# All Questions

**80**

votes

**17**answers

11k views

### Are there examples of non-orientable manifolds in nature?

Whilst browsing through Marcel Berger's book "A Panoramic View of Riemannian Geometry" and thinking about the Klein bottle, I came across the sentence:
"The unorientable surfaces are never discussed ...

**83**

votes

**18**answers

8k views

### Occurrences of (co)homology in other disciplines and/or nature

I am curious if the setup for (co)homology theory appears outside the realm of pure mathematics. The idea of a family of groups linked by a series of arrows such that the composition of consecutive ...

**2**

votes

**6**answers

608 views

### Isotropic ternary forms

It is well known that some questions about isotropic ternary forms reduces to the study of the special case $f_0(X)=xz-y^2, X=(x,y,z)$, see page 301 of Cassel's "Rational quadratic forms" (Dover, ...

**56**

votes

**29**answers

6k views

### Can infinity shorten proofs a lot?

I've just been asked for a good example of a situation in maths where using infinity can greatly shorten an argument. The person who wants the example wants it as part of a presentation to the general ...

**18**

votes

**1**answer

485 views

### Rearrangements that never change the value of a sum

I posted this question on math.stackexchange.com and so far the only answer posted (also mentioned in the comments under the question) shows that one of my rash initial guesses about the bottom-line ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

189 views

### Snake-like continua and universal images

Among the Hausdorff compact spaces the closed interval is the simplest snake-like continuum. I'll present the definition after stating the problem.
The snake-like continua $\ S\ $ are universal ...

**22**

votes

**24**answers

7k views

### Is there an image for you that epitomizes mathematics? [closed]

Can you think of an image, whether technical or nontechnical, available for viewing online that says a lot about what you think mathematics or a particular field of mathematics is all about?
For ...

**13**

votes

**0**answers

139 views

### Complexity classes for BSS machines

Given a first-order structure $\mathcal{S}$, a Blum-Shub-Smale machine on $\mathcal{S}$ is essentially a Turing machine where
Cells on the tape can hold arbitrary elements of $\mathcal{S}$.
The ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

641 views

### semi flat connections

Let $L\to V$ be complex line bundle and $F_{t}:V\to V$, $t\in [0,1]$, be a loop of diffeomorphisms, $F_0=F_1=$ identity.
For every $x\in V$, we get a loop $\gamma_x(t)=\{F_t(x)\}$ whose class in ...

**54**

votes

**9**answers

3k views

### Taking “Zooming in on a point of a graph” seriously

In calculus classes it is sometimes said that the tangent line to a curve at a point is the line that we get by "zooming in" on that point with an infinitely powerful microscope. This explanation ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

254 views

### About a construction of Borel $\sigma$-algebra associated to a lattice

Let $(\mathcal{A}, \cup, \cap)$ a lattice (with minimum and maximum elements $\bot$ and $\top$).
Let $X\subset \mathcal{A}$ a generator set (a set of minimal cardinality that generate $\mathcal{A}$ ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

403 views

### Topological $n$-manifolds have the homotopy type of $n$-dimensional CW-complexes

I search for a chain of clean references, which lead the fact of topological manifolds of dimension $n$ having the homotopy type of a CW of dimension $n$.
Milnor's On spaces having the homotopy type ...

**120**

votes

**7**answers

9k views

### Proofs of Bott periodicity

K-theory sits in an intersection of a whole bunch of different fields, which has resulted in a huge variety of proof techniques for its basic results. For instance, here's a scattering of proofs of ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

592 views

### understanding the definition of $\infty$-operad of module objects

I'm just trying to understand the following definition:
Definition 3.3.3.8 in Higher Algebra by J. Lurie defines the $\infty$-operad of $O$-module objects, and says the following:
Let $O^\otimes$ be ...

**14**

votes

**4**answers

880 views

### Applications of homotopy purity theorem of Morel-Voevodsky

One of the most important theorems in motivic homotopy theory is the homotopy purity theorem of Morel-Voevodsky which says that the motivic Thom space of the normal bundle $\mathcal N_{Z/X}$ of a ...

**34**

votes

**8**answers

4k views

### Motivation for and history of pseudo-differential operators

Suppose you start from partial differential equations and functional analysis (on $\mathbb R^n$ and on real manifolds). Which prominent example problems lead you to work with pseudo-differential ...

