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73
votes
6answers
8k views

Why does the Riemann zeta function have non-trivial zeros?

This is a very basic question of course, and exposes my serious ignorance of analytic number theory, but what I am looking for is a good intuitive explanation rather than a formal proof (though a ...
57
votes
7answers
5k views

What is the field with one element?

I've heard of this many times, but I don't know anything about it. What I do know is that it is supposed to solve the problem of the fact that the final object in the category of schemes is ...
47
votes
3answers
4k views

Is there a “Basic Number Theory” for elliptic curves?

Tate's thesis showed how to profitably analyze $\zeta$ functions of number fields in terms of adelic points on the multiplicative group. In particular, combining Fourier analysis and topology, Tate ...
46
votes
4answers
2k views

Are there refuted analogues of the Riemann hypothesis?

The classical Riemann Hypothesis has famous analogues for function fields and finite fields which have been proved. It has by now very many analogues, many of them still open. Are there important ...
32
votes
8answers
4k views

Why does the Gamma-function complete the Riemann Zeta function?

Defining $$\xi(s) := \pi^{-s/2}\ \Gamma\left(\frac{s}{2}\right)\ \zeta(s)$$ yields $\xi(s) = \xi(1 - s)$ (where $\zeta$ is the Riemann Zeta function). Is there any conceptual explanation - or ...
28
votes
10answers
3k views

Why are functional equations important?

People who talk about things like modular forms and zeta functions put a lot of emphasis on the existence and form of functional equations, but I've never seen them used as anything other than a ...
27
votes
3answers
2k views

From Zeta Functions to Curves

Let $C$ be a nonsingular projective curve of genus $g \geq 0$ over a finite field $\mathbb{F}_q$ with $q$ elements. From this curve, we define the zeta function $$Z_{C/{\mathbb{F}}_q}(u) = ...
27
votes
4answers
3k views

What is Ricardo Pérez-Marco's eñe product? Does it explain his statistical results on differences of zeta zeros?

The number theory community here at University of Michigan is abuzz with talk of this paper recently posted to the arxiv. If you haven't seen it already, the punch line is that the global differences ...
27
votes
3answers
3k views

The Hardy Z-function and failure of the Riemann hypothesis

David Feldman asked whether it would be reasonable for the Riemann hypothesis to be false, but for the Riemann zeta function to only have finitely many zeros off the critical line. I very rashly ...
26
votes
1answer
2k views

A puzzling remark of Manin (ICM 1978)

Manin ends his 1978 ICM talk with this remark: I would also like to mention I. M. Gel'fand's suggestion that the $\zeta$-functions of certain special differential operators should have an arithmetic ...
24
votes
2answers
1k views

Is there a “quantum” Riemann zeta function?

Occasionally I find myself in a situation where a naive, non-rigorous computation leads me to a divergent sum, like $\sum_{n=1}^\infty n$. In times like these, a standard approach is to guess the ...
21
votes
2answers
1k views

The work of E. Artin and F. K. Schmidt on (what are now called) the Weil conjectures.

I was reading Dieudonne's "On the history of the Weil conjectures" and found two things that surprised me. Dieudonne makes some assertions about the work of Artin and Schmidt which are no doubt ...
20
votes
3answers
906 views

Universality of zeta- and L-functions

Voronin´s Universality Theorem (for the Riemann zeta-Function) according to Wikipedia: Let $U$ be a compact subset of the "critical half-strip" $\{s\in\mathbb{C}:\frac{1}{2}<Re(s)<1\}$ with ...
19
votes
4answers
2k views

The class number formula, the BSD conjecture, and the Kronecker limit formula

If K is a number field then the Dedekind zeta function Zeta_K(s) can be written as a sum over ideal classes A of Zeta_K(s, A) = sum over ideals I in A of 1/N(I)^s. The class number formula follows ...
18
votes
4answers
1k views

Good uses of Siegel zeros?

The short version of my question goes: What is known to follow from the existence of Siegel zeros? A longer version to give an idea of what I have in mind: The "expectional zeros" of course first ...
17
votes
5answers
2k views

What is the difference between a zeta function and an L-function?

I've been learning about Dedekind zeta functions and some basic L-functions in my introductory algebraic number theory class, and I've been wondering why some functions are called L-functions and ...
17
votes
3answers
1k views

How was the importance of the zeta function discovered?

This question is similar to Why do zeta functions contain so much information? , but is distinct. If the answers to that question answer this one also, I don't understand why. The question is this: ...
16
votes
2answers
1k views

Computing (on a computer) the first few (non-trivial) zeros of the zeta function of a number field.

