# Tagged Questions

**10**

votes

**2**answers

305 views

+50

### On the boundary of the twindragon

Let $\mathcal T$ be the famous twindragon, i.e.,
$$
\mathcal T=\left\{\sum_{n=0}^\infty a_n\left(\frac{1+i}2\right)^n : a_n\in\{0,1\}\right\}.
$$
Then, as is well known, $\mathcal T$ has a ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

125 views

### Perron-Frobenius theory for reducible matrices

Can someone suggest some sources/references dealing with the Perron-Frobenius theory for nonnegative matrices that are reducible?
Specifically, if $A\ge 0$ is a $d\times d$ matrix with no assumptions ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

63 views

### Topological pressure for subshifts on a countable alphabet

Apologies for asking two similar questions within a week of each other, I had hoped that asking a finite alphabet version of this question would lead to enlightenment but unfortunately it didn't.
...

**4**

votes

**3**answers

164 views

### Approximating Subshifts From Below

I'm looking to understand how to approximate certain countable alphabet subshifts by Markov shifts, and realised that I don't know how to do it even in the finite alphabet case. My guess is that the ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

89 views

### The value of the sequence generated by the substitution

Given a substitution $1\to 100$, $0\to 01$, then we have $1\to 100\to1000101\to10001010110001100\to\cdots$, we denote this limits (fixed point of this substitution) as $(a_n)$, given $\beta>1 $. ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

103 views

### Growth in families of trees

I'm hoping that the question below is simple thermodynamic formalism, but I can't quite make it work. Any help would be very welcome.
Let $\Sigma:=\{0,1\}^{\mathbb N}$ and let $\Sigma^*$ be the set ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

118 views

### Substitutions and Sturmian sequences

We know that any substitution can generate sequence, for example the Fibonacci substitution:
$\sigma(0)=01, \sigma(1)=0$, then we can define a Sturmian sequence $\omega$, i.e., the fixed point of ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

52 views

### Ferenczi: minimal, uniquely ergodic, sublinear complexity systems are not strongly mixing

The following result is on page 26 of this paper by Ferenczi [PDF].
Corollary 3. A minimal and uniquely ergodic system of sub-affine complexity cannot be strongly mixing (i.e., $\mu(T^nA \cap B) ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

163 views

### Brun's algorithm

Does anyone have an exact reference for the weak convergence (convergence in angle) of Brun's subtractive multi-dimensional continued fractions algorithm (in all dimensions)? I have been given ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

221 views

### Über theorem on unavoidable patterns?

Let $A$ be an alphabet of $k$ symbols,
and $p$ a pattern.
An example of a pattern is $p=XX$, where $X$ is any finite
string of symbols from $A^+$.
Avoiding $p$ is avoiding any subword repeated twice ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

195 views

### A problem in symbolic dynamics

I got a fun problem.
Define the alphabet $\mathcal{A}=\{0,1,2\}$ and the set $\mathcal{A}^{\leq n}=\{ x_1x_2\ldots x_n: x_i\in \mathcal{A}\}$ of words of length $n,$ for each $n\in\mathbb{N}.$
...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

67 views

### For a summable function, with summable variation, prove that $\sup_{i \in I} \sup_{x \in [i]}|f(x)| \exp((t-1) sup_{x \in [i]}f(x) )$ is bounded

Let $X = \mathbb{N}^\mathbb{N}$ and $f: X \to \mathbb{R}$ be a function such that
$$|f|_{var}= \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} var_n f < \infty,$$
where $var_n f = sup\{|f(x)-f(y)|: x,y \in X , x_k = y_k, ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

122 views

### Cycles in directed graphs

Let G be a finite directed graph (allowing multiple edges). We define a cycle (as usual) to be a sequence of edges $e_0, e_1, \dots, e_{n-1}$ (up to cyclic permutation) such that the terminal vertex ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

104 views

### Group action of $G<\mathbb Z^\infty_2$ over the Golden mean shif [closed]

I'm am looking for an action of an infinite subgroup of $\mathbb Z^\infty_2$ over the golden mean shift space $$X=\{x\in \{0,1\}^\mathbb N : x_i=1\Rightarrow x_{i+1}=0\}$$ such that any element of $G$ ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

109 views

### Is any invariant, ergodic measure with full support on an irreducible Markov shift a Markov measure?

I have this question I have been struggling with for a while. It seems rather intuitive, however, I was not able to proof it yet:
Let $\Omega = \{1,2,\cdots,N\}$ a finite alphabet, $\Sigma \subset ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

234 views

### Deterministic shifts

We consider (topological) dynamical systems $(\Omega, S)$, where $S$ is the shift $(Sx)_n=x_{n+1}$, and $\Omega\subset[0,1]^{\mathbb Z}$ is a compact, shift invariant subspace. I call such a system ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

