7
votes
1answer
238 views

Is there a tropical geometric proof for counting genus g curves in any n dimensional projective space?

Consider the following question: Let $X$ be a compact complex manifold and $\beta \in H_2(X, \mathbb{Z})$ a fixed homology class. Let $\mu_1, \mu_2, \ldots, \mu_k$ denote certain generic ...
0
votes
1answer
56 views

Convergence to equilibrium via gradient descent

J. B. Rosen proved that in concave games of n players (which assumes that Cartesian product of strategy profiles is convex) if the game satisfies the condition of diagonally strictly concave then ...
4
votes
2answers
306 views

Infinitesimal deformations of a fibration

Let $f:X\rightarrow Y$ be a morphism of normal projective varieties over an algebraically closed field with connected fibers. Assume that both $Y$ and the general fiber of $f$ admit a non-trivial ...
6
votes
1answer
148 views

Question on paper of Stewart and Top about ranks of elliptic curves over Q(t)

I'm reading "On Ranks of Twists of Elliptic Curves and Power-Free Values of Binary Forms" by Stewart and Top, and struggling to understand the argument on pg 962 which shows that the rank of a ...
165
votes
109answers
44k views

What are some examples of colorful language in serious mathematics papers? [closed]

The popular MO question "Famous mathematical quotes" has turned up many examples of witty, insightful, and humorous writing by mathematicians. Yet, with a few exceptions such as Weyl's "angel of ...
18
votes
6answers
1k views

Residual finiteness: why do we care?

Residually finite groups have been studied for a long time. However, I am struggling to work out why we care, or perhaps, why they continue to be of interest. Let me explain. Magnus, in his 1968 ...
2
votes
1answer
77 views

Asymptotic expansion of a sequence given by an integral with reciprocal Gamma function

I would like to know the asymptotic expansion of the sequence of positive numbers given by $$I_{n}:=-\int_{0}^{1}\frac{n^{x-1}}{\Gamma(x-1)}dx,$$ for $n\rightarrow\infty$. One can easily derive an ...
7
votes
2answers
857 views

Boundedness of solutions of a difference equation

Is there someone who can show me how I can prove this conjecture? Or at least show me how to do the first implication ? Conjecture: Assume $\alpha,\beta, \lambda \in [0,\infty)$. Then every ...
3
votes
0answers
67 views

$H^{1}(C, N_{C/X}(-m)) = 0$, for $C$ a irreducible curve on $X$ through $m$ general points

I was reading A. de Jong and J. Starr's paper "Low degree complete intersections are rationally simply connected", which can be found at http://www.math.stonybrook.edu/~jstarr/papers/nk1006g.pdf, and ...
87
votes
17answers
8k views

How does one justify funding for mathematics research?

G. H. Hardy's A Mathematician's Apology provides an answer as to why one would do mathematics, but I'm unable to find an answer as to why mathematics deserves public funding. Mathematics can be ...
0
votes
1answer
286 views

On a claim of Zagier on extending a map to cocycle

Zagier, in his paper 'Some Surprising Consequences of the Cohomology of SL$_2(\bf{ Z})$' (link, p. 6), studies the action of $\Gamma=PSL_2(\bf Z)$ on a vector space $V$, denoting the action by $v\ |\ ...
54
votes
5answers
4k views

Are there any serious investigations of whether “mathematicians do their best work when they're young”?

There is no shortage of anecdotes and conjectures on both sides of this widespread belief, but good supporting data either way is harder to find. Can anyone provide any references for serious ...
3
votes
1answer
366 views

How do I evaluate this sum :$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{\sin(n!)}{\cos(n!)}$ if it's not open problem?

I proposed this question on MSE but some comments affirmed that is unsolved problem and no answer. I would like to see what MO say about it. How do I evaluate this sum ...
60
votes
21answers
11k views

Has philosophy ever clarified mathematics?

I've recently been reading some standard textbooks on the philosophy of mathematics, and I've become quite frustrated that (surely due to my own limitations) I don't seem to be gleaning any ...
2
votes
1answer
148 views

Two questions about Whittaker functions

I am watching the video: Modeling p-adic Whittaker functions, Part I. I have two questions about Whittaker functions in the video. From 33:00 to 37:00, it is said that after changing of variables, ...
0
votes
1answer
65 views

Link between Harris recurrence and Ergodicity

Is it possible to obtain Harris recurrent Markov chain from Ergodic chain (in Birkhoff sense) under certain assumption? That is, suppose we know a Markov chain is ergodic (in Birkhoff sense); is it ...
134
votes
67answers
44k views

Awfully sophisticated proof for simple facts [closed]

It is sometimes the case that one can produce proofs of simple facts that are of disproportionate sophistication which, however, do not involve any circularity. For example, (I think) I gave an ...
3
votes
2answers
430 views

Who is currently researching topics concerning applying algebraic topology and/or differential geometry to numerical methods? [closed]

I am interested in pursuing a PhD in mathematics from a top ranked university with a faculty member researching something akin to the following description: applications of algebraic topology and/or ...
112
votes
69answers
21k views

Which math paper maximizes the ratio (importance)/(length)?