Let $M$ be the splitting field of x^8 + 3*x^7 + 13*x^6 + 17*x^5 + 45*x^4 + 37*x^3 + 11*x^2 + 112*x + 108 over the rationals. If I've understood some tables ...
15
votes
5answers
3k views

How does one motivate the analytic continuation of the Riemann zeta function?

I saw the functional equation and its proof for the Riemann zeta function many times, but ususally the books start with, e.g. tricky change of variable of Gamma function or other seemly unmotivated ...
15
votes
3answers
2k views

Refinements of the Riemann hypothesis

I have often read that the Riemann hypothesis is somewhat a statement like: The primes are as regularly distributed as we can hope for. For example $\pi(x) = Li(x)+ O(x^{\sigma+\epsilon})$ for ...
14
votes
2answers
1k views

Dedekind Zeta function: behaviour at 1

Let $\zeta_F$ denote the Dedekind zeta function of a number field $F$. We have $\zeta_F(s) = \frac{\lambda_{-1}}{s-1} + \lambda_0 + \dots$ for $s-1$ small. Class number formula: We have ...
14
votes
2answers
901 views

Evaluating the integral $\int_{1}^{\infty}\frac{\{u\}}{u^{2}}\left(\log u\right)^{k}du.$

I am trying to find a formula for the following integral for non-negative integer $k$: $$\int_1^{\infty}\frac{\{u\}}{u^{2}}\left(\log u\right)^{k}du.$$ My first thought was to use the formula ...
14
votes
5answers
3k views

Is $\zeta(3)/pi^3$ rational?

Apery proved in 1976 that $\zeta(3)$ is irrational, and we know that for all integers $n$, \[\zeta(2n)=\alpha \pi^{2n}\] for some $\alpha\in \mathbb{Q}$. Given ...
14
votes
2answers
580 views

Can the failure of the multiplicativity of Euler factors at bad primes be corrected?

Warning: This one of those does-anyone-know-how-to-fix-this-vague-problem questions, and not an actual mathematics question at all. If $X$ is a scheme of finite type over a finite field, then the ...
14
votes
1answer
831 views

Dirichlet's regulator vs Beilinson's regulator

Consider a number field $F$ with ring of integers $O_F$. The Beilinson regulator can in this particular setting be viewed as a map from $K_n(O_F)$ to a suitable real vector space. Here $n$ is any ...
13
votes
1answer
748 views

Is there an elegant algebraic proof of this formula for quadratic field discriminants?

Consider the Dirichlet series counting discriminants of real quadratic fields. Quadratic field discriminants are "basically" squarefree integers, so the associated Dirichlet series $\sum D^{-s}$ is ...
12
votes
3answers
2k views

Dwork's use of p-adic analysis in algebraic geometry

Using p-adic analysis, Dwork was the first to prove the rationality of the zeta function of a variety over a finite field. From what I have seen, in algebraic geometry, this method is not used much ...
12
votes
1answer
1k views

Does this sum equal zeta(3)?

Does: $$\sum_{1 \leq i<j} \frac{1}{i j^2} = \sum_{1 \leq k} \frac{1}{k^3}?$$ Motivation: Call the above sum $S$, and let $$T := \sum_{ GCD(i,j)=1} \frac{1}{\max(i,j) i j}.$$ The sum $T$ came up ...
12
votes
8answers
2k views

Brownian bridge interpreted as Brownian motion on the circle

Is it reasonable to view the Brownian bridge as a kind of Brownian motion indexed by points on the circle? The Brownian bridge has some strange connections with the Riemann zeta function (see ...
12
votes
3answers
829 views

PNT for general zeta functions, Applications of.

When I read it for the first time, I found the whole slog towards proving the Prime Number Theorem and the final success to be magnificent. So I am curious about more general results. We talk of ...
12
votes
2answers
636 views

Is there an analogue of the Lefschetz fixed point theorem for discrete dynamical systems?

Background/Motivation Let $(X, f)$ be a discrete dynamical system. For now, $X$ is just a set and $f$ is just a function $f : X \to X$. Suppose that $f^n$ has a finite number of fixed points for ...
11
votes
4answers
593 views

non-trivial zeros of partial zeta functions

Let $N,a\in\mathbf{Z}_{\geq 1}$. Define a partial $\zeta$-function as $$ \zeta(s;N,a):=\sum_{\substack{n\geq 1\newline n\equiv a\pmod{N}}} \frac{1}{n^s} $$ where $Re(s)>1$. Let $\omega$ be either ...
11
votes
1answer
614 views

Lower bounds on zeta(s+it) for fixed s

This is most probably widely known and discussed here many times, so I am preliminay sorry. Does Riemann conjecture imply some lower estimates on values, say $|\zeta(3/4+it)|$ for real $t$, when ...
11
votes
1answer
310 views

Sets with zeta functions that are not the primes

Does there exist a set $S \subset \mathbb N$ such that the Dirchlet density of $S$ is well-defined and positive, the Dirchlet density of $S \cap \operatorname{PRIMES}$ is well-defined and zero, and: ...
11
votes
4answers
526 views

Behaviour of Zeta-function under Finite Morphism

Let X ---> Y be a finite surjective morphism of smooth, projective, connected varieties over a finite field F_q. Can one describe the zeta function Z(X, t) in terms of the zeta-function Z(Y,t) of ...
10
votes
3answers
2k views

Establishing zeta(3) as a definite integral and its computation.

