This tag is to be used only when re-tagging highly(!) off-topic questions where none of the actual tags would make sense; all actual tags the questioner has used are removed and something is needed to have some tag, which is enforced by the software, so this tag is used. However note that this tag ...

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-1
votes
0answers
82 views

Why integer should have finite many digits? [on hold]

for example, if we take the real part of pi 3.1415926... and write it from right to left like ...6295141, we can get a number, but this number is not a integer, why ? why it is not a integer? Can we ...
1
vote
0answers
124 views

Is there an “interesting” function that grows faster than $n^kn$ but slower than $2^{2^n}$ — relates to understanding googolplex [closed]

Motivation: I'm looking for some sort of convenient fact I can use to grasp the size of a googolplex. For a googol we observe a convenient one; it's very nearly equal to 70!. But for a googolplex I ...
1
vote
1answer
108 views

Finitely Generated Commutative Z-algebra.

Let $R$ be a commutative, finitely generated $\mathbb{Z}$-algebra, then the nil radical is equal to the Jacobson radical. I am not able to make much traction on this, nor can I find this result in ...
16
votes
6answers
3k views

Angle Maximizing the Distance of a Projectile

It is well-known that to maximize the horizontal distance traveled by a projectile fired from the ground at a given speed, one should fire it at a $45^\circ$ angle. What's less-known, though not too ...
-1
votes
3answers
837 views

Can a nowhere continuous function be integrable ? [closed]

Let $f$ be a bounded function on a close interval, $[0,1]$ e.g.. Can it be everywhere discontinuous and integrable? Thanks! P.S. It isn't a homework for me and I asked this question just out of ...
1
vote
1answer
86 views

Approximating rational generating functions

Suppose we have a initial segment $x_1,\ldots,x_N$ (for reasonably large $N$) of a sequence of natural numbers $(x_i)$. We have reason to believe the generating function $\sum_{i=0}^\infty x_iX^i$ is ...
2
votes
1answer
504 views

Are there such numbers?

Maybe better to ask for help on this question here: Are there eight numbers $0< x_{1},\ldots,x_{4},y_{1},\ldots,y_{4}<1$, such that $$ ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

Does the derivative of log have a Dirac delta term?

Dirac writes down the following formula on page 61 of his "Principles of quantum mechanics": $\frac{d}{dx}\log x = \frac{1}{x} -i\pi\delta(x)$, see http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1947pqm..book.....D ...
3
votes
0answers
116 views

P-adic Weierstrass Lemma for several variables

The p-adic Weiestrass lemma asserts that a power series $f(z)$ with coefficients in the ring of integers of a local field can be factored as $π^n·u(z)·p(z)$ where u(z) is a unit in the ring of power ...
1
vote
1answer
242 views

Name convention for the composition of the preimage of a function and the function itself

Hi, given a function $f:X \rightarrow Y$, not necessarily invertible, is there a conventional name for the function $$g_f := f^{-1} \circ f:X \rightarrow \mathcal{P}(X),$$ where $\mathcal{P}(X)$ ...
26
votes
18answers
5k views

Interesting applications (in pure mathematics) of first-year calculus

What interesting applications are there for theorems or other results studied in first-year calculus courses? A good example for such an application would be using a calculus theorem to prove a ...
3
votes
1answer
349 views

Identity involving Fresnel integrals

In the paper E. Mehlum, Appell and the apple (nonlinear splines in space), Technical Report No. 1676 (1981), Central institute for industrial research, Oslo (reproduced in the book Mathematical ...
1
vote
2answers
296 views

Limit with theorem of dominated convergence

Let $f\in L^{2,s}(\mathbb{R}^3)=\bigg\lbrace u\bigg|\int_{\mathbb{R}^3}dx\,|u(x)|^2(1+|x|^2)^s<\infty\bigg\rbrace$ ($s>\frac{1}{2}$) I have to calculate this limit $$\lim_{|x-y|\to ...
1
vote
0answers
198 views

Average weighted value of a linear functional over increasing bounded subsets of Z^n

Say you're working within the finite-dimensional free Z-module $\mathbb{Z}^n$, and you want to impose a "norm" on this module. By a "norm" I mean a function $\|·\|: \mathbb{Z}^n \to \mathbb{R}$ which ...
3
votes
1answer
239 views

Possible to find a set of log-concave functions with log-concave sums?

While the set of log-convex functions is closed under addition, the set of log-concave functions is not. Yet if $f$ is log-concave, $\ln(k f) = \ln(k)+\ln(f)$, with $k \in \mathbb{R}^+$ constant, is ...
0
votes
1answer
68 views

How to define an “anisotropic vector” for a given object?