My vote would be Milnor's 7-page paper "On manifolds homeomorphic to the 7-sphere", in Vol. 64 of Annals of Math. For those who have not read it, he explicitly constructs smooth 7-manifolds which are ...
4
votes
1answer
106 views

Special case of Erdos Distance Problem in a plane

Erdos in his Distinct distance Problem in a plane conjectured that the minimal number of distinct distance determined by $n$ points in a plane be $g(n)$, $$g(n) \sim \frac{cn}{\sqrt{\log n}}$$ But ...
24
votes
2answers
1k views

Is $\sum_{k=1}^{n} \sin(k^2)$ bounded by a constant $M$?

I know $\sum_{k=1}^{n} \sin(k)$ is bounded by a constant. How about $\sum_{k=1}^{n} \sin(k^2)$?
4
votes
2answers
350 views

Maps to the group completion

Let $M$ be an H-space, topological monoid (homotopy-commutative if necessary): What does the group comletion $\Omega BM$ represent in homotopy category? Is $[X,\Omega B M]$ always equal to the ...
12
votes
2answers
778 views

Describe the desired features of a “Mathematics Colloquium”?

I'm now a member of my department's colloquium committee. Our task is to make a great colloquium series. I thought that the first step would be to come up with an appropriate definition of ...
81
votes
53answers
15k views

Counterexamples in Algebra?

This is certainly related to "What are your favorite instructional counterexamples?", but I thought I would ask a more focused question. We've all seen Counterexamples in Analysis and Counterexamples ...
4
votes
1answer
148 views

Rellich's theorem from compact resolvent

On a compact Riemannian manifold, we know that the Laplacian $\Delta$ has compact resolvent. In proving this, one typical way is to use Rellich's theorem about the compact embedding of $H^1(M)$ into ...
124
votes
36answers
22k views

Demonstrating that rigour is important

Any pure mathematician will from time to time discuss, or think about, the question of why we care about proofs, or to put the question in a more precise form, why we seem to be so much happier with ...
7
votes
1answer
178 views

Poincaré inequality for curl-integrable functions

Let $B=B(r)$ denote a ball of radius $r$ in $\Omega \subset \mathbb R^d$ and $$ u_B := \frac1{|B|}\int_B u \, dx. $$ The standard Sobolev-Poincaré inequality states that if $u \in W^{1,p}(\Omega)$, ...
3
votes
1answer
390 views

A priori estimates for a nonlinear elliptic problem singular on the boundary

Let us consider the following elliptic problem $$ \begin{cases} -\Delta u = \frac{u^p}{|x|^2} \mbox{ in } \Omega \\ u >0 \mbox{ in } \Omega \\ u = 0 \mbox{ on } \partial \Omega. \end{cases} $$ with ...
58
votes
73answers
11k views

Elementary+Short+Useful

Imagine your-self in front of a class with very good undergraduates who plan to do mathematics (professionally) in the future. You have 30 minutes after that you do not see these students again. You ...
87
votes
33answers
13k views

Most harmful heuristic?

What's the most harmful heuristic (towards proper mathematics education), you've seen taught/accidentally taught/were taught? When did handwaving inhibit proper learning?
5
votes
0answers
110 views

Furtwangler's Principal ideal theorem in number fields

Does anyone know a simple proof, using cohomological method of the fact that the verlagerung from a finite group G. to its commutator subgroup G', i.e. $$G/G'->(G')^{ab}$$ vanishes? The simplest ...
8
votes
0answers
131 views

Distribution of Mordell–Weil ranks of higher genus curves

By "nice curve", I mean a smooth, projective, geometrically integral curve over $\newcommand{\Q}{\mathbb{Q}}\newcommand{\Jac}{\operatorname{Jac}}\Q$ with at least one $\Q$-rational point. The ...
28
votes
2answers
1k views

Maps which induce the same homomorphism on homotopy and homology groups are homotopic

I am interested in the following question. Are maps which induce the same homomorphism on homotopy and homology groups homotopic? I am sure the answer is no, however I cannot imagine how to construct ...
6
votes
2answers
295 views

Asymptotic expansion of $\zeta(s \mid a,b)= \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{(n+a)^{s}(n+b)}$

I'm interested in an asymptotic expansion of the following Riemann zeta-type function $$ \begin{align} \displaystyle \zeta(s \mid a,b) := \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{(n+a)^{s}(n+b)}, \quad \Re a ...
88
votes
39answers
29k views

Most interesting mathematics mistake?

