{G}$ for some $G$ (where $G$ is ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

110 views

### Classification of indecomposable inclusions $(H \subset G)$ with $G$ decomposable

Definition: A group $G$ is indecomposable if: $G = G_1 \times G_2 \Rightarrow \exists i \ G_i = 1$.
We can generalize the notion of indecomposable from groups to inclusion of groups as ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

188 views

### Asymptotic formula for the number of ways to write a number as the sum of $k$ triangular numbers

How would one derive an asymptotic formula for the number of representations of a number $n$ as the sum of $k$ numbers of the form $\frac{m(m + 1)}{2}$
I think that one could use the circle method, ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

53 views

### Uniqueness of the tensor product decomposition of subfactors

A subfactor $(N \subset M)$ is indecomposable if (for $N_i \subset M_i)$: $$(N \subset M) = (N_1 \otimes N_2 \subset M_1 \otimes M_2) \Rightarrow \exists i \ N_i = M_i$$
Then, a subfactor $(N ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

234 views

### On the positivity of matrices

For given $n$, the following $n\times n$ real matrix $M=M^{T}$ is called positive, if
$x^{T}M x\geq 0$
holds for all non-negative real $x_1,x_2,\cdots,x_n$,
where $x=(x_1,x_2,\cdots,x_n)^T$.
...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

25 views

### Family of (Cumulative Distribution) Functions

I'm looking for a 2 (or more)-parameter family of functions $F$ with the following properties:
For each $f \in F$, $f(0)=0$, $f(1)=1$, and $f$ is (weakly) increasing.
$F$ is closed under products.
...

**-2**

votes

**0**answers

39 views

### Integrating a differential form over a box [on hold]

I've only ever seen examples of integrating a differential form over a curve C involving defining a parameterization. I have seen people integrate 1 forms over a box without defining a ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

61 views

### Smoothness in Ecalle's method for fractional iterates

Some four years ago I answered my own question on fractional iteration, concluding that there is a half iterate of sine, that is $f(f(x)) = \sin x,$ which is real analytic for $0 < x < \pi$ but ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

229 views

### Is there an analog of the Barratt-Eccles construction for E_∞-groups and E_∞-rings?

The Barratt-Eccles operad is an operad in simplicial sets
that provides a particularly nice model of an E∞-operad;
algebras in spaces over the Barratt-Eccles operad model E∞-spaces,
i.e., homotopy ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

442 views

### Reference request: Book of topology from “Topos” point of view

Question: Is there any book of topology in the modern language of topos theory?
I refer to the (systematic, formalist) study of the category of sheaves on a site or the study of topology in a ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

44 views

### The regularity of Dirichlet form in Besov space

Let $C_{0}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ denote the set of continuous functions in $\mathbb{R}^n$ with compact support, $C_0^\infty(\mathbb{R}^n)$ denote the set of infinite differentiable functions in ...

**-1**

votes

**0**answers

64 views

### Are (odd) perfect numbers divisible by a repdigit (in another base)? How about by a repunit?

[This question was cross-posted from MSE.]
A positive integer $N$ is said to be a perfect number if
$$\sigma(N) = 2N,$$
where $\sigma(x)$ is the sum of the divisors of $x$. For example, $6$ is ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

54 views

### Isomorphism Between $U_{h}(\frak{sl}_3)$ and $U({\frak sl}_3)[[h]]$

I take the following from Klimyk and Schmudgen's book Quantum Groups Page 167:
Proposition For $\frak{g}$ a complex semi-simple Lie algebra, there is an isomorphism $\phi$ of the $h$-adic algebra ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

52 views

### odd squarefree and squareful neighbors [migrated]

There are squarefree numbers $n=\prod_{i=1}^{k}p_i$ so that $n+2$ is not squarefree (e.g. $115+2=3^2.13$).
Are there infinite many such $n$?
Are there numbers n with arbitrarely many prime-factors?
...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

