This tag is to be used only when re-tagging highly(!) off-topic questions where none of the actual tags would make sense; all actual tags the questioner has used are removed and something is needed to have some tag, which is enforced by the software, so this tag is used. However note that this tag ...

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0
votes
1answer
262 views

Geometrically connected curve

What is the definition of a geometrically connected curve?
0
votes
1answer
189 views

tensorproduct, p-adic groupring

Suppose there is a cyclic group $G$ and a prime $p$. Why can one write $$ \mathbb{Z}_p[G] \cong \mathbb{Z}_p \otimes _\mathbb{Z} \mathbb{Z}[G]$$ Is this some theorem which has a name? Thanks for ...
0
votes
1answer
342 views

Function (/matrix) to generate linearly independent vectors.

Hi, I want to whether there is a vector generating function (/matrix) such that it can generate a m-dimensional vector which will always be linearly independent of the set of m-dimensional vectors ...
3
votes
1answer
237 views

Hilbert scheme of 2 points on an elliptic curve

The Hilbert scheme of 2 points on an elliptic curve $C$, $Hilb^2(C)$, has a natural structure of ruled surface, given by the map $f:Hilb^2(C) \to C$ such that $f(P,Q)=P+Q$. What can we say about the ...
0
votes
1answer
182 views

Hardy theorem on elementary functions

Say we have two elementary functions (see http://mathworld.wolfram.com/ElementaryFunction.html for the definition) $f_1,f_2\colon [0,\infty)\mapsto \mathbb{R}$ such that ...
0
votes
0answers
239 views

Checking whether this would be bounded

It may be better to post this question here. Assume that $M$ is an $m$ by $m$ ($m$ is an even number) symmetric positive-semi-definite matrix with exactly $m/2$ positive eigenvalues and every entry of ...
5
votes
1answer
271 views

Computing the limit of a certain recursively defined sequence

The following is not exactly a research question (it was originated from manufacturing of exercises for calculus), and has no other motivation than explaining a phenomenon. I apologize if it is ...
1
vote
1answer
286 views

concave function with sublinear growth

Does there exist a concave, increasing function $h\colon[0,\infty)\to\mathbb{R}$ such that $\lim_{x\to\infty} h(x)=\infty$ $\lim_{x\to\infty} h(x)/x=0$ There exist sequences of positive numbers ...
1
vote
0answers
276 views

The used symbols for equality and equivalence

Background: I am currently developing a general purpose programming language which allows formal verification (i.e. correctness proofs) of programs. During the development it came out that a lot of ...
3
votes
2answers
235 views

Jacobian and determinants

Start with variables $(a_1, a_2, a_3, … a_n)$ and transform it to the system $(x_1, x_2, x_3, … x_n)$ where the xi’s are the solutions to $x^n + a_1x^{n-1} + a_2x^{n-2} + a_3x^{n-3} +…+ a_n$. The ...
4
votes
1answer
267 views

kapranov's realization of $\overline{M}_{0,n}$ over other fields

Kapranov gave a very nice desciption, over $\mathbb{C}$ of the moduli space of stable pointed rational curves $\overline{M}_{0,n}$ as a series of blow-ups of $P^{n-3}$. Does this, or a similar result, ...
6
votes
1answer
218 views

Algebraic integers in skew fields

Hi everyone, let $D$ be a skew field, which is finite dimensional over its center $k$. Assume that $k$ is a number field, and let $\mathcal{O}_D$ be the set of elements $z\in D$ which are roots of a ...
1
vote
0answers
111 views

A question about smoothness

$f$ is a smooth function on $[0,+\infty)$ and $f(x)>0$ for all $x>0$. Then does the following equivalence hold : $\phi(x,y)=f(\sqrt{x^2+y^2})$ is smooth if and only if $f^{(k)}(0)=0$ for all ...
11
votes
2answers
503 views

Independence of Leibniz rule and locality from other properties of the derivative?

The following is meant to be an axiomatization of differential calculus of a single variable. To avoid complications, let's say that $f$, $g$, $f'$, and $g'$ are smooth functions from $\mathbb{R}$ to ...
6
votes
1answer
295 views

question about higher geometric stacks

I have a naive question I am asking. Given a higher geometric stack X in the sense of Simpson, Toen etc is it true that there is an affinization Spec Gamma(O_X) such that Hom(X, Spec(A))= ...
4
votes
1answer
278 views

Invariant lattice of algebraic surface.

Given an algebraic surface $S$ with action of a finite group $G$. Is it true that the invariant lattice $H^2(X,\mathbb{Z})^G$ is generated by elements pulled back from the $H^2(X/G,\mathbb{Z})$ (or ...
7
votes
1answer
301 views

What are the applications of Dowker's theorem?

