The ultrapowers tag has no usage guidance.

**5**

votes

**0**answers

93 views

### Banach spaces complemented in their ultrapowers

By the principle of local reflexivity, the second dual $X^{**}$ of a Banach space $X$ is complemented in some ultrapower $X^U$ of $X$. Even when $X$ is separable, the index set of $U$ cannot be ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

274 views

### Statements that Could be Forced by Ultrapowers

Ultrapower of a structure is a very flexible mathematical creature in comparison with the ground structure and its ordinary products. Depending on the nature of ground structure and the good ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

82 views

### Ultraproducts and subobjects of projectives

Usually the question whether the class of projective algebras in a given variety is closed under taking subalgebras seems to be quite hard. In varieties with well understood dual geometry (e. g. ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

66 views

### Reduced products of (abelian and triangulated) categories: references?

For a filter $U$ on a set $X$ and for a family of categories $C_x$ indexed by $X$ I would like to consider the (corresponding categorical version of) reduced product of $C_x$ (for $x\in X$) with ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

81 views

### Which compact topological spaces are homeomorphic to their ultrapower?

It is well known that for any compact metric space $(X, d)$, and any ultrafilter $\mu$ there is a map $i_\mu:\prod_\mu (X, d) \to (X_d)$ in the category of metric spaces and Lipschitz maps where $i_\...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

249 views

### References for the Keisler Order

Are there any good/modern references on the Keisler order. I have been reading Keisler's original paper, "Ultraproducts which are not Saturated", which introduces the order. However it is somewhat ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

329 views

### Ultraproduct of Forcing Extensions & Forcing Extension of Ultraproduct

Notation:
$M[{\mathbb{P}}:G]$ denotes the forcing extension of $M$ by $\mathbb{P}$-generic filter $G$.
$\prod_{\mathcal{F}}\langle M_i~|~i\in I\rangle$ denotes the ultraproduct of models using the ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

307 views

### K-theory of ultrapowers

It may well be a trivial question but I was wondering if there is any relation between $K$-groups and ultrapowers of $C^*$-algebras. For instance, if $A$ is a $C^*$-algebra does $K_0(A^U)$ depend on ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

152 views

### Ultrapowers and complemented subspaces

Let $Y$ be a closed subspace of a Banach space $X$, and let $\mathcal{U}$ be a nontrivial ultrafilter on the set $\mathbb{N}$ of all integer numbers.
It is not difficult to see that if $Y$ is ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

180 views

### Complemented subspaces of ultrapowers

It's a famous result of Maurey that a Banach space $E$ is finitely representable in $X$ if and only if it is a subspace of some ultrapower of $X$. Is there an analogous result for complemented ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

179 views

### How many elementary equivalent models are unifiable by ultrapower?

Definition. A class $\mathcal{C}$ of pairwise elementary equivalent $\mathcal{L}$-structures is unifiable by ultrapower if there is an index set $I$ and an ultrafilter $F$ on it such that $\forall M,N\...

**9**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Is it ever a good idea to use Keisler-Shelah to show elementary equivalence?

The most useful way I know to show that two structures are elementarily equivalent is Ehrenfeucht-Fraisse games. These are quite nice and intuitive, and even when I can't use them to solve my problem ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

211 views

### Ultrapowers of ultrapowers

Suppose that you have some structure $S$, and you want to construct an ultrapower of cardinality $\kappa$ to obtain $S^*_\kappa$. Then, say you want to construct a new ultrapower from $S^*_\kappa$, ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

208 views

### Can we flex the rigid models by enough power?

Definition (1): An $\mathcal{L}$ - structure $\mathcal{M}$ called "rigid" iff there is no non-trivial automorphism on $\mathcal{M}$.
Definition (2): An $\mathcal{...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

159 views

### Is there a truth approximation on a cumulative hierarchy?

Note to the following well known theorem:
Theorem (1): If $\kappa$ be a "measurable" cardinal and $\mathcal{F}$ be a "non-principal $\kappa$-complete normal" ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

101 views

### What is known about the krull dimension of an ultrapower ring?

Let $R$ be a ring, $F$ a free ultrafilter on a set $X$ which is not countably complete, and $R_F$ the ultrapower of $R$ with $R \not\cong R_F$. The following two results are from a masters thesis ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

527 views

### Why does CH imply that there is a unique ultrapower of $\mathbb{N}$?

I've read these words: "How many ultra products $∏_Uℕ$ exist up to isomorphism, where $U$ is a non-principal ultrafilter over $ℕ$? If continuum hypothesis(CH) holds, then obviously just one ..."
i ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

121 views

### Galois action on ultrapowers

Let $K$ be a char $0$ field with algebraic closure $\bar K$ and absolute Galois group $G$. Let $\mathcal U$ be an ultrafilter on $\mathbb N$ and $F=\bar K^\mathbb N/\mathcal U$ be the ultrapower of $\...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

219 views

### When can we “displace” an ultrafilter limit with another limit?

Let $\cal A$ be a Banach algebra, $\cal U$ be a free ultrafilter, and $\phi$ be a character. Let ${(w_{\alpha})}_{\alpha}$ be a net in $(\cal A)_{\cal U}$, and suppose that for every $(a_i)\in (\cal A)...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