278 views

### Differential Geometric Aspects of Rubber Bands

What happens, if a rubber band ( of length $l_0$ that has been stretched to length $l_1:=l_0+\Delta l\;$ and brought into the shape of a closed curve in $\mathbb{R}^3$ ) is released and if the only ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

78 views

### Ring of endomorphisms as a criterion of a dimension 1 module

Let $R$ be a unital ring and $M$ be an $R$-module. I have some questions about relation between the ring $\operatorname{End}_R M$ of endomorphisms and the notion of “dimension” of a module. I’m not ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

94 views

### First passage percolation on a random geometric graph in the large connectivity limit

Let $V_\rho\subset\mathbb{R}^2$ be a point set in the plane obtained from a Poisson process of density $\rho$. The random geometric graph $G_\rho$ is obtained from $V_\rho$ by connecting points that ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

92 views

### Exactness of the relative de Rham complex restricted to subschemes

I think that the statement below about relative de Rham complex is true (am I wrong?) If it is the case, a reference would be very helpful. (I admit that the statement sounds somewhat technical and ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

27 views

### The topology of complete minimal surfaces of finite total Gaussian curvature [on hold]

Suppose that M is
a complete minimal surface with finite total curvature. If M is embedded in $\mathbf{R}^3$, then
we observe that M viewed from infinity looks like a plane passing through the ...

**1**

vote

**3**answers

293 views

### Is there a general notion of semigroup action?

The analogous result to Cayley’s theorem or Yoneda lemma in semigroup theory represents semigroups as semigroups of functions from a set to itself. This suggests that a semigroup action consists of a ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

33 views

### What are the upper bound and stability conditions for the following simple linear system?

Consider the following linear system
$$\dot{x}=\sum\limits_{i=1}^{m}{{{\alpha }_{i}}}\left( t \right)\cdot {{A}_{i}}\cdot x \quad (1)
$$
where, $x\in {{\mathbb{R}}^{n}}$ represents the state vector, ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

71 views

### Girsanov theorem with Geometric Brownian Motion

I am not a student in mathematics, but I am trying to use the following Theorem 8.6.6 (Girsanov theorem II) of Oksendal's SDE with geometric Brownian motion $S_{t}$ instead of the standard Brownian ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

287 views

### Three old questions on the Sacks forcing

I came across the two following Qs in 1970.
Find reals $a,b$ such that $a$ is Sacks over $L[b]$ and vice versa $b$ is Sacks over $L[a]$. Note that a Sacks $\times$ Sacks generic pair definitely does ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

188 views

### Categories with binary relations as objects

For the category of functions, pairs of functions making commutative diagrams are the canonical morphisms $\alpha:f\rightarrow g$. For binary relations there is an alternative, to consider the ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

60 views

### A doubt on balaji meyn's ergodic theorem paper

I have a question regarding the classic paper by Balaji and Meyn: "Multiplicative ergodicity and Large Deviations for an Irreducible Markov Chain".
Consider a recurrent apeiodic irreducible Markov ...

**2**

votes

**3**answers

242 views

### Can the Einstein Field Equations be written as Difference Equations? [on hold]

Does anyone know if the Einstein Field equations have ever been written as Difference Equations, and if so does that simplify anything or produce solutions not available in the usual Differential ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

69 views

### Helmholtz equation Poynting vector integral

The Maxwell's equation for harmonic time dependent field in vacuum is
\begin{align}
\nabla \times B + i\omega E &= 0\\
\nabla \times E - i\omega B &= 0 \\
\nabla \cdot B &= 0 \\
\nabla ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

77 views

### Notation for “partial” derivative [on hold]

Say I have a function like:
$f(x,c,y) = x+c+y$
say that $c$ is a function of $x$, $c(x)$ (i.e. $x$ and $y$ are the only truly independent variables). How would I write the notation for the ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