Dear experts, I am looking for a way to define an "alignment vector" (or anisotropy or orientation vector?) for a given geometrical object. I am not sure how to put this into correct technical terms, ...
22
votes
16answers
2k views

functions satisfying “one-one iff onto”

Hello Everybody. I need some more examples for the following really interesting phenomenon: A function from the class ... is one-one iff it is onto. Some ...
3
votes
1answer
169 views

Spectral synthesis for central functions on locally compact groups

There is a large literature on harmonic analysis on locally compact group, that I am just beginning to discover. However I have not seen so far anything that emphasizes the central functions on $G$. A ...
2
votes
1answer
236 views

symmetry of generationg function of PDE

We know that for finding the solutions of PDE equations, one of methods is "reduction of PDE", . For nonlinear equation $v_t=(v^{-4/3}v_x)_x+\lambda v$ how can we compute the generators of Lie ...
4
votes
1answer
395 views

Is there a closed form expression/series expansion for $\int_{\epsilon-i\infty}^{\epsilon+i\infty} e^{az+b^2z^2}\Gamma(z)\Gamma(1-z)dz$ ?

I've been trying to find a closed form expression/series expansion for the following integral without success: $$F(a,b)=\int_{\epsilon-i\infty}^{\epsilon+i\infty} ...
0
votes
1answer
127 views

Limit of a function in a weighted Sobolev space

I have a function $f(x)$ in the space $H^{2,-s}(\mathbb{R}^3)$; have this limit sense $$\lim_{|x-y|\to 0} f(x)$$ ? ($y$ is a fixed point) If i have $f$ in $H^2$ I can say that $$\lim_{|x-y|\to 0} ...
2
votes
1answer
147 views

Lipshitz Constant of the convex extension of a submodular function

The title says it all :) Given a submodular function (take the rank function of a matroid, for a concrete example) $f:\{0,1\}^n\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, we can extend it to a convex function ...
2
votes
0answers
124 views

Extension divergence-free, curl-converging vector field

Hi. Consider a smooth open Set $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^3$ and a bounded sequence of vector fields $(u_n)_n \in L^2(\Omega)$ having $0$ divergence. I know how to extend this sequence to the whole ...
2
votes
2answers
379 views

Relationship between the derivative of a matrix and its eigenvalues

Is there any relationship between the derivative of a matrix and its eigenvalues? If, for example, the derivative is strictly positive definite, can I say that the eigenvalues are strictly increasing? ...
1
vote
0answers
434 views

Derivative of the regularized upper incomplete gamma function

Hello everyone! I have a question about the derivative of the regularized upper incomplete gamma function. Considering the gamma function and the incomplete gamma function \begin{eqnarray} ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

Computing a point of refraction

Oddball question: say I want to travel from $(a, b)$ where $b > 0$ to $(c, d)$ where $d < 0$ using the shortest path, where I can travel at velocity $v_1$ in the upper half-plane and at velocity ...
1
vote
1answer
418 views

Is this min not less than a min

Let $\mathbf{D}$ be the unit disk, is $$\inf_{\begin{array}{c} v_{1},v_{2},v_{3},v_{4}\in\mathbf{D},\\ v_{0}\in\mbox{convexhull}\left(v_{1},v_{2},v_{3},v_{4}\right) \end{array}}\max_{0\le ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Generalizing square wheels rolling on inverted catenaries

It is not uncommon to see in a science museum a bicycle with square wheels that rides smoothly over a washboard-like surface made from inverted catenary curves (e.g., at the Münich museum). The ...
2
votes
2answers
4k views

What is the mathematical meaning of this symbol? [closed]

Someone asked me, and I told them I would try to find out... what is the meaning of this symbol: B'L     or     BL' (I'm not sure if the tick comes before or after the L. It ...
0
votes
1answer
149 views

Boundary Problem with an Area Constraint

Consider a boundary given by vertices (0,a), (0,0) and (1,0) (an 'L' shaped boundary). The problem is to find the equation that passes between the endpoints (0,a) (1,0) of minimum length that ...
2
votes
1answer
258 views

How do minimal polynomials relate?

How does the idea of a "minimal polynomial" for a matrix (i.e. for a matrix $A$, the polynomial, $\mu (x)$, of least degree, such that $\mu (A) =0$) relate the the "minimal polynomial" for some ...
2
votes
1answer
182 views

How many flavors should a notational system offer for rank-1 tensors?

