51
votes
39answers
6k views

Important formulas in Combinatorics

Motivation: The poster for the conference celebrating Noga Alon's 60th birthday, fifteen formulas describing some of Alon's work are presented. (See this post, for the poster, and cash prizes offered ...
-2
votes
0answers
98 views

Flower Arrangements [on hold]

We have a $n\times m$ grid with $k$ flowers (not necessarily distinct). The grid is assumed to have horizontal and vertical symmetry. What is the value of $A(n,m,k)$, where $A(n,m,k)$ is the number of ...
93
votes
16answers
22k views

Mathematical software wish list

Like many other mathematicians I use mathematical software like SAGE, GAP, Polymake, and of course $\LaTeX$ extensively. When I chat with colleagues about such software tools, very often someone has ...
6
votes
0answers
78 views

A “universally non Hypercomplete” $\infty$-topos?

My question is : Is there a classifying $\infty$-topos for $\infty$-connected objects ? Does this $\infty$-topos has a nice description (as an $\infty$-category ) ? What I mean by $\infty$-connected ...
11
votes
1answer
174 views

Which sequential colimits commute with pullbacks in the category of topological spaces?

This question was asked on math.stackexchange.com without a reaction. Given diagrams of topological spaces $$X_0\rightarrow X_1\rightarrow\ldots$$ $$Y_0\rightarrow Y_1\rightarrow\ldots$$ ...
2
votes
1answer
125 views

Theorems that tell if an explicit analytical solution is possible for nonlinear PDEs

Are there any theorems that tell if a particular nonlinear PDE can be solved explicitly by analytical methods? Where analytical methods I refer to methods such as power series or any methods that use ...
0
votes
0answers
61 views

When do block sequences yield disjoint subspaces?

Let $X$ be a Banach space having a (unconditional, normalized) Schauder basis $(e_n)_n$. Suppose that $Y$ and $Z$ are (closed) block subspaces of $X$ having normalized block bases (with respect to ...
1
vote
1answer
90 views

Number of binary sequences in which the number of $(1, 1)$ and $(0, 0)$ is prespecified

Consider a binary sequence $\mathbf{a}_n$ consisting of 1s and 0s. Let us denote by $f(\mathbf{a}_n)$ the number of $(1, 1)$ and $(0, 0)$ in $\mathbf{a}_n$; I am not sure whether there is a formal ...
0
votes
0answers
70 views

constructing koenigs function

My question is rather simple and I hope someone has some sort of an answer. I am looking for a simple yes or no answer, and a reference if anyone has one. We have a holomorphic function $f$ defined ...
4
votes
0answers
230 views

Motivic fundamental group of the moduli space of curves?

Suppose I have a smooth projective family of varieties of varieties over $\mathcal M_g$ - i.e. a universal functor, commuting with deformations, from curves to smooth projective varieties. Can I ...
8
votes
1answer
150 views

Why do the model structures on dg-algebras and on dg-categories are not compatible?

First we talk about dg-algebras. According to this n-lab page, we write $dgAlg$ for the category of cochain dg-algebras in non-negative degree over a field $k$ of characteristic $0$. Write ...
4
votes
2answers
184 views

degeneration of reductive group

If $A$ is a mixed characteristic complete DVR (I'm only actually interested in $\mathbf{Z}_p$) and $G/A$ is a closed subgroup scheme of $GL(n)$ whose generic fibre is connected reductive and split, is ...
1
vote
0answers
52 views

Calculations about the normal bundle of embedding of symmetric products

Suppose $C^{(d)}$ is the $d$-th symmetric product of a curve, embed it in $C^{(d+s)}$ by $E\to E+sP_0$ where $P_0$ is a fixed point. The normal bundle of this embedding is denoted by $N$. Suppose ...
8
votes
1answer
112 views

Detecting positive endomaps of the formal reals

A locale is a sort of "formal topological space", which "may not have enough points to separate its open sets". For instance, there is a "locale of all real numbers that are both rational and ...
2
votes
1answer
89 views

Convergence of Fixed-Point Iteration of a dependent map

Suppose that we have two mappings $T_1(\cdot): Y \mapsto Y$ and $T_2(\cdot,\cdot) : X \times Y \mapsto X$ where both $X$ and $Y$ are compact and convex subsets of the same Euclidean space. Furthermore ...
4
votes
1answer
47 views

Self-concordant function for dual cone

I wonder if there is any existing result for self-concordant function in the literature about the following question. Suppose $f$ is a self-concordant barrier function of a proper cone $K$ (pointed, ...
70
votes
52answers
22k views

Which popular games are the most mathematical?

I consider a game to be mathematical if there is interesting mathematics (to a mathematician) involved in the game's structure, optimal strategies, practical strategies, analysis of the game ...
64
votes
16answers
6k views

What makes four dimensions special?

