**21**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Homeomorphism historically: When did it reach its modern formulation?

Q. When did the notion of homeomorphism reach its
modern formulation as a bicontinuous bijection, i.e., a
continuous bijection
between topological spaces whose inverse is also continuous?
...

**16**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Morse theory in TOP and PL categories?

Apparently there are topological and piecewise linear versions of Morse theory. I would like to know of references that treat these topics.
How is a Morse function defined for compact manifolds (with ...

**15**

votes

**5**answers

970 views

### Is a rhombus rigid on a sphere or torus? And generalizations.

If a rectangle is formed from rigid bars for edges and joints
at vertices, then it is flexible in the plane: it can flex
to a parallelogram.
On any smooth surface with a metric, one can define a ...

**15**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Simple curves on non-orientable surfaces.

Given an element in the (first) homology group of a surface, I would like to know if it can be represented as a simple closed curve. For orientable surfaces, this is well-known, but I wasn't able to ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Classification of surfaces and the TOP, DIFF and PL categories for manifolds

A surface is simply a 2-manifold. The classification theorem for compact connected surfaces (with boundary) is commonly regarded in the categories TOP, DIFF and PL. Well known proofs (e.g. via ...

**13**

votes

**0**answers

296 views

### Approximating homeomorphisms of 2-disk by diffeomorphisms

Any homeomorphism of a compact surface can be approximated by diffeomorphisms.
Is there a parametrized version of this result, where the parameter space is an $n$-disk?
In other words, if $S$ is a ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Naive definition of surface area doesn't work?

A first stab at a definition of surface area might go like this:
Let S be a surface. Select finitely many points from S and make a bunch of triangles having these points as vertexes. Add up the ...

**12**

votes

**3**answers

618 views

### Space of embeddings of circle in a surface

Let $S$ be a compact oriented surface of genus at least $2$ (possibly with boundary). Let $X$ be a connected component of the space of embeddings of $S^1$ into $S$.
Question : what is the ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

537 views

### Do all combinatorially distinct fundamental polygons correspond to surfaces?

The topology of a closed surface can be constructed
by identifying edges of a fundamental polygon of an
even number $2n$ of edges.
Labeling the edges and using $\pm 1$ exponents to indicate
direction,
...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

675 views

### Geodesics on the twisted pseudosphere (Dini's surface)

I wonder how difficult it is to compute geodesics on Dini's Surface,
a twisted pseudosphere?
Here is one parametrization, from
Alfred Gray's Modern Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces, ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Connected sum of surfaces

I'm looking for a detailed reference about connected sums. I'd like it to contain a proof that a connected sum of connected surfaces is independent - up to homeomorphism - of the various choices ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

163 views

### Foliation with leaves which are and are not dense

Do there exist a foliation on a closed surface (i.e. real dimension 2) which has a dense leaf and also a leaf which is not dense?

**7**

votes

**0**answers

222 views

### Surfaces with many (but not solely) closed geodesics?

Let $S$ be a closed surface embedded in $\mathbb{R}^3$,
let's say of genus zero.
I seek examples of $S$ with the following property:
If one selects a random any point $p$ on $S$, and a random
...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

410 views

### Do the following set of Dehn twists generate the mapping class group?

If $S$ is the surface illustrated below, do the Dehn twists about the red curves generate the mapping class group $\operatorname{MCG}(S,\partial S)$?

**6**

votes

**1**answer

295 views

### Which surfaces have only a finite number of connecting geodesics?

Q1. For a smooth, closed (compact) surface $S$ embedded in $\mathbb{R}^3$,
under which conditions is it true that, for every pair of points
$a,b \in S$, there are an infinite number of ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

209 views

### Geodesic flow on infinite surfaces

The geodesic flow on a compact hyperbolic surface (i.e. a surface with a riemannian metric of constant curvature $-1$) has been well-studied, in particular it has been known for a long time that it is ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

333 views

### How to compute the normals to Costa's minimal surface?

I am trying to draw Costa's minimal surface in high resolution using the PovRay raytracer. For this I need to compute points on the surface as well as the normals. It is relatively easy to compute the ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

306 views

### Costa's minimal surface and the structure of lungs

Seeing this image of Costa's minimal surface
(MathWorld image)
made me wonder if the fine-grained structure
of the human lung is somehow composed of pieces of ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