Let $R \subset X \times Y$ be any relation between sets $X$ and $Y$. CH Dowker constructed two simplicial complexes $K$ and $L$ associated to $R$: a simplex in $K$ consists of finitely many elements ...
5
votes
0answers
213 views

Azimuthal and polar integration of a 3D Gaussian

Numerical evaluation of the following integral of a 3D gaussian $G$ seems to result in a 1D Gaussian $g$: $$\int_{0}^{2\pi}\int_{0}^{\pi}G(R,\phi,\theta)\sin\theta\ \text{d}\theta \ \text{d}\phi= ...
5
votes
4answers
478 views

Multivariable Calculus Lecture Ideas

I am teaching a course in multivariable calculus this semester. We are covering the basics about $\mathbb{R}^n$, including dot products and cross products, curves, and quadric surfaces. After that ...
6
votes
11answers
2k views

A function that is defined everywhere but has unknown values [closed]

For pedagogical purposes I am looking for a function $\mathbb{N}\to\mathbb{N}$ that is defined everywhere but has most of its values unknown. Although such a function cannot be simple by definition, ...
3
votes
1answer
386 views

What grows faster? [closed]

What grows faster: Busy Beaver function, TREE function or BEAF largest resursive functions (legions, lugions, lagions...)?
6
votes
2answers
519 views

Computer aided homology computations

Background I am currently working on the homology of some modulispace and there exists a much simpler chaincomplex with the same homology. It is a quotient of a bisimplicial complex by a subcomplex. ...
4
votes
0answers
311 views

A question on an intuitive way to look at stacks

I am reading the chapter "Introducing Algebraic Stacks" in The Stacks Projects to get a feeling for them. There is a small point that throws me off. They denote $\mathcal{M}_{1, 1}$ the moduli stack ...
0
votes
2answers
431 views

What's the meaning of pencils in birational geometry?

I see in some books the authors call a one dimensional linear system a pencil, but in other books one call a linear system $|D|$ is not compsited with a pencil if $\dim \phi_{|D|}(X)\geq 2$ and even ...
1
vote
1answer
286 views

Reference for a derivative formula for matrices

I found the identity $$ \frac{\partial( \det (X^T A X ))}{\partial X} = 2\det(X^TAX)AX(X^TAX)^{-1} $$ On the matrix cookbook (http://orion.uwaterloo.ca/~hwolkowi/matrixcookbook.pdf). It is equation ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

Counterexamples to differentiation under integral sign?

I'm exploring differentiation under the integral sign (I want to be much faster and more assured in doing this common task). So one thing I'm interested in is good counterexamples, where both ...
4
votes
2answers
371 views

Can we calculate the inner product of a semicontinous function with the Dirac delta function?

Dear all, It is clear that if $f:R\mapsto R$ is a continuous function, than $< f, \delta_x >=f(x)$. Now, if $f$ is only semicontinous, can we say that $< f, \delta_x >=f(x)$? I think this ...
4
votes
2answers
183 views

Steinberg Group as a Lattice in a lie group

Given an integral domain $R$, the Steinberg group $St_n(R)$ is the group given by generators $e_{pq}(\lambda) := \mathbf{1} + a_{pq}(\lambda)$, $p\neq q$, $1\leq p,q \leq n$ Subject to ...
2
votes
1answer
289 views

T^i functors are isomorphic for analytically isomorphic isolated singular points

I've been having trouble proving the following: Let $B$ and $B'$ be local rings, essentially of finite type over $k$, having isolated singularities at the closed points. Suppose that they are ...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

Numerical Computation of arcsin and arctan for real numbers [closed]

I'm coding some numerical methods and I do not know what the correct analysis would be for choosing the implementation for $arcsin$ and $arctan$ for real numbers. Here's what I know: Both functions ...
5
votes
1answer
223 views

An extension of Edelstein's Attraction Theorem?

Let $X$ be a metric space. Recall that a function $f: X \rightarrow X$ is contractive if there exists $C \in (0,1)$ such that for all $x,y \in X$, $d(f(x),f(y)) \leq C d(x,y)$; a function $f$ is ...
6
votes
1answer
298 views

Evaluating the average distance from a point in the unit disk to the disk

I am interested in finding the average Euclidean distance from a point $(x,y)\in\mathbb{D}_2$, the unit disk $\{(u,v):u^2+v^2\leq 1\}\subseteq\mathbb{R}^2$, to the disk $\mathbb{D}_2$. This amounts to ...
0
votes
0answers
175 views

Matrix Maximization.

Hi everyone, I'm trying to solve/define the following optimization problem: $\max_M f(M)$ s.t. $M \theta = b$ $\sum_j \theta_j = 1$ When: M is an m*n real matrix $\theta$ and $b$ are n*1 column ...
8
votes
2answers
470 views

Rain droplets falling on a table

Suppose you have a circular table of radius $R$. This table has been left outside, and it begins to rain at a constant rate of one droplet per second. The drops, which can be considered points as they ...
0
votes
1answer
192 views

the relationship between integration by parts and surface integrals

Recently, I met an equation about the integration by parts and surface integrals. It says:$$ ...
2
votes
2answers
795 views