140 views

### Graph presentation of Lexicographic shifts

Consider a finite alphabet $\{0,1, \ldots, n-1\}$. Let $\Sigma_n = \mathop{\prod}\limits_{j=1}^{\infty}\{0, \ldots n-1\}$ be the set of infinite one sided sequences and $\prec$ the lexicographic ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

82 views

### Constructing an interval exchange given a prescribed trajectory

Given a prescribed trajectory, is it possible to construct an interval exchange having this trajectory?
For example, given a 3-letter word (like aaabbbccabcaaa ), is it possible to construct a 3- ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

142 views

### Find a sequence with uniform frequencies and recurrent property

Given any 4 positive numbers $p_{00}\,,p_{01}=p_{10}\,,p_{11}$,such that the sum of the 4 numbers is 1, now I want to find a sequence in $\{0\,,1\}^\mathbb{N}$
such that this sequence has uniform ...

**0**

votes

**2**answers

161 views

### The Book for ergodic theory on SFT in dimension $D>1.$

I have been unable to find a good reference for a book that study in details ergodic theory on sub shifts of finite type in dimension $D>1.$ The only reference that I got was actually a book by ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

199 views

### Renewal systems: Intrinsic ergodicity and a question related to the Adler's conjecture

Consider the alphabet $\mathcal{A} = \{0,1\}$ and consider a finite set of words $W = \{\omega_1, \ldots , \omega_n\}$ over $\mathcal{A}$. Then the renewal system $\Sigma_{W}$ generated by $W$ is ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

297 views

### A weak-mixing, zero entropy measure on the 2-shift which gives equal weight to both symbols

I am currently sketching a paper in the general area of symbolic dynamics in which I would like to be able to use the following fact:
Proposition (proposed): there exists a shift-invariant ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

119 views

### Does conjugacy preserve the set of synchronizing blocks?

A synchronized system is a transitive shift space $X$ which has a synchronizing block $v$, that is $v$ is an admissible block for $X$ and whenever $vw$ and $uv$ are admissible blocks in $X$, then ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

152 views

### Mixing coded systems and period of their graph presentations

A coded system [see F. Blanchard, G. Hansel, Systèmes codés, Theoretical Computer Science, Vol. 44, 1986, pp. 17-49, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-3975(86)90108-8.
...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

133 views

### Automorphisms of strictly ergodic shift spaces

Let $X$ be a strictly ergodic shift space, and $\omega_1$, $\omega_2$ be two different points in $X$. Is there an automorphism $\Psi$ of $X$ such that $\Psi(\omega_1)=\omega_2$? By an automorphism I ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

127 views

### Is there a one-dimensional subshift of positive entropy s, all of whose sub-subshifts also have entropy s?

A subshift is a subset $X$ of $A^\mathbb{N}$ or $A^\mathbb{Z}$ (with $A$ finite), such that $X$ is topologically closed and closed under the shift operation. The shift operation is defined by ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

48 views

### A criterion or algorithm for polynomial which admits Markov partition on its Julia set

For a given polynomials $P(z)$, whether there exists general algorithm to check it admits a Markov partition on its Julia sets. (in finite computation time.)
May be it is more difficult for the ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

366 views

### Intuition of Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy

For a measurable entropy of measurable transformation $T$ from $(X,\mathcal{B},m)$ to itself.
For each finite measurable partition $\mathcal{A}=\{A_i\}_{i=1}^{m}$ of $X$, we can define
...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

134 views

### Estimation of number of ways to concatenate strings of the form $01^k2^k$ to create a string of length n

In symbolic dynamics, the context-free shift is the set of biinfinite concatenations of strings of the form $01^k2^k$ for $k\in\mathbb{N}\cup\lbrace 0\rbrace$. I've reduced a certain problem to ...

**28**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### What is the effect of adding 1/2 to a continued fraction?

Is there a simple answer to the question "what happens to the continued fraction expansion of an irrational number when you add 1/2?" A closely related question is "what happens to such an expansion ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

250 views

### probability measures with entropy equal to nonnegative number

Is it true that for a given nonnegative number, there exists a measure-theoretical entropy value (supremum of entropies of all partitions under a measure-preserving transformation) that equals this ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

287 views

### Relative irreducibility

Let $X$ be a one-dimensional one-step irreducible shift of finite type and let $\pi$ be a one-block factor code from $X$ to a sofic $Y$. Suppose $y$ is a right transitive point of
$Y$ and $\pi(u)=y$ ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