The notation for tensors is like the plumbing in a very old Vermont farmhouse. It may once have been intentionally designed, but after that it just evolved. As an example, it seems that depending on ...
1
vote
0answers
291 views

Properties of a rational function of multiple variables

Suppose you are given a multivariable rational function f(x0,x1,x2,x3,..,xn), so the only four operation are +,-,*,/. Assume that all constants and exponents are integers within certain range. I ...
12
votes
1answer
297 views

Permanent of a matrix of odd integers

It is clear that the permanent of an $n\times n$ matrix which entries are odd integers, is an even number, as it is the sum of $n!$ odd numbers. I am interested in finding the highest power of $2$ ...
11
votes
2answers
735 views

Hopf Algebra for a physicist

Hello, for my bachelor's thesis I need to understand the Hopf Algebra of Feynman Diagrams. As I have only litte knowledge in Algebra by now I wanted to ask where I could start and what preknowledge I ...
1
vote
1answer
98 views

concave functions of different behaviour in the neighbourhood of 0 from Shannon function

I'm looking for an example of a concave function $g\colon [0,1]\to\mathbb{R}$, $g(0)=0$ such that: $$\liminf_{x\to 0^+}\frac{g(x)}{-x\ln x}\neq \limsup_{x\to 0^+}\frac{g(x)}{-x\ln x}.$$ Moreover is ...
3
votes
1answer
175 views

Convex polyhedral decomposition of spheres

Is there a decomposition of $S^2$ into $k$ (geodesically) convex polyhedra that are congruent to each other? What about $S^n$ for $n>1$? Remarks: A polyhedron is defined as an area enclosed by a ...
0
votes
1answer
189 views

tensorproduct, p-adic groupring

Suppose there is a cyclic group $G$ and a prime $p$. Why can one write $$ \mathbb{Z}_p[G] \cong \mathbb{Z}_p \otimes _\mathbb{Z} \mathbb{Z}[G]$$ Is this some theorem which has a name? Thanks for ...
7
votes
4answers
437 views

Trig functions based on convex curves

Pardon my naivety, but I wonder if much use has been found for trigonometric functions defined in terms of a centrally symmetric convex curve $K$ replacing the circle $C$. For example, here is the ...
13
votes
2answers
1k views

The non-traveling mathematician problem

This is a career question. I have just begun a research postdoc position in Southern California. It has been hard, but I've enjoyed teaching my first graduate courses and working on research and ...
0
votes
1answer
117 views

Inductive vs projective limit of sequence of split surjections

Let $$ A_1\twoheadrightarrow A_2\twoheadrightarrow A_3\twoheadrightarrow A_4\twoheadrightarrow \cdots $$ be an inductive sequence of countable abelian groups, the connecting homomorphisms of which are ...
4
votes
2answers
176 views

Branch locus of a 6:1 cover of the grassmannian G(1,3)

Given a general quartic surface $S$ in $\mathbf{P}^3$, there is a natural 6:1 surjective map $\phi: Hilb^2(S) \to G(1,3)$ sending $\{P,Q\}$ to the line through them in $\mathbf{P}^3$. Can you ...
1
vote
0answers
102 views

Existence of open dense subset in a Lie group

Let $G=S\cdot R$ be a Levi-Malcev decomposition of a connected complex Lie group and $\Gamma$ a discrete subgroup of $G$ such that the subgroups $\Gamma_g := \Gamma\cap (gSg^{-1})$ are finite for all ...
1
vote
1answer
294 views

The PDE $u_t=u_{xx}-u_{yy}$: The simplest linear second-order PDE that isn't elliptic, parabolic, or hyperbolic.

I know that there have been several questions on here and stackexchange about linear PDE's which don't fall into the standard classification, but I had a more focused question which I haven't seen ...
8
votes
3answers
549 views

Variable-centric logical foundation of calculus

Since calculus originated long before our modern function concept, much of our language of calculus still focuses on variables and their interrelationships rather than explicitly on functions. For ...
8
votes
5answers
3k views

If d/dx is an operator, on what does it operate?

If $\frac{d}{dx}$ is a differential operator, what are its inputs? If the answer is "(differentiable) functions" (i.e., variable-agnostic sets of ordered pairs), we have difficulty distinguishing ...
1
vote
0answers
321 views

Area Under Generalized Parabolas and Hyperbolas without Calculus.

This is shorter and more specific version of certain questions about a rather simple quadrature method. The answers I got were great but not what I asked. The terms in the title for $y=x^p$ look ...
0
votes
1answer
85 views

example of a concave function with $\lim_{x\to 0^+}\frac{g(x)}{-x\ln x}=\infty$ which fullfills some additional condition

I'm looking for the example of a concave function $g\colon [0,1]\mapsto \mathbb{R}$, with $g(0)=0$, for which $\lim\limits_{x\to 0^+}\frac{g(x)}{-x\ln x}=\infty$ and $\lim\limits_{x\to ...
0
votes
0answers
82 views

name for a class of functions

I would like to ask whether is used some name for functions $g:A\to\mathbb{R}$, $A\subset \mathbb{R}$, for which $$\exists \lambda>1:\;\; \lim_{x\to 0^+}\frac{\lambda g(x)}{g(\lambda x)}>1.$$
9
votes
4answers
804 views

Integrating Powers without much Calculus

I'll jump into the question and then back off into qualifications and context Using the definition of a definite integral as the limit of Riemann sums, what is the best way (or the very good ways) ...