A tree is a connected graph without cycles, with a finite or infinite number of vertices. There are many variants of trees, according to further constraints or decorations.

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717 views

Translation length functions of non-simplicial trees

Let $G$ be a finitely generated group. By a theorem of Culler and Morgan, the set of non-abelian (not necessarily simplicial) minimal $\mathbb{R}$-trees with isometric $G$-action injects into the ...
4
votes
1answer
326 views

The number of monotone full binary trees

Let $\rho$ be an equivalence relation on a semigroup $S$. A subsemigroup $S'$ of $S$ is called a $\rho$-cross-section of $S$, provided that $S'$ contains exactly one representative from each ...
1
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0answers
48 views

Is there a polynomial time algorithm for Poly-trees (Oriented trees) isomorphism?

In terms of graph isomorphism complexity classes Trees have a polynomial time algorithm and Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG's) do not (so far). What about Poly-trees (oriented trees)? These are DAG's ...
3
votes
1answer
150 views

Partitioning a binary tree into vertex-disjoint subtrees

Say we have a labeled, binary unrooted tree $T$, i.e. each node has either 1 or 3 neighbors. Denote by $L(T)$ the set of leaves (degree-one nodes) of $T$. For some $L \subseteq L(T)$, denote by ...
9
votes
1answer
391 views

Is $\clubsuit_{\omega_1}$ enough to get Suslin tree?

This is problem 15.3 in Arnie Miller's problem list: (Juhasz) Suppose there exists $\langle A_{\alpha} : \alpha \in L \rangle$, where $L$ is the set of limit ordinals below $\omega_1$ and for each ...
4
votes
1answer
162 views

Existence of $\kappa$-Suslin trees above a measurable cardinal

We have learned from Joel David Hamkins and Monroe Eskew that: Answers: Having a measurable cardinal $\delta$ we can force a $\kappa$-Suslin tree for many $\kappa$'s above $\delta$. But is the ...
8
votes
1answer
411 views

Which finite groups are not the automorphism group of some rooted finite tree?

The question is as given in the title: Which finite groups are not the automorphism group of some rooted finite tree? A rephrasing could be: Is any finite group representable as the automorphism ...
6
votes
1answer
194 views

Embedding Euclidean buildings into products of trees

A Euclidean building has a natural metric space structure. (A definition of Euclidean building can be found on Wikipedia, or, more expansively, in Section 4 of Kleiner-Leeb.) Question: Is it true ...
3
votes
1answer
174 views

Determinant of the oriented adjacency matrix of a tree

Let $(V,E)$ be a finite oriented directed graph, with vertices and edges ordered, and $M$ the $|V|\times |E|$ matrix with entries $$ m_{ve} = \begin{cases} 1 &\text{if $e$ points at $v$}\\ -1 ...
1
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0answers
48 views

Solutions for n such that the path number to the n-th node is also n in a complete, rooted, ordered k-ary tree

The path to find the $n$-th node within a complete, rooted, ordered $k$-ary tree can be represented by a number to the base $(k+1)$ that contains no zero digits. See A245905 in OEIS as an example for ...
6
votes
1answer
223 views

To what extent is it possible to generalise a natural bijection between trees and $7$-tuples of trees, suggested by divergent series?

This is a cross-post from MSE. In the paper "Seven Trees In One" by Andreas Blass, a "very explicit" bijection is found between trees and 7-tuples of such trees. The idea to construct such a ...
10
votes
2answers
418 views

Number of paths through infinite trees with given “growth rates”

(Preface: This may be a naive or easy question for experts....) Consider an infinite tree, rooted on the left, where each node has two children; the number of nodes at each level (distance from the ...
-2
votes
0answers
182 views

Relations between Arboreal Group Theory and Tree Group Actions? [closed]

By a tree group action, we mean an action of a group $G$ over the infinite regular binary tree $T_2$ such that for each $g \in G$, the mapping $x \mapsto g\cdot x$ is an automorphism of $T_2$; these ...
10
votes
1answer
285 views

Game on the tree [closed]

There's a problem from programming competition which already finished: http://codeforces.com/contest/458/problem/F Two weeks already passed but still nobody solved it yet - in fact you can see here ...
1
vote
3answers
222 views

Is there a formula for the number of labeled forests with $k$ components on $n$ vertices?