95 views

### Harmonic map heat flow in positive curvature

Suppose I wish to relax/smooth a map $\phi:M\rightarrow N$ between two surfaces $M,N$ embedded in $\mathbb{R}^3$. I could try flowing the map using harmonic heat flow, which (as I understand it) is ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

331 views

### Action of $\pi_1(S)$ on its commutator subgroup

Let $G$ be a group. It acts canonically on its derived subgroup by conjugation. Can on describe the orbits of this action when $G$ is the fundamental group of a compact orientable surface of genus $g ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

429 views

### Besides the tracioid are there other surfaces of revolution that have a constant negative curvature?

There is no surface in $ R^3 $ that can represent the complete hyperbolic plane (Hilberts theorem) so we always have to do with a surface that is not completely equivalent, has a cusp somewhere, but ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

461 views

### Triple bubble conjecture: Natural candidate?

Is there a standard natural candidate surface for
the shape that encloses three given volumes
in $\mathbb{R}^3$ and has minimal surface area?
I know the planar triple bubble conjecture was ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

582 views

### Pursuit-Evasion on a Manifold

I know pursuit-evasion has been studied in many contexts, including
on a manifold (e.g., Melikyan,
"Geometry of Pursuit-Evasion Games on Two-Dimensional Manifolds"),
but I have not seen this version:
...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

129 views

### Translation surfaces & integer multiples of $\pi$

Richard Schwartz, in Mostly Surfaces (Vol. 60. American Mathematical Soc., 2011),
defines (on p.14) a translation surface as "a Euclidean cone surface, all of whose 'angle errors' are integer ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

382 views

### What is the homotopy type of the space of simple closed curves isotopic to a given one?

For surfaces there are many statements along the lines of: if two simple closed curves are homotopic, they are isotopic. I'm interested in such questions for families of curves.
More precisely, let ...

**5**

votes

**4**answers

403 views

### Lagrangian Kleinian bottles

I remember some talks some time ago about proofs of nonexistence of Lagrangian Kleinian bottles in C^2 for the standard symplectic structure, mentioning that this were the only compact surface for ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

212 views

### Fixing a proof of the systolic inequality for higher genus surfaces

I'm currently learning some stuffs about systolic inequalities. While reading the relevant sections (p329 to 340) in Berger's Panoramic View of Riemannian Geometry, I noticed a gap in one of the ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

256 views

### Avoiding mean-curvature flow dumbbell neck-pinch by inflating a surface

It is well known that
Grayson's dumbbell neck-pinch1,2 separates
into disconnected pieces under
mean curvature flow:
Image ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### What is parameterization of the trefoil knot surface in R³?

What is a parameterization, say (x(u,v),y(u,v),z(u,v)), of the trefoil knot surface in R³ whose cross-section can be circular or, in general, elliptic?
Thanks!

**4**

votes

**2**answers

222 views

### Some facts about cut-locus

Let $M$ be a 2-dimensional closed Riemmanian manifold diffeomorphic to $S^2$.
S.B.Myers says "the cut-locus of every point $x\in M$ is a finite tree."
How the set of point can be a tree? ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

426 views

### Surface Laplace-Beltrami without coordinates, exterior calculus?

Let $f: M \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^3$ be an immersion of a surface $M$. For pedagogical purposes (i.e., I'm teaching a class!) I am looking for an expression for the scalar Laplace-Beltrami operator ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

253 views

### Representing groups with two generators as graph automorphisms

Suppose we have a group $G$ which can be generated by two elements $x$, $y$. Call $H$, $K$, $L$ the subgroups of $G$ generated by $x$, $y$ and $y^{-1}x^{-1}$, respectively.
With these data, we can ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

719 views

### intersection number

I vaguely recall the following fact that I'd like to use in my research. It should be easy to see that this holds (if it does) but I can't seem to prove it.
Let $p:X\longrightarrow S$ be a (regular) ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

168 views

### Fair surfaces - general mathematical theory

Fairness measures for surfaces are, in general, functionals containing more complicated terms thatn the usual bending energy, and may depend not only on the mean curvature but also on principal ...