Do you know properties which distinguish four-dimensional spaces among the others? What makes four-dimensional topological manifolds special? What makes four-dimensional differentiable manifolds ...
28
votes
0answers
848 views

Grothendieck's Period Conjecture and the missing p-adic Hodge Theories

Singular cohomology and algebraic de Rham cohomology are both functors from the category of smooth projective algebraic varieties over $\mathbb Q$ to $\mathbb Q$-vectors spaces. They come with the ...
2
votes
1answer
294 views

Preservation of $\diamondsuit$ by ccc forcings of size $\leq \omega_1$ [closed]

This is essentially exercise H8 (p.248) of Kunen's Set Theory: An Introduction to Independence Proofs (old edition), or exercise IV.7.58 (p.307) of Kunen's Set Theory (new edition). Suppose $P$ is ...
62
votes
16answers
5k views

When are two proofs of the same theorem really different proofs

Many well-known theorems have lots of "different" proofs. Often new proofs of a theorem arise surprisingly from other branches of mathematics than the theorem itself. When are two proofs really the ...
54
votes
12answers
4k views

Counterexamples in PDE

Let us compile a list of counterexamples in PDE, similar in spirit to the books Counterexamples in topology and Counterexamples in analysis. Eventually I plan to type up the examples with their ...
29
votes
8answers
4k views

Motivation for and history of pseudo-differential operators

Suppose you start from partial differential equations and functional analysis (on $\mathbb R^n$ and on real manifolds). Which prominent example problems lead you to work with pseudo-differential ...
4
votes
0answers
104 views

$A_\infty$ structure on sum of twists of structure sheaf

Fix $n$ and let $P^n$ be projective $n$-space. Let $S = k[x_0, \dots, x_n]$. Set $A^0 = \bigoplus_{d \ge 0} H^0(P^n, \mathcal{O}(d))$ and $A^n = \bigoplus_{d < -n} H^n(P^n, \mathcal{O}(d))$. I ...
345
votes
2answers
26k views

Polynomial bijection from $\mathbb Q\times\mathbb Q$ to $\mathbb Q$?

Is there any polynomial $f(x,y)\in{\mathbb Q}[x,y]{}\ $ such that $f:\mathbb{Q}\times\mathbb{Q} \rightarrow\mathbb{Q}$ is a bijection?
7
votes
2answers
320 views

Generalized Tannakian Duality?

By the classical theory of Tannakian duality we know that every $k$-linear rigid abelian tensor category ($k$ a field) which has a fibre functor to $\mathrm{Vec}_k$ (finite dim. vector spaces over ...
2
votes
1answer
379 views

Non-trivial topological line bundles over cartesian product of manifolds not coming from a pullback

Let $X$ and $Y$ be connected smooth manifolds. Let $L$ be a topological real line bundle over $X\times Y$. Then we know that the isomorphism class of such a line bundle is determined by its first ...
18
votes
8answers
6k views

Applications for p-Sylow subgroups theorem

I have searched for such a question and didn't find it. I recently had a presentation in which I introduced $p$-Sylow subgroups and proved Sylow's theorems. I will have another one soon, concerning ...
22
votes
5answers
1k views

Errata database?

Some authors do a really great job by collecting errors and comments to their books and putting a list on their websites. I wonder if there is some (perhaps wiki-style) website where errata are ...
13
votes
6answers
48k views

Fourier vs Laplace transforms

In solving a linear system, when would I use a Fourier transform versus a Laplace transform? I am not a mathematician, so the little intuition I have tells me that it could be related to the boundary ...
19
votes
7answers
3k views

Why is Lie's Third Theorem difficult?

Recall the following classical theorem of Cartan (!): Theorem (Lie III): Any finite-dimensional Lie algebra over $\mathbb R$ is the Lie algebra of some analytic Lie group. Similarly, one can propose ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the trace in the Chern-Simons action?

Warning: This is a very stupid question regarding a basic misunderstanding that I have. I realize that the question is very elementary, but I guess asking stupid questions is better than remaining ...
34
votes
1answer
2k views

Is the radical of an irreducible ideal irreducible?

I originally posted this to math.stackexchange.com here. I got a partial answer, but I now suspect that the complete answer is much harder than I thought, so I'm posting it here. Fix a commutative ...
21
votes
4answers
3k views

Tannakian Formalism

The Tannakian formalism says you can recover a complex algebraic group from its category of finite dimensional representations, the tensor structure, and the forgetful functor to Vect. Intuitively, ...
10
votes
0answers
523 views

What are the limits of the Erdős-Rankin method for covering intervals by arithmetic progressions?

