-2
votes
0answers
12 views

Induction Proof: 3^n > n^4

$3^n > n^4$ when $n>8$ and $n \in \mathbb{N}$ Attempt Solution: Base Case: $n=8, 3^n > n^4$, which is $ 3^8=6561 > 8^4=4096$ Induction hypothesis: $3^n \geq n^4, n \in \mathbb{N}, n ...
-2
votes
0answers
8 views

Discrete Math proof problem, unsure where to start

Let { m1, m2, ....., mk } be pairwise relatively prime positive integers. Prove that there cannot be more than one solution to the system of congruence's $$ \langle x ≡ ai (mod mi) \rangle $$ in ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

connectedness of semi algebraic sets

We know the inequalities $x_ix_j >\theta_{ij}$ or $x_ix_j<\theta_{ij}$ for some $\theta_{ij}$>0, some $i,j\in\{1,\cdots,n\}$, $i\neq j$ defines the easiest semi algebraic set in $R^n_{\geq 0}$, ...
13
votes
1answer
267 views

Who proved that $l^1$ and $L^1[0,1]$ are not isomorphic?

$l^1$ has the Schur property (every weakly convergent sequence is norm convergent) and $L^1[0,1]$ does not, so the two spaces cannot be isomorphic. Is this folklore, or is it credited to someone? ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

On Schrijver Lower bound

Shrijver lower bound gives number of perfect matchings on a $k$-regular bipartite graphs as $\Big(\frac{(k-1)^{k-1}}{k^{k-2}}\Big)^n$. What is the corresponding lower bound for min-degree $k$ and ...
1
vote
1answer
59 views

Does $\omega_C\simeq N_{C/S}$ always happen on Enriques surfaces?

Let $S$ be an Enriques surface and $C\subset S$ a smooth irreducible curve of genus $g$. Consider the condition $$\omega_C\simeq N_{C/S}$$ For example, when $g=1$ then $\omega_C=\mathcal{O}_C$ and ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Moving a result from the unconditional to the conditional

I'm generally wary when lifting a result stated unconditionally to a situation where I'm conditioning on a random variable. Consider the following classical result in weak convergence: Theorem. Let ...
2
votes
0answers
63 views

Why do we care about simplicity of the spectrum in Oseledets' theorem?

Oseledets' theorem is a fundamental result in Ergodic theory (see for example here, or Chapter 4 of Lectures on Lyapunov Exponents by Marcelo Viana). The simplicity of the spectrum has been studied ...
-3
votes
0answers
54 views

Rational power Napier number [on hold]

Help me with the following question. Prove that $2^e$ irrational, where $e$ is the Napier number.
4
votes
1answer
372 views

Langlands program vs Shimura-Taniyama-Weil conjecture

Edward Frenkl said that "we can see Langlands program as a generalization of Shimura-Taniyama-Weil conjecture in the case of elliptic curves " I hope I'm not distorting his phrase, can someone ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Algebraic $K_1$ group for a $C^*$-algebra

Let $A$ be a $C^*$-algebra: then one defines topological $K_1$ group as $GL_{\infty}(A^+)/\Big(GL_{\infty}(A^+)\Big)_0$ where $A^+$ denotes $A$ with the unit adjointed (even if $A$ already had a unit: ...
-6
votes
0answers
115 views

Great Mathematicians Without a PhD [on hold]

While listing to some music, I was wondering which great mathematicians did not have or do not have a PhD. This is a very subjective question, since "great" is not formally defined. But to describe it ...
-5
votes
0answers
28 views

Proof about a measure zero set [on hold]

Let $A$ be a Lebesgue measurable subset of $\Bbb R$. Show that there exists a Borel measurable subset $B$ of $\Bbb R$ such that $A\subseteq B$ and such that $l^*(B\setminus A)=0$. Also, show that ...
-8
votes
0answers
102 views

I have no experience with math research [on hold]

Consider the polynomial expansion for $\frac {\sin x}{x} = p(x)= 1-\frac {x^2}{3!}+\frac {x^4}{5!}–\frac {x^6}{7!} + \cdots$ $p(x) = \prod(x-a_i)$ for $i = 1 →∞$ where the $a_i$ are the roots of ...
0
votes
2answers
134 views

How to write $\mathbb{C}[G/U_-]=\oplus_{\lambda} V_{\lambda}$ explicitly?

