# All Questions

**9**

votes

**0**answers

259 views

+200

### Dimensions of dual vector spaces

Let $V_F$ be an infinite dimensional right $F$-vector space (over a field $F$, or even over a division ring). The dual space $V^{\ast}={\rm Hom}(V,F)$ is naturally a left $F$-vector space (coming ...

**-1**

votes

**0**answers

209 views

### Is there any significance in Heegner numbers (or class number 1) representation symmetry?

$\mathrm{A003173}(n) = 1+((1 + \sqrt{3})^{n-1} - (1 - \sqrt{3})^{n-1})/(2\sqrt{3})$
for n = 1,2,3,4.
$\mathrm{A003173}(n) = 19+24((1 + \sqrt{3})^{n-6} - (1 - \sqrt{3})^{n-6)})/(2\sqrt{3})$
for n = ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

14 views

### Potential theory solution for Variable coefficient Poisson with Dirichlet Boundary conditions

I am looking for a potential theory representation for the following equation in $2$D:
$$\vec{\nabla} \cdot \left(a(x) \vec{\nabla}u\right) = 0 \,\, \forall x \in \Omega \,\, (\spadesuit)$$
$$u = g ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

45 views

### Necessary condition for decouplings for surfaces in $\mathbb{R}^4$

I'm currently studying the paper Decouplings for surfaces in $\mathbb{R}^4$ written by Bourgain and Demeter. This paper is available in here.
As an example of nondegenerate $2$-dimensional surfaces ...

**19**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Why are quantum groups so called?

I've recently been to a seminar on quantum matrices. In particular the speaker introduced these objects as the coordinate ring of $2$ by $2$ matrices modulo some odd looking relations (see start of ...

**-2**

votes

**0**answers

30 views

### Correct definition of submodularity

I am currently looking at a paper whose submodularity definition is different from whatever I thought I knew. In this paper, the authors consider a function $\Pi_2(q;a^r)$, where $q$ is composed of ...

**-1**

votes

**0**answers

29 views

### Norm of a linear operator in a tight frame

My question certainly has a simple answer, but I am not sure about how to formalize my thoughts; to put it simply, I am looking for the norm of a linear operator that is a composition of 2 linear ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

556 views

### What is the mathematical significance of the IHES logo?

The logo of the IHES
http://www.ihes.fr/jsp/site/Portal.jsp
(upper left) is lovely, but what exactly does represent mathematically?
(There's a slightly larger version at
...

**9**

votes

**3**answers

237 views

### Construct discrete series of SL(2,R) as kernel of twisted Dirac operators

I’m studying the paper of (Baum-Connes-Higson, ex 4.25), and I would like to give an explicit computation for the Connes-Kasparov conjecture for SL(2,R).
The idea is that each non-trivial ...

**-1**

votes

**0**answers

47 views

### QR(pivot) vs SVD for low rank approximation

Define the low rank problem as finding the approximation of matrix $A$, $B$: where we want to minimize rank($B$), and we want the $2$-norm of the residue of $A-B$ to be less than $\epsilon$.
Could ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

73 views

### Transformations whose product with a given rotation are ergodic

I am interested in the ergodic (invertible) transformations $T$ such that $T\times R_\theta$ is ergodic where $R_\theta$ is the rotation on $S^1$ with a given irrational angle $\theta$ (not all ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

25 views

### Connection between maximal regularity and optimal control [on hold]

I would like to know the connection between maximal regularity and optimal control of some equations. I do not find any related topic on internet. Anyone can help me for this question ?

**4**

votes

**3**answers

321 views

### When can the “homotopy exact sequence” of etale fundamental groups for a smooth curve fail to be exact?

Suppose you have a smooth proper curve $f : \overline{X}\rightarrow S$ over an arbitrary locally noetherian scheme $S$ with a section $e : S\rightarrow \overline{X}$. Let $X := \overline{X} - e(S)$. ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

17 views

### Bounding the error of the optimal solution from an approximated objective

Let $f$ be a smooth convex function defined in a bounded region $X$ and its Hessian is bounded $m I \le |\frac{\partial^2 f(x)}{\partial x^2}| \le M I$ for some $M>m>0$. Let $x^*=argmin_{x\in X} ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

12 views

### Approximation preserving reductions [on hold]

I've seen in the following document
https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00958028/document
A definition of the $\leq_{S}$ reduction defined specifically for minimisation problems at the bottom of ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

82 views

### Laplace-Beltrami of the Gauss map

Let $M$ be a surface in $\mathbb{R}^3$ given by a regular chart, say $X:M \longrightarrow \mathbb{R}^3$, with its first fundamental form $g$, Gauss map $N$, Gaussian curvature $K$ and mean curvature ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