To construct gaps between primes which are marginally larger than average, Erdős and Rankin covered an interval $[1,y]$ with arithmetic progressions with prime differences. A nice short exposition is ...
14
votes
1answer
1k views

Crystalline cohomology via the syntomic site

Hello, Let $k$ be a field of characteristic $p > 0$, and let $Y$ be a $k$-scheme. Consider the sites $Y_{syn}$ and $(Y/W_n)_{cris}$ (where $W_n$ are the Witt vectors of $k$ of length $n$), of $Y$ ...
13
votes
1answer
1k views

Is there a refinement of the Hochschild-Kostant-Rosenberg theorem for cohomology?

The HKR theorem for cohomology in characteristic zero says that if $R$ is a regular, commutative $k$ algebra ($char(k) = 0$) then a certain map $\bigwedge^* Der(R) \to CH^*(R,R)$ (where $\wedge^* ...
4
votes
2answers
613 views

Deformations of sheaves via automorphisms. How to express $Ext^1$?

Let $X$ be a complex manifold (for example $\mathbb CP^n$), let $v$ be a holomorphic vector field on $X$, and let $F$ be a coherent sheaf (for example a vector bundle or a structure sheaf of a point). ...
0
votes
0answers
146 views

arithmetic progressions with few primes

Is this true ? Let $\beta_0$ be a positive number. One may find $\beta>\beta_0$, $0<\lambda<1$, and infinitely many $q>1$ so that there exists an arithmetic progression of step $q$, $a_1, ...
0
votes
1answer
97 views

quasi-projective and separated as topological properties

Let $X$ be a non-reduced noetherian scheme over $\mathbb{Z}$ or $\mathbb{C}$. Assume that $X^{red}$ is quasi-projective and separated, does the same hold for $X$ ? (By the way, projective implies a ...
8
votes
0answers
140 views

Modular factorization of Dedekind zeta functions

It is well known that for abelian number fields, the factorization of its Dedekind zeta function goes like this: $$\zeta_K=\zeta\prod_\chi L(s,\chi)$$ with the Dirichlet characters distinct and ...
8
votes
3answers
742 views

Catalan numbers as sums of squares of numbers in the rows of the Catalan triangle - is there a combinatorial explanation?

This question arose from an answer to my recent question How many traces are there on Temperley-Lieb, Fuss-Catalan, Iwahori-Hecke, Birman-Wenzl-Murakami-Kauffman, ... algebras? What I need from that ...
5
votes
1answer
96 views

Asymptotics of a Bivariate Generating Function

I have the following generating function, $$G(x,y)=\sum_{n,k \geq 0}a(n,k)x^ny^k = \frac{(y^2-y)x+1}{(y-y^3)x^2-(y+1)x+1}$$ and I am interested in obtaining an asymptotic for the sequence $a(n,k)$ ...
1
vote
1answer
366 views

Three questions about modular forms frequently asked to me [closed]

I have three questions related to the theory of modular forms and it was frequently asked to me by my collegues and even my invited teacher in our seminars of the number theory at the faculty of ...
3
votes
0answers
85 views

If $C$ has all geometric realizations of simplicial objects, what other colimits does it have?

Let $C$ be an $\infty$-category. Suppose that every diagram $\Delta^{\mathit{op}} \to C$ has a colimit. Is there any characterization of small categories $I$ such that every diagram $I \to C$ has a ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

roots in a root system which have nonzero coefficients with respect to each simple root

If we consider crystallographic root systems, then for each $k$ such that $n \leq k \leq d-1$ where $d$ is the Coxeter number, it seems to be the case that there is exactly one root of height $k$ with ...
2
votes
1answer
196 views

Counting function for prime pair with bounded gaps between them [duplicate]

I'll start by noting that I am not at all an expert on number theory. However I do use it in a proof and would like your assistance if possible. Yitang Zhang breakthrough result established that ...
17
votes
1answer
508 views

Minimum value of $|p(1)|^2+|p(2)|^2 +…+ |p(n+3)|^2$ over all monic polynomials $p$

Let $n$ be a positive integer. Determine the smallest possible value of $|p(1)|^2+|p(2)|^2 +...+ |p(n+3)|^2$ over all monic polynomials $p$ of degree $n$. This question was proposed (problem ...
6
votes
1answer
68 views

Analysis of the Laplacian of a random bipartite graph

My analysis of an engineering problem reduced to analysis of the Laplacian of a (random) bipartite graph. There are a few particular questions I am interested in, but not sure which direction to take ...
2
votes
1answer
118 views

Counting elements with certain word length in abelian groups

Given a (finite) abelian group $G = \langle S \mid R \rangle$, has the problem of counting the number of elements which can be expressed as a word (in $S$) of length $\leq k$ been studied? If so, ...

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