Let $G=GL_n$ and $U_-$ the set of all lower unipotent triangular matrices. Then by Gauss Decomposition, we have $G = U_-B$, where $B$ is the set of all upper triangular matrices. The group $U_-$ acts ...
-1
votes
1answer
45 views

Finding functional equations that a given function satisfies

Suppose we're given a function, for example a function $f:\mathbb{C}\rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ such that $f(x)=ax+b $ with $a,b \in \mathbb{C} $. I would like to know which functional equations are ...
-7
votes
0answers
51 views

What are singular value of $A$? [on hold]

Let $ A = \left( {\begin{array}{*{20}{c}} {x + (\frac{3}{4} + y)i}&1&1\\ 0&{(x - \frac{5}{4}) + iy}&1\\ 0&0&{(x + \frac{3}{4}) + iy} \end{array}} \right)$, and $x,y\in ...
-7
votes
0answers
59 views

I've read on the internet that 43 is congruent to 8 modulo 5+3w, can you explain? [on hold]

Initially, I wanted to determine whether 19 is a cube modulo 43. Reading online, I've come across this computation that includes a step that I don't understand. The step in question states that (43 ...
19
votes
1answer
413 views

Does $E_8$ know $Spin(7)$?

One way to define the compact group $Spin(7)$ is as the stabilizer of a certain 4-form on Euclidean $\mathbb R^8$ (see e.g. this MO question). This 4-form can be defined in various ways. For ...
5
votes
0answers
12 views

natural weak factorization systems

I am trying to understand the definition of natural weak factorization systems from this article by Tholen and Grandis, and these notes by Emily Riehl. In Riehl's notes, the splitting $s,t$ are of ...
36
votes
5answers
1k views

Undergraduate ODE textbook following Rota

I imagine many people are familiar with the extremely entertaining article "Ten Lessons I Wish I Had Learned Before I Started Teaching Differential Equations" by Gian-Carlo Rota. (If you're not, do ...
2
votes
1answer
483 views

A paper by Y. Morita

The corresponding bibliographical details are: Yoshihito Morita, Elementary proofs of the commutativity of rings satisfying $x^{n}=x$. Mem. Defense Acad. 18 (1978), no. 1, 1–24. Does anybody here ...
3
votes
1answer
88 views
+50

Conserved quantities for the Cauchy momentum equation

I apologize if this question is too elementary for mathoverflow; I asked it (unsuccessfully) on MATH.SE first. As a bit of background: one way to study the mechanics of deformation of a continuous ...
228
votes
68answers
107k views

Proofs without words

Can you give examples of proofs without words? In particular, can you give examples of proofs without words for non-trivial results? (One could ask if this is of interest to mathematicians, and I ...
12
votes
1answer
139 views

Applications of the Central Limit Theorem in dynamical systems

There are very many papers in the area of (possibly non-uniformly) hyperbolic dynamical systems whose aim is to prove the Central Limit Theorem. In a dynamical context, this means that one: has a ...
12
votes
1answer
562 views

What is the precise relationship between o-minimal theory and Grothendieck's “Esquisse d'un programme”?

I have seen various references in the literature to such a connection but they tend to assume that the reader is familiar with the connection, and limit themselves to providing additional detail. So ...
1
vote
1answer
72 views

Elliptic regularity and inhomogeneous Neumann boundary condition

Consider a harmonic function $u$ defined on $D : = \{ (x, y) \in \mathbb{R}^2 | (x, y) \in \overline{B(0, 2)}, y \geq 0\}$, that is, the closed upper half ball centered at $0$ and radius $2$. Let $u$ ...
117
votes
46answers
39k views

Ways to prove the fundamental theorem of algebra

This seems to be a favorite question everywhere, including Princeton quals. How many ways are there? Please give a new way in each answer, and if possible give reference. I start by giving two: ...
1
vote
0answers
92 views

weak-* versus entropy growth

General question. Let $\eta_{n}$ be a sequence of invariant measures on $\{0,1,2,...,p-1\}^{\mathbb{N}}$ and $B$ the Bernoulli uniform measure. Knowing that $\eta_{n} \rightarrow B$ in the weak-* ...
80
votes
17answers
11k views

Are there examples of non-orientable manifolds in nature?

Whilst browsing through Marcel Berger's book "A Panoramic View of Riemannian Geometry" and thinking about the Klein bottle, I came across the sentence: "The unorientable surfaces are never discussed ...
82
votes
11answers
9k views

Checkmate in $\omega$ moves?

Is there a chess position with a finite number of pieces on the infinite chess board $\mathbb{Z}^2$ such that White to move has a forced win, but Black can stave off mate for at least $n$ moves for ...
8
votes
2answers
296 views

The category of elements, enrichment, and weighted limits

This is a crosspost of this MSE question. Every so often, when reading notes online or skimming through books, the category of elements and the Grothendieck construction pop up. I don't know ...
41
votes
9answers
4k views

Geometric / physical / probabilistic interpretations of Riemann zeta(n>1)?

What are some physical, geometric, or probabilistic interpretations of the values of the Riemann zeta function at the positive integers greater than one? I've found some examples: 1) In MO-Q111339 ...
4
votes
1answer
439 views

Comparing norms on tensor products of matrices

Given a Hilbert space $H$, let $S_1(H)$ denote the space of trace-class operators on $H$, with the trace-class norm or Schatten 1-norm. That is $$ \Vert T \Vert_1 = \sum_{j\geq 1} |s_j| $$ where ...
12
votes
5answers
1k views

How do you define the strict infinity groupoids in Homotopy Type Theory?