86 views

### Heuristics for counting degrees of freedom

I have recently learned about the representation theorem for isotropic,
linear operators, which says the following:
Defintion:
Let $M_n$ be the vector space of $n \times n$ real matrices. We say a ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

140 views

### Set theory and forcing from the point of view of a formal system $G^+$ of Gentzen type

There are four papers by Vladimir Alfeevich Kuznetsov, which discuss the above titled topic:
(1) Some problems in set theory from the standpoint of a formal system G+ of Gentzen type. (Russian) Akad. ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

34 views

### Bounds on $\sum_{j=1}^m\frac{\pi^j}{\Gamma(j)(x^2+(j+1/4)^2)}$

During our search of real rooted entire function approximations to Riemann $\Xi$ function, we need to calculate the upper and lower bounds of
$$f_m(x):=\sum_{j=1}^m ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

238 views

### A question about generating set of groups and epimorphism

Do there exist non-isomorphic finitely generated groups, $G$ and $H$, along with epimorphisms $\phi:G\rightarrow H$ and $\psi:H\rightarrow G$, such that every generating set of these groups is an ...

**180**

votes

**109**answers

47k views

### What are some examples of colorful language in serious mathematics papers? [closed]

The popular MO question "Famous mathematical quotes" has turned
up many examples of witty, insightful, and humorous writing by
mathematicians. Yet, with a few exceptions such as Weyl's "angel of
...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

41 views

### Inapproximability of Combinatorial Optimization Problems

I've been reading the "Inapproximability of Combinatorial Optimization Problems" by Luca Trevisan (see: link). On pages 3-4 it mentions that a polynomial time algorithm for 3SAT would exist if there ...

**-1**

votes

**0**answers

12 views

### affecting the final result of function depending on external factor [on hold]

Suppose I have a function f(x) = x / (x+y) whose range is in the interval [0,1] and there is an external factor say a, such that a is in the interval [0,1], moreover, a predefined threshold t:
when ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

13 views

### How can I filter the effects of a variable from a correlation matrix?

I have a correlation matrix (it contains 500 columns and 500 rows) and I would like to make an other correlation matrix in which one variable (and its influences) is filtered from the initial matrix. ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

24 views

### Minimum weight odd cycle with certain edge pairs forbidden

Given a weighted graph $G=(V,E)$ and several disjoint sets $S_1, \dots, S_t
\subset E$ of edges, is there a polynomial-time algorithm to find a minimum
weight odd cycle which does not contain more ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

11 views

### Maximization of the difference of a monotone submodular function and a linear function with a cardinality constraint

Maximizing a monotone submodular function with a cardinality constraint can be solved by using a simple greedy heuristic. However, if the submodular function is non-monotone, the greedy heuristic can ...

**-1**

votes

**0**answers

44 views

### Monoidal product over database table entries

We have seen from Spivak that database schemas are categories, having tables as objects and relationships as morphisms. I am wondering if we can have a monoidal product over objects, that is, over ...

**15**

votes

**0**answers

323 views

### History of the functor of points

Until now, I thought the functor of points approach was introduced by Grothendieck at the 1973 Buffalo seminar.
However, in this note by Lawvere the author writes:
"I myself had learned the ...

**5**

votes

**4**answers

370 views

### How to get a good upper bound on $\sum_{1 \lt d, d|n} \phi(d)/\log d$?

I'm actually interested in a slightly smaller quantity, but I'm willing to accept the following simplification, especially if there are small error terms.
Let's start with $ n \gt 1$, Euler's totient ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

206 views

### Multiplicative Structure of the Atiyah-Hirzebruch/Leray-Serre spectral sequence

This is related to this question (edit: now answered, see below). Is there a nice explanation of the multiplicative structure on the higher pages of that spectral sequence? I want to assume that $h$ ...

**116**

votes

**94**answers

64k views

### Famous mathematical quotes [closed]

Some famous quotes often give interesting insights into the vision of mathematics that certain mathematicians have. Which ones are you particularly fond of?
Standard community wiki rules apply: one ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

228 views

### On compact, orientable 3-manifolds with non-empty boundary

I recall my Professor having stated something along the lines of the following, but I am not quite certain about the precise statement she gave:
Let $M$ be a compact, orientable 3 manifold with ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

46 views

### Locally nilpotent derivations on noncommutative rings

I am interested on LNDs on noncommutative rings, specially noncommutative polynomial rings.
I have found only some stuff related to the Weyl algebras and Lie algebras.
Anyone can tell me a ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

21 views

### Vanishing ideal of a finite set of points does not have expected amount of cones in Gröbner fan

I am reading the paper A Gröbner fan method for biochemical network modeling.
In Chapter 4.3 (i.stack.imgur.com/h2O8B.png) they calculate the vanishing ideal of some tuples (input points of Series ...