96 views

### minimal energy of affine Lie algebra reps

Let $\mathfrak g$ be a simple Lie algebra.
Let $\widetilde{L\mathfrak g}$ be the universal central extension of $L\mathfrak g:=\mathfrak g[t,t^{-1}]$. Let $V_\lambda$ be a positive energy ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

307 views

### Submodule embeddable in a finitely generated module

I have a terminology question. For a commutative ring $A$ (not necessarily Noetherian), $A$-modules that are isomorphic to an $A$-submodule of a finitely generated $A$-module form a fairly good class ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

226 views

### If $B\subseteq A$ are free & finite rank $R$-algebras, is $R\to A \otimes_B R$ injective?

(In this question, all rings and algebras are commutative with identity.)
I have a situation that boils down to the following data: a ring $R$, an $R$-algebra $A$ with a subalgebra $B$ such that $A$ ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

183 views

### Invariant obstructions to gluing Galois representations on elliptic curves

Let $E$ be an elliptic curve over $\overline{\mathbb F_p}$, or another separably closed field of characteristic $p$. Let $K$ be the function field of $E$, and let $K_p$ be the local field at a point.
...

**-4**

votes

**0**answers

55 views

### How do you generate orthogonal Rotations in d-dimensions? [on hold]

I know that matrices that satisfy $\mathbf{x^TMx} > 0$ for all $\mathbf{x} \in \mathbb{R}^d$ are called positive definite matrices.
It seems to me that a matrix that represents an $90^{\circ}$ ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

192 views

### Realizing algebraic curves as complete intersections

I have two related questions about smooth complete algebraic curves (over $\mathbb{C}$).
Does there exist a smooth complete algebraic curve $X$ that cannot be embedded as a complete intersection in ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

88 views

### reference on aperiodicity and cluster [on hold]

From this image:
I believe there is a message relating those clusters drawn in picture and aperiodic tiling. Does anyone have some reference on this? Thank you :)

**4**

votes

**1**answer

166 views

### Proof of the Dunford-Pettis theorem

I would like to know where to find a complete proof of the Dunford-Pettis theorem:
A sequence $(f_n)_{n\geq 0} \subset L^1$ is uniformly integrable if and only if it is relatively compact for the weak ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

105 views

### Software producing complex trees

Does anyone know any kind of graph software that could produce graphs like this for publication? Those links and crosses and numbers actually needs to be presented…. Thank you:)
One small update, ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

206 views

### How to find generators to Mordell weil groups of elliptic curves?

I am new to branch of elliptic curve and algebraic number theory .I want to find generators to Mordell Weil group of the Elliptic Curve $y^2=x^3-6321363052$ and class number of $\mathbb ...

**-1**

votes

**0**answers

54 views

### Complex conjugation of positive roots [migrated]

I have a simple question about root systems. Suppose that $G$ is a connected reductive group over the reals $\mathbb{R}$, and $T\subset G$ is a maximal torus (by this I mean that $T_{\mathbb{C}}$ is a ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

79 views

### Behavior of the integral of products of probability densities

Assume $z \in \mathbb{R}^m$ and $x \in \mathbb{R}^n$. Assume we have proper density function $P(z)$ and proper conditional density function $P(x|z)$. We give the definition
$$
T(x_1,\ldots,x_n) := ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

477 views

### Why is the section conjecture important?

As in the title, I want to know the reason for importance of the section conjecture. Of course, the statement of conjecture is important as itself, even I cannot fully grasp the soul of it. However, ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

46 views

### Homotopy addition theorem and lifting in a certain diagram

If I am confusing somewhere here, please excuse me and ask me to clarify. The proof I am having trouble with is lemma 1.19 of Goerss-Jardine, pg. 398. I have tried to isolate the troublesome ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

307 views

### Erdős cardinals and ineffable cardinals

In Cantor's Attic it is stated that an $\omega$-Erdős cardinal is a stationary limit of ineffable cardinals, and Jech book is given as a reference, but I cannot find this result in that book. I have ...