I am a 19 yr old student new to all these ideas. I made the transformation $X(z)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty z^n/n^2$. Therefore $X(1)=\pi^2/6$ as we all know (it is $\zeta(2)$). To calculate $X(1)$, I ...
10
votes
2answers
724 views

Weil Conjectures for nonprojective algebraic varieties

If we replace projective variety with algebraic variety in the statement of the Weil conjectures what happens? To me it seems the statement still makes sense. But is it still true?
10
votes
1answer
717 views

Periods and L-values

A famous theorem of Euler is that Zeta(2n) is a rational number times pi^(2n). Work of Kummer, Herbrand, Ribet and others shows that the rational multiplier has number theoretic significance. For ...
10
votes
1answer
797 views

Degree of Transcendentality and Feynman Diagrams

Physicists computing multiloop Feynman diagrams have introduced various techniques and conjectures that involve the notion of Degree of Transcendentality (DoT). From what I understand one defines 1) ...
10
votes
1answer
1k views

Values of zeta at odd positive integers and Borel's computations

Someone recently quoted to me this recent article that claims to prove that $\zeta(2n+1) \notin (2\pi )^{2n+1} \mathbb{Q}$. I always assumed this was well known. More precisely I thought this result ...
10
votes
0answers
224 views

L-Functions of Varieties, Zeta Functions of Their Models

Let $k$ denote a number field, with algebraic closure $\bar{k}$. Take a smooth, projective variety $X$ over $k$. If $\mathfrak{p}$ is a prime of $k$, and $l$ is a rational prime different to the ...
9
votes
1answer
402 views

Is it easy to prove that $\sum_n |X(\mathbb{F}_{q^n})| t^n$ is rational?

Background: Let $X$ be an algebraic variety over a finite field $\mathbb{F}_q$. One of the successes of Etale cohomology - previously achieved by Dwork- was proving the rationality of the Zeta ...
9
votes
3answers
1k views

A question on K_1 of an elliptic curve

Consider an elliptic curve $E/ \mathbb{Q}$, with a regular model $\mathcal{E} / \mathbb{Z}$. We have (Beilinson regulator) maps $$ K_1(\mathcal{E})^{(2)} \to K_1(E)^{(2)} \to H_D^3(E_{/ \mathbb{R}} , ...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

Wick rotation and the Riemann zeta function

The goal of this question is to conceptualize in some way the fact that the Riemann zeta function $\zeta(s)$, and other zeta functions like it, have analytic continuations. Background I have by now ...
9
votes
1answer
519 views

Euler product over primes congruent to 3 mod 4

I'm a string theorist and I have come across the following expression in a computation I'm doing (involving a sum over inequivalent Lens spaces): $$\widehat{\zeta}(s)=\prod_{\mathrm{primes}\ p\equiv ...
8
votes
5answers
2k views

Negative values of Riemann zeta function on the critical line.

From parametric plots of $\zeta \left( \frac{1}{2} + it \right)$ it seems to be the case that: (1) except for $\zeta(\frac{1}{2})$ the Riemann zeta function does not attain any negative real value on ...
8
votes
2answers
542 views

How does the order of a pole of a zeta function indicate any geometric information?

Here, I'm primarily concerced about zeta functions of hypersurfaces over fields of finite characteristic. Assume $F_q$ to be a finite field with q elements. Consider the zeta function of the ...
8
votes
2answers
427 views

is there a p-adic Borel theorem?

Let $F$ be a number field. Denote, as usual, $\mathcal{O}_F$ the ring of integers and $r_1$, $r_2$ the number of real and complex embeddings. Let $\zeta_F(s)$ be the Dedekind zeta function of $F$. ...
7
votes
4answers
1k views

Non-vanishing of zeta(s), Re(s)=1, without complex analysis?

Say you are allowed to use Fourier analysis, complex variables, Euler-Maclaurin, etc., but no complex analysis - no holomorphic continuations, no definition of analytic function, and, in particular, ...
7
votes
3answers
2k views

Riemann zeta at even integers

I am talking about this in a course I am teaching, and hence am wondering: what are the various derivations of the values of Riemann zeta function at even integers? There are two incredibly cool ...