**19**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### Writing “Semi-Formal” Proofs

I am very interested in proofs. I have taken an undergraduate course
called "Logic and Set Theory" which I found very interesting, but ultimately
unsatisfying. My biggest disappointment has to do ...

**37**

votes

**9**answers

7k views

### Why is an elliptic curve a group?

Consider an elliptic curve $y^2=x^3+ax+b$. It is well known that we can (in the generic case) create an addition on this curve turning it into an abelian group: The group law is characterized by the ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

144 views

### Intersection of connected components in $\mathbb{R}^n$

Let $n$ be a positive integer and let $K\subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$ be compact. Pick $x^* \in \mathbb{R}^n\setminus K$.
Let $E$ be the connected component of $\mathbb{R}^n\setminus K$ that contains ...

**28**

votes

**9**answers

7k views

### Intuition and/or visualisation of Ito integral/Ito's lemma

Riemann-sums can e.g. be very intuitively visualized by rectangles that approximate the area under the curve.
See e.g. Wikipedia:Riemann sum
The Ito integral has due to the unbounded total variation ...

**22**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### Which Kahler Manifolds are also Einstein Manifolds?

Is it known which Kahler manifolds are also Einstein manifolds? For example complex projective spaces are Einstein. Are the Grassmannians Einsein? Are all flag manifolds Einstein?

**45**

votes

**8**answers

5k views

### The inverse Galois problem, what is it good for?

Several years ago I attended a colloquium talk of an expert in Galois theory. He motivated some of his work on its relation with the inverse Galois problem. During the talk, a guy from the audience ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

254 views

### $Spin(7)$ as stabilizer of a $4$-form

According to Bryant's work on special holonomy groups, $G_2\subset SO(7)$ may be defined as the group preserving the following 3-form:
...

**9**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Groupoid actions on spaces

The action of a group $G$ on a topological space $X$ can be viewed as a functor $F: G \to \mathcal{Top}$ with $F(*)=X$. (Here I'm viewing a group as a category with one object, $ * $, and the ...

**32**

votes

**3**answers

5k views

### What is the “intuition” behind “brave new algebra”?

Y.I. Manin mentions in a recent interview
the need for a “codification of efficient new intuitive tools, such as … the “brave new algebra” of homotopy theorists”. This makes me puzzle, because I ...

**24**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### What is special about polylogarithms that leads to so many interesting identities and applications?

I have heard that Polylogarithms are very interesting things. The wikipedia page shows a lot of interesting identities. These functions are indeed supposed to have caught the attention of Ramanujan. ...

**16**

votes

**3**answers

598 views

### Looking for “large knot” examples

This question is about knots and links in the 3-sphere. I want to find an example of a "large" knot or link with some special properties. I'm looking for some fairly specific examples, but I'm also ...

**8**

votes

**4**answers

779 views

### Categorical Construction of Quotient Topology?

The product topology is the categorical product, and the disjoint union topology is the categorical coproduct. But the arrows in the characteristic diagrams for the subspace and quotient topologies ...

**11**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Bounding the absolute sum of entries of the inverse of a 0-1 matrix

I have a non-singular square 0-1 matrix and I want to bound the sum of absolute values of its inverse as a function of n (or the vector 1-norm).
Asymptotic results are also useful.
Does anyone know ...

**10**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### When is a finite cw-complex a compact topological manifold?

I think the statement of the question is pretty straightforward. Given a finite $n$-dimensional CW complex, are there necessary and sufficient conditions for determining that it is also a compact ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

791 views

### Lefschetz duality for non-compact relative manifolds

I'd like to use the formulation of Lefschetz duality stated here, but I can't seem to find a reference for this particular version of it, and it doesn't seem quite right to me.
The exact statement in ...

**9**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Poincaré dodecahedron space

The Poincaré homology sphere $X$ is constructed by identifying opposite faces of a dodecahedron by a (clockwise) twist of 36 degree.
Many books say its fundamental group $\pi_1(X)$ is the binary ...

**28**

votes

**5**answers

4k views

### when is Aut(G) abelian

let $G$ be a group such that $Aut(G)$ is abelian. is then $G$ abelian?
this is a sort of generalization of the well-known exercise, that $G$ is abelian when $Aut(G)$ is cyclic. but I have no idea. at ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

580 views

### Can one explain Tannaka-Krein duality for a finite-group to … a computer ? (How to make input for reconstruction to be finite datum?)