Cayley's formula states that the number of labeled trees on $n$ vertices is $n^{n-2}$. My question is: Is there a generalization of this formula for forests? Let $f_{n,k}$ denote the number of ...
2
votes
2answers
309 views

High dimensional Steiner tree

Given n affinely independent points in n-1 dimensional Euclidean space, how is the minimum Steiner tree constructed? Or assuming that the topology of the Steiner tree is given, is there an easy way ...
5
votes
0answers
114 views

Growth in families of trees

I'm hoping that the question below is simple thermodynamic formalism, but I can't quite make it work. Any help would be very welcome. Let $\Sigma:=\{0,1\}^{\mathbb N}$ and let $\Sigma^*$ be the set ...
7
votes
2answers
124 views

Trees with a maximal convex hull: are the only optimal solutions Steiner trees?

For given $n\geqslant 3$, I'm looking for a connected set composed of $n$ equal segments in the plane such that the convex hull of it has maximal area $A(n)$. To simplify notation, we'll take ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Merging regions of function with similar mean and deviation using statistical test

I have got a question related to statistical tests that I would like to use in a new algorithm I am developing. Given an action space $x$, the algorithm would identify the regions in the function ...
7
votes
1answer
400 views

More asymptotics for trees

This is a follow up to my recent question on the asymptotics of A003238. Lucia gave a fine answer to that question, but as I hinted the 'real' problem I have in mind is slightly different, and I've ...
2
votes
2answers
276 views

Is not SH + not CH consistent?

I guess that $\lnot$SH + $\lnot$CH is consistent, but I have not found this question discussed anywhere. Is there any relatively simple model of $\lnot$SH + $\lnot$CH?
1
vote
1answer
124 views

Ratio of expected diameter and height of a conditioned Galton-Watson tree

A Galton-Watson tree is the family tree of a Galton-Watson process. Let $T_n$ denote a Galton-Watson tree conditioned on total population size $n$. The time of extinction is its height $H(T_n)$ and ...
3
votes
1answer
162 views

Switching representatives of right coset in a paper on fundamental domain of tree of GL(2)

I have a question concerning the following paper: "The fundamental domain of the tree of GL(2) over the function field of an elliptic curve" by Shuzo Takahashi. (1993, Duke Math. J., Vol. 72, No. 1). ...
4
votes
2answers
268 views

Equality-preserving embeddings of finite trees

For finite trees $T_{1}$ and $T_{2}$ labelled by elements of some infinite set $S$, (we may assume that $S=\mathbb{N}$ without loss of generality), we define an equality-preserving embedding $f$ to be ...
15
votes
0answers
613 views

Souslin trees and weakly compact cardinals

In Souslin trees on the first inaccessible cardinal it is asked if it is consistent that there are no $\kappa-$Souslin trees at the least inaccessible cardinal $\kappa$. In this question I would like ...
2
votes
1answer
238 views

A variant of Kruskal's theorem

For $X$ and $Y$ finite sequences of finite trees, let us say that $X$ is everywhere contained in $Y$ ($X\subseteq_{ec}Y$) iff, for every $y\in Y$, there is some $x\in X$ such that $x$ is a minor of ...
5
votes
2answers
224 views

Can we have a $\kappa$-Suslin tree where $\kappa$ is above a measurable cardinal?

Question: Can we have a set theory in which there exists a $\kappa$-Suslin tree with $\kappa$ larger than the least measurable cardinal? A $\kappa$-Suslin tree is a tree with levels indexed by ...
1
vote
0answers
95 views

Database of non-isomorphic trees

As there are several free prime number databases, is there something similar for non-isomorphic trees?
2
votes
0answers
71 views

Finding the number of leaf nodes at specific level of a random tree

Given a uniform recursive tree (URT) of size $N$ rooted at one node whereby the tree is generated as follows: Starting with a root node, at each iteration, a new node is connected to one of the ...
7
votes
0answers
126 views

A published proof for: the number of labeled $i$-edge ($i \geq 1$) forests on $p^k$ vertices is divisible by $p^k$

Let $F(n;i)$ be the number of labeled $i$-edge forests on $n$ vertices (A138464 on the OEIS). The first few values of $F(n;i) \pmod n$ are listed below: $$\begin{array}{r|rrrrrrrrrrr} & i=0 ...
5
votes
2answers
269 views

Average number of distinguished leaves in a binary tree

By a binary tree, I mean in this question a full rooted binary tree in which left and right child are labeled. A leaf of such a tree is a vertex of degree at most 1 (most references would probably ...
13
votes
1answer
507 views

Are the asymptotics of A003238 known?

Sequence A003238 of the OEIS counts ``rooted trees with $n$ vertices in which vertices at the same level have the same degree.'' The sequence, $a$, begins 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 11, 16, ... and it is ...
8
votes
1answer
150 views

Does being special on a club imply being special?