**3**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Covering spaces of surfaces

Let $\Sigma_g$ be a surface of genus $g\ge 2$, and let $\Sigma_k$ be an $m$-sheeted covering
space of $\Sigma_g$. It is known that $k=m(g-1)+1$.
An example of such a covering space is a regular ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

163 views

### Random metrics on compact orientable surfaces

Hello everyone,
Let $S_g$ be a compact orientable surface of genus $g \geq 2$, and let $\mathcal{A}$ be the set of $\mathcal{C}^{\infty}$ Riemanniann metric on $S_g$ endowed with the topology of ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

322 views

### Moving a canonical divisor on a normal surface away from the singular locus

In a previous question Moving a Weil divisor on a normal surface away from a finite set of closed points I probably asked for too much. As J.C. Ottem pointed out, it is not always possible to move a ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

246 views

### Reference for Arakelov's theorem: $K^2_f=0$ iff $f$ is locally trivial

Let $f:X\longrightarrow B$ be a family of curves, with $f$ relatively minimal, over a fixed curve $B$ ($B$ is projective, irreducible and smooth). The fibration $f$ is said locally trivial if all ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

91 views

### How to approximate volumes of m-dimensional manifolds with m-dimensional polyhedra

The areas of a sequence of polyhedra approaching a surface need not approach the area of the surface, but there are theorems guaranteeing that this be so. (T. Rado, On the Problem of Plateau, Chapter ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

244 views

### Removing intersections of curves in surfaces

Let $C_1, \dots, C_n$ be a family of disjoint simple curves in a surface $\Sigma$. If $C$ is any simple curve in $\Sigma$, it turns out that we can map $C$ to a curve $C'$ (via a homeomorphism of ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

323 views

### Realizing homology classes on surfaces with boundary by simple closed curves

Let $\Sigma$ be a compact oriented surface with boundary. Assume that the genus of $\Sigma$ is positive. We say that an element $h \in H_1(\Sigma)$ can be realized by a simple closed curve if there ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

465 views

### Surface fitting with convexity requirement

Hi all,
Consider a cloud of points in 3D space (x,y,z). The data is well-behaved, once plotted the surface looks like some sort of spheroid. I assumed a form for the fitting function f(x,y,z) = c1 ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

420 views

### The exceptional locus of a minimal resolution of singularities

Let X be a surface. (A surface is an excellent integral normal separated 2-dimensional scheme.)
Let $\psi:Y\longrightarrow X$ be a minimal resolution of singularities and let $E$ be an irreducible ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

243 views

### Homotopy versus path-homotopy on punctured surface

I have some problems with homotopies.
The situation is this:
Let $X$ be a surface, which is homeomorphic to a 2-Sphere with a finite number (at least 3) of points removed (equivalently, an open ...

**2**

votes

**3**answers

407 views

### Moving a Weil divisor on a normal surface away from a finite set of closed points

Let $Y$ be a normal surface and let $X$ be a closed subscheme of codimension 2, i.e., $X$ is a finite set of closed points.
Let $D$ be a Weil divisor on $Y$.
Question. Does there exist a Weil ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

179 views

### A Jordan Separation Theorem for Polyhedral Surfaces

Let me begin by defining what a polyhedral surface is.
A path-connected subset $ P $ of $ \mathbb{R}^{3} $ is called a polyhedral surface iff it is the union of a finite collection $ \mathcal{C} $ of ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

230 views

### Dimension of the homology group with coefficients in $\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}$

I asked this on math.stackexchange.com, but didn't get a single answer.
Charles Weibel writes in his survey of homological algebra
Riemann defined a surface $S$ to be $(n + 1)$-fold
connected ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

355 views

### Contraction of curves on surfaces

Assume we have a surface $S$ (smooth if you want), and a map $f: S \to V$ that contracts a curve $C \subset S$. What condition would give a factoring of $f$ through a contraction $c: S \to V'$ ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

921 views

### How to rigorously prove that simple closed curves on a surface are primitive closed curves ?

Let me first state the definitions :
A not-nullhomotopic closed curve / loop $c$ on an orientable surface $X,c:[0,1]\to X$ is called simple closed curve is $c|[0,1)$ is injective and [ $c(0)=c(1) ] ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

78 views

### Triangulations of translation surfaces whose edges are shorter than the diameter

Let $S$ be a compact translation surface (i.e. a surface endowed with a singular flat metric such that singular points are locally isometric to a cone of angle an integer multiple of $2\pi$, and that ...