Consider a finite group. Tannaka-Krein duality allows to reconstruct the group from the
category of its representations and additional structures on it (tensor structure + fiber functor). Somehow ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

692 views

### The example of mechanical system that has a Mobius strip as their configuration space

Can you give examples for mechanical system that has a Mobius strip as their configuration space?

**10**

votes

**3**answers

417 views

### Voronoi cells and the dual complexes in Riemannian manifolds

I would like to use some "intuitively clear" properties of Voronoi cells in general Riemannian manifolds, but I have trouble finding references.
Let $(X,d)$ be a connected Riemannian manifold and ...

**20**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Is it possible to dissect a disk into congruent pieces, so that a neighborhood of the origin is contained within a single piece?

Problem: is it possible to dissect the interior of a circle into a finite number of congruent pieces (mirror images are fine) such that some neighbourhood of the origin is contained in just one of ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

300 views

### Does there exist an uncountable separable metric space $X$ such that every subset of $X$ is a Borel set?

Is it consistent with ZFC that there exists an uncountable separable metric space $X$ such that every subset of $X$ is a Borel set?
If the continuum hypothesis holds, or more generally ...

**36**

votes

**4**answers

6k views

### What is Chern-Simons theory?

What is Chern-Simons theory? I have read the wikipedia entry, but it's pretty physics-y and I wasn't really able to get any sense for what Chern-Simons theory really is in terms of mathematics.
...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

327 views

### Independence results about independence results

Define $Ind(ZFC,\sigma)$ to be the assertion "The sentence $\sigma$ is independent from ZFC".
I am looking for theorems in the form $Ind(ZFC, Ind (ZFC,\sigma))$.
Are there such theorems in set ...

**20**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Are semi-direct products categorical limits?

Products, are very elementary forms of categorical limits. My question is whether in the category of groups, semi-direct products are categorical limits.
As was pointed in:
...

**17**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Intermediate value theorem on computable reals

Wikipedia says that the intermediate value theorem “depends on (and is actually equivalent to) the completeness of the real numbers.” It then offers a simple counterexample to the ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

387 views

### Solutions of system of diophantine equations

The system of diophantine equations $$\{x^2-y^2+z^2-u^2+q^2-t^2=0,\,xy+zt-uq=0 \}$$ is given. Do the formulas
$$x:=(j(p^2-4ps+3s^2)-(p-s)(3p^2-4ps+s^2))k^2+2(j-2(p-s))(p-s)kn+(j-p+s)n^2, $$
...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

402 views

### Does the internal axiom of choice imply Lagrange's theorem?

In a topos ${\mathcal{A}}$, given a group object $G$ and a subgroup $H$, the object $H\backslash G$ of right cosets is the coequalizer of two maps $G\times H\rightrightarrows G$, namely the group ...

**16**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### G-bundles in classical mechanics

The paper Geometry of the Prytz Planimeter described a mechanical instrument whose configuration space is an $S^1$-bundle with an $SU(1,1)$ action. That paper goes on to study the holonomies of ...

**6**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### union of infinitely many prime ideals

Consider a noetherian ring $R$ and a collection $m_i$, $i\in I$ of maximal ideals of $R$. Let $P$ be a prime ideal of $R$. It is well-known that if the collection is finite (i.e. the index set $I$ is ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

360 views

### A palindromic polynomial and its derivative have the same number of zeros outside the unit circle. Reference?

I am trying to find the original reference for a lemma attributed to Cohn (as in Schur-Cohn method):
Let $A(z)$ be a palindromic or skew-palindromic polynomial, and denote its derivative by ...

**2**

votes

**3**answers

245 views

### Specific Diophantine Equation Appearing in Faa Di Bruno Formula

In a Faa Di Bruno Formula there is an equation:
$m_1$+2*$m_2$+3*$m_3$+...n*$m_n$=n
Is there any general solution for this equation.
For example for
$m_1$+$m_2$+$m_3$+...+$m_n$=n, there is a ...

**35**

votes

**3**answers

5k views

### Spaces with same homotopy and homology groups that are not homotopy equivalent?

A common caution about Whitehead's theorem is that you need the map between the spaces; it's easy to give examples of spaces with isomorphic homotopy groups that are not homotopy equivalent. (See Are ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

878 views

### Euler Characteristic of a Variety

Let $Y$ be a "nice" scheme. I am thinking projective varieties over an algebraically closed field, for now, but I am open to more general results.
In terms of singular homology ...