An elementary but confusing question in differential geomerty

Let $f:\mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R}$ be a function, then looking $f$ as a function between manifolds, $df:T\mathbb{R}=\mathbb{R}^2\to \mathbb{R}^2$ and $d^2f:TT\mathbb{R}=\mathbb{R}^4\to \mathbb{R}^4$ are ...
3
votes
0answers
401 views

sine and Archimedes' derivation of the area of the circle

The elementary "opposite over hypotenuse" definition of the sine function defines the sine of an angle, not a real number. As discussed in the article "A Circular Argument" [Fred Richman, The College ...
0
votes
0answers
110 views

Hammerstein integral equation with inverse of the solution

In signal processing theory I found this integral equation that I recognized to be of Hammerstein type: $$u(t)-\int_{0}^{1}d\phi cos(\omega t+\phi)\frac{1}{u(\phi)}=0$$ Unfortunately the solution ...
3
votes
2answers
199 views

Minimal right ideals in finite semigroup

Let $E$ be a finite semigroup. According to N. Bourbaki (Algèbre I p. 121 exerc. 14 c), if $M$ and $M'$ are minimal right ideals in $E$, then they are isomorphic. I spent some time browsing through ...
1
vote
1answer
189 views

Order density of smooth functions among continuous functions?

Let $\mathcal{C}^0([a,b],\mathbb{R})$ be the space of all continuous functions $f:[a,b]\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ and $\mathcal{C}^\infty([a,b],\mathbb{R})$ the subspace of all smooth functions. Define ...
0
votes
1answer
379 views

Calculating a distributional derivative

Suppose that we have a sequence of functions $u_j$ that are in $L^{\infty}(0,1)$. Then the sequence of maps $N_j(s) := \|u_j(s)\|^2$ are also in $L^{\infty}(0,1)$. Hence they give rise to ...
4
votes
1answer
342 views

Interchanging min and max for a continuous function of two variables

Let $f:[0,1]\times[0,1]\to\mathbb{R}$ be a continuous function. Define $$ M_x:=\max\limits_{0\leq y\leq 1} f(x,y), \qquad m_y:=\min\limits_{0\leq x\leq 1} f(x,y). $$ Is there a useful set of ...
1
vote
2answers
475 views

How to interpret this class of numbers?

Let's say $ f(p) $ is a number defined as shown below: $ \hspace {10 mm}f(p) = {\sqrt {2} ^ {{\sqrt {2} ^ \sqrt {2}} ^ {... \hspace {1 mm} p\hspace {1 mm} times } }} $ What I understand is: We ...
1
vote
0answers
213 views

Supremum of continuous functions on $\mathbb{R}$ [closed]

If $f(x)$ is a continuous function on all of $\mathbb R$, with the property that $\sup_{x\in\mathbb R}|f(x)|\leq 1$. If this is the case, how I can test if the sup is attained or not? (i.e., if there ...
2
votes
1answer
270 views

Frobenius base change of etale maps

Let $A$ be a characteristic $p>0$ commutative ring. Let $B$ be a finitely presented etale $A$ algebra i.e. $$ B=A[x_1,\ldots,x_n]/(f_1,\ldots,f_n), $$ with $det(\frac{\partial f_i}{\partial ...
17
votes
4answers
988 views

The “ds” which appears in an integral with respect to arclength is not a 1-form. What is it?

The only reasonable way to interpret "$ds$" as a functional on tangent vectors has to be that it takes a tangent vector and spits out its length, but this is not linear. So $ds$ is not a 1-form. It ...
1
vote
1answer
204 views

Asymptotic behaviour of a mean

Fix $x>0$ and $c\in\mathbb{N}$. Let $f(x):=\frac{c}{4c-2+2x^2}$ and $$m_N(x):=\frac{1}{N} \sum_{i=0}^{f(x)N} \log(\frac{c N}{2}-i(2c-1))$$ I'm pretty sure $m_N(x)\to\infty$ as $N\to\infty$. I ...
3
votes
1answer
392 views

asymptotic behaviour of a sum

I'd like to know the asymptotic behaviour as $N\to\infty$ of the following sum $$ Z_N(x) := 2^{-N/2} \sum_{k=0}^{N/2} \frac{N!}{k! (N-2k)!} (N-1)^{-k} (\sqrt{2} x)^{N-2k} $$ in order to compute ...
0
votes
0answers
177 views

Evaluating the integral $\int_{a}^{+\infty} \frac{\exp(-bx)}{x+c} Ei(x) dx$

I'm trying to evaluate or simplify this integral: $$I_{a,b,c} = \int_{a}^{+\infty} \frac{\exp(-bx)}{x+c} Ei(x) dx $$ with $a,b,c \in \mathbb{R}_+^*$. and $ Ei(x) =\int_{-\infty}^{x} ...
0
votes
1answer
283 views

Bounding a signed sum of complex numbers [closed]

Let $z_i \in \mathbb{C}\:$ for $i=1,\dots, n\;$ be complex numbers, all with absolute value $|z_i|\le 1\;$. Prove (or disprove) that there exists a choice of signs $s_i \in \{\pm 1\}$ such that ...