400 views

### Aproximating dynamical systems by intrinsically ergodic systems

Let $X$ be a compact metric space and $f:X \to X$ a continuous map. We say that $(X,f)$ is approximated from below by a sequence of compact metric spaces $(X_i)_{i \geq 1}$ and a sequence of ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

137 views

### Entropy of factors of Bernoulli schemes

Let $X$ be a Bernoulli scheme. A factor $\psi: X \to Y$ is finitary if for almost every $x \in X$ there exist integers $m \leq n$ such that the zero coordinates of $\psi(x)$ and $\psi(x')$ agree for ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

291 views

### Recurrence theorems

Bonjour, I need some help regarding recurrence theorems in shift spaces. I am aware of Poincaré's Recurrence Theorem, but I'm sure I've heard of another one telling about the time required to get back ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

243 views

### Coded Systems and dense subsets

A shift space $(X, \sigma)$ is a coded system if there exist a countable collection of finite words $(\omega^n)_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$, called generators, such that $X$ is the closure of the set of ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

258 views

### Limits of intrinsically ergodic systems

Let $(X_i)$ be a sequence of compact metric spaces and $(f_i)$ a sequence of transitive transformations $f_i:X_i \to X_i$ with $0 < h_{top}(f_i) < \infty$.
The sequence of dynamical systems ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

272 views

### Modulo dynamics on [0,1)

For $T: \mathbb{R} \mapsto \mathbb{{R}_{+}}$, we have $\{ {T}^{n}(\theta)\ mod \ 1\} \subset [0,1)$. (where ${T}^{n}(\theta)$ means applying $T$ $n$ times on $\theta$, not the $n$th power of ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

277 views

### Measure of large cylinder sets

Given an ergodic measure m on a shift space, by Shannon-Mcmillan-Breiman Theorem, up to at most an $\epsilon$-portion, all cylinder sets of length $n$ (large enough) have $m$-measure between ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

189 views

### Does an aperiodic dynamical system have $n$-markers for any $n$?

I was wondering if a certain lemma in an article by Downarowicz holds in a more general setting (see details below):
Let $(X,T)$ be a topological dynamical system. I.e. $X$ is a compact Hausdorff ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

95 views

### Finitary factors of Bernoulli schemes that pair duals

This question is related to my question:
entropy preserving finitary factor maps of Bernoulli schemes.
Hopefully, this one is a bit easier.
Let $X=\{0,1\}^\mathbb{Z}$ with measure ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

336 views

### How to detect frequency?

Let $J$ be an arc in $\mathbb{S}^{1}\subset\mathbb{C}$ (no matter open or
closed) and $\alpha\in(0,2\pi)$ be an angle such that $\alpha/\pi$ is
irrational. Consider in $\mathbb{S}^{1}$ the sequence ...

**3**

votes

**3**answers

531 views

### Periodic sequences in symbolic dynamics

I'm an REU student who has just recently been thrown into a dynamical system problem without basically any background in the subject. My project advisor has told me that I should represent regions of ...

**6**

votes

**4**answers

571 views

### Subshifts with the same entropy

It is known that two Markov subshifts with the same entropy are "almost isomorphic" (up to a subset of measure 0) if the entropy is a logarithm of an integer (see R. L. Adler, L. W. Goodwyn, and ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

419 views

### Other realms for studying symbolic dynamics

I hope to find an online version of accessible texts in symbolic dynamics. Marcus and Lind have a text I hope to get online. What I don't know is if any text yet exists that considers symbolic ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

427 views

### Is the set of cube-free binary sequences perfect?

This question is inspired by this one. In that thread, it's established that there are uncountably many cube-free infinite binary strings (where $x \in 2^{\omega}$ is cube-free iff $\forall \sigma ...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

980 views

### How to characterize a Self-avoiding path.

I cannot find any answer to that apparently simple problem :
On a square lattice, a path is given by a sequence of relative moves in {"move forward", "turn right" and "turn left"}.
Is there a rule ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

358 views

### Breaking efficiently a binary sequence into given strings

Suppose we are given a finite collection of finite binary strings $\mathcal{S}$, of various lengths. Our task is to express any binary sequence $x\in 2^\mathbb{N}$ as juxtaposition of strings taken ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

660 views

### topologically mixing subshifts without ergodic measures

Are there examples of subshifts (that is, closed shift-invariant subsets of the full shift {$1...n$}${}^{\mathbb{Z}}$) on which the shift is topologically mixing, which admit a shift-invariant ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

183 views

### What is known about first return times to Markov partitions for Anosov diffeomorphisms?

Consider an Anosov diffeomorphism $T: M \rightarrow M$ and a corresponding Markov partition $\mathcal{R}$ of $M$. For $x \in M$, let $\mathcal{R}(x)$ denote the element of $\mathcal{R}$ containing $x$ ...