# Tagged Questions

The study of algebraic structures and properties applying to large classes of such structures. For example, ideas from group theory and ring theory are extended and considered for structures with other signatures (systems of basic or fundamental operations).

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### In what sense are operads “better” than PROPs?

I'm a newcomer to operads so apologies if this is a naive question. The standard picture of an operad is of a collection of $n$-ary operations, thought of as objects with $n$ upward-pointing legs (...
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### About a construction of Borel $\sigma$-algebra associated to a lattice

Let $(\mathcal{A}, \cup, \cap)$ a lattice (with minimum and maximum elements $\bot$ and $\top$). Let $X\subset \mathcal{A}$ a generator set (a set of minimal cardinality that generate $\mathcal{A}$ i....
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### Hemi-Semi Direct Product

In the category of racks (similarly quandles), instead of well-known semi direct product, we have hemi-semi direct product construction as seen on Wagemann & Crans. As far as I know, semi direct ...
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### Is the variety of algebras $(A,*,+)$ that satisfy $(x*y)+(y*z)=(x+y)*(y+z)$ generated by its finite algebras?

The finite algebras $(A,*,+)$ that satisfy the identity $(x*y)+(y*z)=(x+y)*(y+z)$ are precisely the algebras such that the one-dimensional cellular automata produced by $*$ and $+$ are commutative ...
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### What is known about semigroups that are generated by (cyclic) subgroups?

A semigroup $(A,\cdot)$ that is idempotent (i.e. $a^2=a$ for every element $a\in A$) is naturally generated by its subgroups (every element on itself constitutes a trivial group). I would like to know ...
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### Is every $n$-ary semigroup a subalgebra of an algebra derived from a binary semigroup?

Let $(A,f)$ be an $n$-ary semigroup ($n \ge 2$). Then there exists a ($2$-ary) semigroup $(\overline A,*)$ with an inclusion homomorphism $A \hookrightarrow \overline A$ such that that the restriction ...
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### Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt theorem for Leibniz algebras

Leibniz algebras can be seen as a non-skew-symmetric generalization of Lie algebras. I have already taken a look at some papers related to Leibniz algebras and extending main results of Lie algebras ...
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### Identities of commutators

Let $G$ be a group and set $[x,y]:= x^{-1}y^{-1}xy$ as usual and consider it as a binary operation. Question: Is there a description of the identities that the operation $[.,.]$ satisfies for all ...
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### Is the class of Heyting algebras originating from directed graphs a variety?

The category RefGph of reflexive directed graphs is the functor category $\hat{∆}_1=\mbox{Fun}(∆^◦_1,$Set), where $∆_1$ is the simplex category truncated at level 1. Hence the poset Sub(X) of ...
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### Terminology: Name for a homomorphism from the free object?

Is there a standard name for taking a homomorphism from the free object over an algebraic structure? Roughly speaking, this should amount to evaluation of any element of the free object under the ...
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Setup: Let $\mathcal{O}$ be an operad in the category of sets, and let $\mathcal{O}\text{-Alg}$ denote the category of algebras on it (i.e., operad functors $\mathcal{O}\to\mathbf{Set}$. This category ...
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### Representation theorem for modular lattices?

Birkhoff's representation theorem implies that every distributive lattice embeds into the lattice of subsets of a set. Is there also some representation theorem for modular lattices? For example, I ...
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### Heyting algebras originating from directed graphs

The category RefGph of reflexive directed graphs is the functor category $\hat{∆}_1=\mbox{Fun}(∆^◦_1,$Set), where $∆_1$ is the simplex category truncated at level 1. Hence the poset Sub(X) of ...
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### Equational theories determined by “identities without variables”

How to characterize equational theories $T$ which have the following property: for any two terms $t(x_1,...,x_n)$ and $t'(x_1,...,x_n)$ in the signature of $T$, if for any closed terms (i. e. terms ...
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### Fuzzy logic of Godel

In Gödel logic, is conjunction definable from implication, negation , and disjunction? We know that conjunction in that logic is not definable from negation and implication.
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### Can such categorical notion of action be formalized?

I'm wondering if it's possible to find an universal construction for a general concept of action for (single-sorted?) finite product sketches, such that one of those is "acting" on the second in the ...
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### Algebras with finite essential arity

We are talking about algebras in the universal algebraic sense, that is, a set that $A$ is equipped with a set $F$ of finitary operations on $A$. Definition: An algebra $(A,F)$ is said to have ...
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### Varieties where every algebra is free

I'd like to know more about varieties (in the sense of universal algebra) where every algebra is free. Another way to state the condition is that the comparison functor from the Kleisli category to ...
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### Generalizing disjointness

The following definition generalizes set-theoretic disjointess: Definition 0. (Autonomy). Given a Lawvere theory $\mathsf{T}$, a $\mathsf{T}$-algebra $X$, and an indexed family $S$ of subalgebras ...
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### Does every commutative variety of algebras have a cogenerator?

By a commutative variety $\mathcal{V}$ I mean a classical variety of algebras for some $(\Sigma,E)$, such that each pair of operations in $\Sigma$ commutes. Equivalently (i) every interpretation of ...
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### Is the following a sufficient condition for being a primal algebra?

I have a question regarding universal algebra and, in particular, primal algebras: Suppose that A is a finite simple algebra with no proper subalgebra, no automorphism except the identity map, with a ...
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### Why is every variety of bands determined by a single identity?

A band is a semigroup where every element is idempotent: $a a = a$. A collection of bands is a variety if it is closed under taking subobjects (subsemigroups), quotient objects (images of ...
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### Universal anti-Horn classes?

Is there published work about universal anti-Horn classes? Anti-Horn formulas are also sometimes known as dual Horn. See also related question Is there any research of universal algebras axiomatized ...
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### A decision problem for clones

E. Post proved that there are only countably many clones on a two-element set (classes of operations closed under superposition and containing all projections). All these clones are finitely ...
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### Primitive Recursive Arithmetic via Universal Algebra

From the wikipedia article on Primitive Recursive Arithmetic (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primitive_recursive_arithmetic): "Primitive recursive arithmetic, or PRA, is a quantifier-free ...