Let $T$ be an Aronszajn-tree, $C\subset \omega_1$ a club set and $f:\bigcup\limits_{\alpha\in C}T_\alpha\longrightarrow \mathbb Q$ a strictly increasing function (where $T_\alpha$ is the ...
2
votes
2answers
157 views

Normal subgroups of automorphism group of infinite cubic tree

Let $T$ denote the unique (countably infinite) tree in which every vertex has degree $3$ and let $G=Aut(T)$ be the group of graph automorphisms of $T$. I'm interested in the properties of this ...
9
votes
4answers
572 views

Are there two computable binary trees such that each has a branch not computing any branch through the other?

It is a well-known elementary classical result in computability theory that there are computable infinite binary trees $T\subset 2^{<\omega}$ having no computable infinite branch. (One can build ...
3
votes
2answers
646 views

Fixed points of a group-operation on a tree, Serre's book “Trees” 6.3.4. and Prop 27

Hello! I have a problem with the following Lemma, which is mentioned in Serre's book "Trees" on page 60. In the book it is the Example 6.3.4.: Lemma: Let $G$ be a group acting (without inversion) on ...
3
votes
2answers
470 views

A structure of the group of automorphisms of an infinite binary tree

My friend asked me to ask his question here. Where he can find (a paper or a book) containing a complete description (with the proof) of a structure of the group of automorphisms of an infinite binary ...
9
votes
1answer
333 views

Suslin trees in ccc ideals

A countably complete ideal $I$ on a set $Z$ ideal is c.c.c. when there is no uncountable family of pairwise disjoint $I$-positive subsets of $Z$. If such an ideal exists, then there exists a weakly ...
2
votes
0answers
725 views

Matula-Goebel ordering of rooted trees intrinsic?

I was somewhat recently introduced to the Matula-Goebel bijection between rooted trees and natural numbers. (nicely illustrated here http://keithbriggs.info/matula.html) Looking through them, I ...
4
votes
1answer
202 views

A distinguishing node property in trees?

Consider a tree with k nodes and for each node v the vector lv = (lv0, lv1, ..., lvk-1) with lvd the number of leaves (!) with distance d to v. I wonder whether two nodes v, w with lv = lw are ...
5
votes
2answers
260 views

Number of trees with the same matching number

Let $\sigma(n,m)$ be the number of trees with $n$ vertices $\{ v_1, \dots, v_n \}$ such that the matching number (the size of a maximum matching) is $m$. I have been trying to compute the value of ...
23
votes
9answers
3k views

Is the empty graph a tree?

This is a boring, technical question that I stumbled upon while making a contribution to Sage. I would still like to hear a constructive answer so hopefully the question does not get closed. The ...
1
vote
1answer
553 views

Graph drawing: unrooted undirected tree graphs with specified edge lengths.

Has Joseph Felsenstein's equal daylight layout been analyzed by the graph drawing community? The following description is taken from his drawtree documentation: "This iteratively improves an ...
9
votes
1answer
312 views

What is the precise relationship between “prodsimplicial sets” and rooted trees?

In Keven Walker's answer to the question, Cubical vs. simplicial singular homology it is written: Personally, I think it is more convenient to do singular homology with the larger collection ...
9
votes
3answers
340 views

Characteristic polynomials of trees and E8

In thinking about constructing manifolds via surgery or plumbing, the following combinatorial problem comes up: If T is a tree with adjacency matrix A and I is the identity matrix of the same order, ...
3
votes
0answers
72 views

Using Crump-Mode-Jagers processes to get logarithmic bound on a random tree height

I am currently pursuing my PhD degree and in my research I came across a family of random trees. I need to prove a logarithmic asymptotic bound for the heights of such trees as their size grows. I ...
13
votes
5answers
895 views

Is the following invariant of rooted trees a complete invariant?

Recall that rooted trees may be generated by starting with a trivial rooted tree (just a vertex), along with the operations of grafting a number of trees (identify their roots) and adding a new vertex ...
1
vote
0answers
201 views

Is the automorphism group of a homogeneous (locally finite) tree unimodular?

I have seen somewhere (that I don't remember now) that the (full) automorphism group of a k-regular tree is unimodular. I assume a k-regular tree is the same thing as the homogeneous tree of degree k ...
2
votes
0answers
99 views

Groups acting on non-locally-finite trees with independence and specified local actions

Suppose I have a biregular tree $T_{m, n}$ (not necessarily locally finite), with distinct cardinal numbers $m, n$, so Aut$(T_{m, n})$ acts on $T_{m, n}$ without inversion. Let $V_m$ be those vertices ...
4
votes
0answers
489 views

Questions about dessin d'enfants, trees and their Shabat polynomials

This will be a series of questions, a few of which have been troubling me for quite a while now. Before I jump right in, let me first introduce a few notions which I will assume. (Note: All of these ...