Some mistakes in mathematics made by extremely smart and famous people can eventually lead to interesting developments and theorems, e.g. Poincare's 3d sphere charaterization or the search to prove ...
1
vote
0answers
93 views

Classification of compact Shimura curves

Is there a classification that determines all isomorphism classes of compact Shimura curves at least Shimura curves in $A_g$? I did not find this in the literature and appreciate any helpful ...
151
votes
41answers
58k views

A single paper everyone should read? [closed]

Different people like different things in math, but sometimes you stand in awe before a beautiful and simple, but not universally known, result that you want to share with any of your colleagues. Do ...
11
votes
1answer
454 views

Class field towers

It is known (Golod and Shafarevich) that the class field tower of a finite extension $K$ of $\mathbb{Q}$ may be infinite. But is it always finite for $K=\mathbb{Q}[\zeta]$ where $\zeta$ is a root of ...
1
vote
1answer
295 views

Weak topology on a pre-Hilbert Space

Since there was essentially no answers on my previous question, I will ask a partial case of it, which is very easy to state. Let $\left(X,\left<\cdot,\cdot\right>\right)$ be an inner product ...
43
votes
4answers
3k views

History of “without loss of generality”

"Without loss of generality" is a standard in the mathematical lexicon, and I am writing to ask if anyone knows where the expression was popularized. (The idea has been around since antiquity, I'm ...
54
votes
54answers
9k views

Books you would like to see translated into English.

I have recently been told of a proposal to produce an English translation of Landau's Handbuch der Lehre von der Verteilung der Primzahlen, and this prompts me to ask a more general question: ...
73
votes
62answers
23k views

Which mathematicians have influenced you the most? [closed]

There are mathematicians whose creativity, insight and taste have the power of driving anyone into a world of beautiful ideas, which can inspire the desire, even the need for doing mathematics, or can ...
10
votes
0answers
220 views

Bunnity of multilinear maps

Is there a way to compute the following nullity of multilinear maps? As it is different from any nullity I know of, I call it bunnity after myself:-)) If it already has a name, it be nice to know it. ...
4
votes
0answers
282 views

How is $ \sum_{x \in X(\mathbb{F}_q)} \dots $ a generalization of cardinality?

This quarter Maxim Kontsevich is offering a course on exponential integral. There is not much in the way of notes, but is one page with mysterious comments. Let $X$ be an algebraic variety over ...
4
votes
1answer
119 views

Asymptotics of Fresnel integrals

It is known that \begin{equation*} I(p) = \sqrt { \frac {4 \mathrm{i} p} {\pi}}\int \limits _{-\infty} ^{\infty} \mathrm{e}^{- \mathrm{i} p x^2} \varphi (x) \mathrm{d}x \end{equation*} is a bounded ...
79
votes
10answers
11k views

Work of plenary speakers at ICM 2014

The next International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM) will take place in 2014 in Seoul, Korea. The present question is meant to gather brief overviews of the work of the plenary speakers for the ICM ...
48
votes
14answers
5k views

How to write popular mathematics well?

Recently, some classmates and I were lamenting the fact that our classmates in other disciplines had almost no conception of what we did, despite the large mathematics population at Waterloo. Instead ...
47
votes
28answers
4k views

Examples where it's useful to know that a mathematical object belongs to some family of objects

For an expository piece I'm writing, it would be useful to have good examples of the following phenomenon: (1) ${\cal X}$ is a parameterized family of somethings. (Varieties, schemes, manifolds, ...
80
votes
17answers
17k views

Why is differentiating mechanics and integration art?

It is often said that "Differentiation is mechanics, integration is art." We have more or less simple rules in one direction but not in the other (e.g. product rule/simple <-> integration by ...
7
votes
0answers
394 views

Evidence that Graph Isomorphism problem is not $NP$-complete

Graph isomorphism problem is one of the longest standing problems that resisted classification into $P$ or $NP$-complete problems. We have evidences that it can not be $NP$-complete. Firstly, Graph ...

15 30 50 per page