In the setting of Homotopy Type Theory, how would you construct $\mathrm{isStrict} : U \rightarrow U$ which is inhabited exactly when the first type is (equivalent to?) a strict $\infty$-groupoid? ...
14
votes
6answers
3k views

Metrization of weak convergence of signed measures

Edit: Changed from "Hausdorff" to "metric" spaces. Let $\mathcal{M}(\Omega)$ denote the space of signed regular Borel measures on a compact metric space $\Omega$. By Riesz-Markov, this is the dual ...
27
votes
6answers
3k views

How do we recognize an integer inside the rationals?

My question is fairly simple, and may at first glance seem a bit silly, but stick with me. If we are given the rationals, and we pick an element, how do we recognize whether or not what we picked is ...
34
votes
5answers
8k views

Theories of Noncommutative Geometry

[I have rewritten this post in a way which I hope will remain faithful to the questioner and make it seem more acceptable to the community. I have also voted to reopen it. -- PLC] There are many ...
8
votes
3answers
1k views

Is there the Whitehead theorem for cohomology theory?

We know that there are Whitehead theorem for homotopy and homology theory. Is there the Whitehead theorem for cohomology theory for 1-connected CW complexes?
0
votes
1answer
77 views

Relation between Harmonic vector field and Harmonic 1-form

Definition 1: A unit vector field $X$ side to be harmonic if it is critical point for the following energy function $$E(X)=\int_M\|dX\|dvol_g=\frac{m}{2}vol(M,g)+\int_M\|\nabla X\|^2dvol_g.$$ ...
2
votes
2answers
120 views

Definable curves in definable sets

Suppose that I have an unbounded subset $X \subset \mathbb{R}^n$, definable in the $o$-minimal structure $\mathbb{R}_{an, exp}$. Is it possible to find an unbounded, analytic and definable curve (i.e. ...
0
votes
0answers
56 views

Upper bound on the norm of the inverse of matrices with zero limit

Posted here too, with no answer yet: http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/1766281/upper-bound-on-the-norm-of-the-inverse-of-matrices-with-zero-limit Let $\{L(\sigma)\}_{\sigma}$ be a family of ...
5
votes
1answer
100 views

Intuition for density comonad in relation to lifting problems

In Emily Riehl's Categorical Homotopy Theory, there is a section on Garner's Small Object Argument which I'm trying and failing to understand. Originally I followed most of Garner's paper, using the ...
1
vote
1answer
121 views

List is a monad, but is it a comonad with these natural transformations?

List is known to be a monad. It takes a set and maps it to lists of elements of that set. The natural transformations are, singleton and flatten, whereby we map a set to a set of singleton lists ...
5
votes
1answer
177 views

“Identity tensor transpose” as a map $M_n \hat{\otimes} M_n \to M_n \overline{\otimes} M_n$

Equipping $M_n$ with its usual operator space structure, $\newcommand{\ptp}{\widehat{\otimes}}$ we can form the projective tensor product of operator spaces $M_n\ptp M_n$. In particular this puts a ...
7
votes
1answer
85 views

Can a weak fibration category be non saturated?

A weak fibration category is a category $\mathcal{C}$ equipped with two subcategories $$\mathcal{F}, \mathcal{W} \subseteq \mathcal{C}$$ containing all the isomorphisms, such that the following ...
26
votes
1answer
561 views

A long-lasting conjecture of Pólya & Szegő

There is a conjecture by Pólya & Szegő (~1950) which is as follows: "Of all $n$-gons of a fixed area, the regular $n$-gon minimizes the first Dirichlet eigenvalue." Surprisingly, this is still ...
14
votes
1answer
322 views

Generalizing the Mazur-Ulam theorem to convex sets with empty interior in Banach spaces

The Mazur-Ulam theorem (1932) states that any isometry of a normed linear space is affine. See Nica (Expo. Math. 30 (2012), 397-398; arXiv:1306.2380) for a very elegant proof. Question: Let $M$ be a ...
8
votes
1answer
195 views

Operads and the Stable Module Category

I am seeking references to places where operads and their algebras have been studied for the stable module category. Colored operads are fine too. Let $k$ be a field and $R$ a $k$-algebra. The stable ...
11
votes
2answers
501 views

The Simultaneous Conjugacy Problem in the symmetric group $S_N$

We are interested in the following notions in the case $G=S_N$, the symmetric group on $\{1,\dots,N\}$. Fix a group $G$ and a number $d$. For $(g_1,\dots,g_d)\in G^d$ and $x\in G$, define ...

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