245 views

### Double ultrapower of the hyperfinite $II_1$-factor

Let $\omega$ be a free ultrafilter on the natural numbers and $R$ be the hyperfinite $II_1$-factor (the definition of $R$ is recalled in the comments).
Question: Does there exist another free ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

236 views

### an elementary substructure of a natural numbers ultrapower

Hi
I'm looking for an elementary substructure of a natural numbers ultrapower with a free ultrafilter over a numerable set also must not be isomorphism between the elementary substructure and any ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

363 views

### Set forcing and ultrapowers

The following is a result of Woodin (the proof is found after Theorem 5 of "Generalizations of the Kunen Inconsistency" by J.D.Hamkins, G.Kirmayer and N.L.Perlmutter):
(Woodin) Let $V[G]$ be a set-...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

354 views

### Ultrapowers of operators

Can we prove that for each infinite dimensional Banach space $X$ and any free ultrafilter (possibly over uncountable set of indices) $\mathcal{U}$ the obvious embedding
$$({\mathcal{L}(X)})_{\mathcal{...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

292 views

### Is an ultrapower of a faithful Banach algebra always faithful?

Let $A$ be an infinite dimensional faithful Banach algebra and let $\mathcal U$ be a free ultrafilter. Is the ultrapower $(A)_{\mathcal U}$ faithful?

**2**

votes

**1**answer

159 views

### Whether the result that an ultraproduct which satisfies ACCP is automatically a field generalizes to ultrafilters on larger indexing sets

Let $F$ be an ultrafilter on some set $X$, $R$ an integral domain and $R_F$ the resulting ultraproduct ring. For an element $(a)$ in the product ring of $R$ indexed by $X$, denote its equivalence ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

392 views

### Do ultrapowers of classical Banach spaces have unconditional bases?

I am trying to imagine (to some extent, of course) the geometry of ultrapowers of certain 'easy-to-handle' Banach spaces. Let me start with $X = \ell_p$, $p\in (1,\infty)$ or $X=c_0$.
Since the ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

354 views

### iterating ultrapowers of C*-algebras: the Calkin algebra

Elsewhere I asked about ultrapowers of the C*-algebra $A$ of compact operators on separable infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. My question was whether the process of taking ultrapowers of ultrapowers ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

381 views

### iterating ultrapowers of C*-algebras

Let $A$ be something interesting like the C*-algebra of compact operators on a separable infinite-dimensional Hilbert space and let $A^1$ be an ultrapower of $A$. Then $A^1$ is a primitive C*-algebra ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

534 views

### An Extender is a Generalization of an Ultrafilter?

I'm not sure whether this belongs here or on math stackexchange, but I'll give a try here.
I've heard that an extender is a generalization of an ultrafilter. This is not to say that an ultrafilter ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

336 views

### Do (Banach) ultrapowers carry some sort of 'elementary equivalence'?

The (model-theoretic) ultrapowers had been used for studying elementary equivalnce of first-order structures. Then, they have been adapted to Banach spaces, which are, let me say, second-order ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

448 views

### Homomorphic images of a Cartesian product of finite groups

What can be said about the class of groups which can be represented as a homomorphic image of an (infinite) Cartesian product (=unrestricted direct product) of finite groups? What would be simple ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

463 views

### Is Every field Extension of an Ultrafield an Ultrafield?

Let $K=lim(K_{i})$ be an ultrafield (over a non-principal ultrafilter), and let $K\hookrightarrow K'$ be a field extension of $K$.
When the field $K'$ is finite over $K$ it is also an ultrafield by ...

**16**

votes

**0**answers

507 views

### Dual of the Ultraproduct of a Banach Space

Suppose we have a Banach space ultraproduct $(E_i)_U$. I can think of three natural objects which are "dual-like":
$(E_i^*)_U$, the ultraproduct of the duals of the ground spaces.
The space made up ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

169 views

### cardinality of local bases in the non-standard reals

Given a index set $S$ together with a ultrafilter $\mu$ on $S$ (such that no set of cardinality $< |S|$ has measure $1$). Let the ordered field $\mathbb{R}(S,\mu)$ denote the ultrapower of $\mathbb{...

**9**

votes

**4**answers

808 views

### ultrapowers and higher order logic

One of the reasons I think ultrapowers are interesting is the following corollary of Łoś's theorem:
Let $V$ be a relational structure and $^*V$ an ultrapower of $V$. Then a first order statement ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

301 views

### What is known about the ultra-inverse limit?

Given a nonprincipal ultrafilter $\mu$ on $\mathbb{N}$ and a sequence of groups $G_i$, one can define its ultraproduct as:
$$ ^*\prod_{i\in \mathbb{N}}G_i:=\{(x_i)_{i \in \mathbb{N}}| x_i\in G_i\}/\...

**15**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Ultraproducts of finite cyclic groups

Let G be the (non-principal) ultraproduct of all finite cyclic groups of orders n!, n=1,2,3,... . Is there a homomorphism from G onto the infinite cyclic group?

**5**

votes

**1**answer

345 views

### The closure of a generic ultrapower

Let $I$ be a normal ideal on $P_{\kappa} (\lambda)$. Let $V$ denote our ground model. Now we force with the $I$-positive sets, and if $G$ is the resulting generic filter, it can be shown that $G$ is a ...