**15**

votes

**3**answers

496 views

### Are there open problems for primes which are known for probable primes?

Define "probable prime" (PP) to be natural $n>1$ satisfying $2^{n-1} \equiv 1 \pmod{n}$ or $n=2$.
Probable primes are the union of the primes and base two pseudoprimes.
This definition is much ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

120 views

### Is the (super-)symmetric power of the exterior algebra free?

Let $V$ be a vector space over $k$ of dimension $m$. (I'm only interested in the case $k=\mathbb{Q}$.) Let $R:=\Lambda^*V$ be the exterior algebra. It carries the structure of a supercommutative ring: ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

40 views

### Regularity result for Neumann problem

I have two questions.
On Elliptic regularity for the Neumann problem, the OP asked whether the test function $v$ must be of mean value zero. However, isn't it true that we only need $f$ is of mean ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

51 views

### Term for meshes bounding a non-degenerate tetrahedral mesh in 3D?

Is there a term in the literature referring to triangle meshes that are the closed boundary of some non-self-intersecting, non-degenerate tetrahedral mesh embedded in $R^3$?
This class of triangle ...

**91**

votes

**17**answers

9k views

### How does one justify funding for mathematics research?

G. H. Hardy's A Mathematician's Apology provides an answer as to why one would do mathematics, but I'm unable to find an answer as to why mathematics deserves public funding. Mathematics can be ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

486 views

### Every finitely generated flat module over a ring with finitely many minimal primes is projective

Over a commutative ring $R$, a finite type locally free (weak sense) module for which the rank function is locally constant is projective.
If we notice that for each minimal prime $p$ of the ring, ...

**20**

votes

**1**answer

650 views

### Covering of a surface of a cube $n\times n \times n$ by pieces of paper $1\times 6$

When I was too young one of my problems was in the list of problems of All-Russian Olympiad. The problem is the following:
Problem. We have a surface of a cube $n\times n \times n$ such that each ...

**57**

votes

**41**answers

9k views

### Examples of theorems with proofs that have dramatically improved over time

I am looking for examples of theorems that may have originally had a clunky, or rather technical, or in some way non-illuminating proof, but that eventually came to have a proof that people consider ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

46 views

### Is spectral properties a general term for condition number?

I am reading an article about solving large sparse linear systems, in this paper it’s said that most of the iterative methods to solve $Ax = b$ are very much influenced by the spectral properties of ...

**167**

votes

**41**answers

62k views

### A single paper everyone should read? [closed]

Different people like different things in math, but sometimes you stand in awe before a beautiful and simple, but not universally known, result that you want to share with any of your colleagues.
Do ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

221 views

### “Database” of simplicial polytopes/spheres

Reading through various papers on polytopes I have come across really interesting examples of simplical polytopes and non-shellable (or non-PL) simplicial spheres but sometimes it is hard to keep ...

**-1**

votes

**0**answers

10 views

### Binary Nonlinear Optimization Problem Transform to Continuous Form

Hi I have a mixed binary NLP problem
\begin{equation}
min\: f(x)
\end{equation}
s.t.
$$
g_i(x)<=0
$$
$$
h_j(x)=0
$$
$$
x_k=1\text{ or }0
$$
I know the optimal of f(x) is approximately 0, so can I ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

175 views

### How are the real-space RG transformations defined?

I'm reading Shang-keng Ma's book Modern theory of critical phenomena, and I'm a bit confused as to how the real-space RG transformations are defined. Ma basically says that these transformations are ...

**95**

votes

**43**answers

18k views

### Examples of eventual counterexamples

Define an "eventual counterexample" to be
$P(a) = T $ for $a < n$
$P(n) = F$
$n$ is sufficiently large for $P(n) = T\ \ \forall n \in \mathbb{N}$ to be a 'reasonable' conjecture to make.
where ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

120 views

### A canonical representative in Morita equivalence class

Let $A$ be a finite dimensional algebra over an algebraically closed field $K$.
If $A$ is semisimple, then $A$ is Morita equivalence with a commutative algebra, that is $A \backsim K^n$ where $n$ is ...

**0**

votes

**2**answers

70 views

### Index Reduction of Differential Algebraic Equations by Hand

I dont really understand how to reduce the index of DAEs ?
Does Reducing the index of DAE result in an ODE ?
How would I reduce the index of the DAE by Hand ?
Say I have :
$$
\begin{matrix}
...