The sums-of-squares tag has no wiki summary.

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### How many finite subsets in $\mathbb{Z}^d$ have a given sum of squares?

Let $|\cdot|$ denote the usual norm in $\mathbb{Z}^d$. Given a finite subset $S \subset \mathbb{Z}^d$, let $\varphi(S) = \sum_{z \in S}|z|^2$. Given $m \in \mathbb{N}$, what is the size of ...

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### Sum of two squares - Number of steps in Fermat descent

If a prime $p$ can be written as the sum of two squares, then one can construct this representation via Fermat descent if we know an $x$ such that $x^2 \equiv −1 \mod p$. Is there a possibility to say ...

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### The hypertriangular function of $n$

I'm looking for papers or recent results on the hypertriangular function of $n$:
$$H_t(n)= \displaystyle\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n} k^k$$
This is A001923 in the OEIS.
I don't have much experience with ...

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### Generating Function of distinct way of partitioned square sums of positive integers

Let's define a function $p_2(n)$ that it is total distinct way to write $n$ positive integer as sum of square of positive integers. For example, $9$ can be partitioned as sum of squares in 4 distinct ...

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### Sum of two squares and implication of Bunyakovsky conjecture

Bunyakovsky's conjecture states that a polynomial with integer
coefficients takes infinitely many prime values at integers,
unless this is impossible for trivial reasons.
Let $a_1(x), a_2(x), a_3(x), ...

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### For a Sum-of-Squares cost functions J(x) is it true that J(x)-j* is also SOS?

For polynomial optimization problems the sum-of-squares theory and Lasserre relaxation hierarchy provides a theoretically handy way of getting the solution. There are also results saying that finite ...

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### Longest sequence of sum of distinct squares [closed]

I want to find longest sequence of distinct squares that $\alpha_{_1}$ + ... + $\alpha_{_n}$ is given number.
In particular I want to find largest square in that sequence.
I've tried use Lagrange's ...

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276 views

### Divisor sums over values of binary forms of primes

Let $\tau$ be the divisor function, that is
$$
\tau(n)=\sharp\{d \in \mathbb{N}, d|n\}.
$$
I was wondering if anyone has ever proved an asymptotic estimate
for the sum
$$S(x):=\sum_{p,q\leq ...

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488 views

### Distribution of $a^2+\alpha b^2$

It is well known that size of the set of positive integers up to $n$ that can be written as $a^2+b^2$ is asymptotic to $C \frac{n}{\sqrt{\log n}}$. Here I'm interested mostly in the weaker fact that ...

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### Sum of Squares and Harmonic Functions

Let $a_0, a_1, \dots a_k$ be non-negative reals. Any homogeneous polynomial $p$ of degree $2k$ in $\mathbb{R}^{d}$ can be decomposed as
$$
p(x)=\sum_{i=0}^{k}c_i|x|^{2(k-i)}p_{2i}(x)
$$
for some ...

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125 views

### Sum of Squares Length of a Product

Let $n \geq 2$. Let $g_1, \ldots , g_{n-1} \in \mathbb{R}[x_1,\ldots,x_n]$ such that $q=g_1^2+\ldots +g_{n-1}^2$ is not divisible by $p=x_1^2+\ldots +x_n^2$. Let $m \geq 1$ be the smallest integer ...

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627 views

### Would such polynomial identity exist? (related to sum of four squares)

Let $f_1,f_2,f_3,f_4,f_5 \in \mathbb{Q}[x]$ be linear and
coprime and not all constant.
Is it possible $ f_1^2+f_2^2+f_3^2+f_4^2=f_5^2$?
I suppose the answer is negative.
If this is possible, ...

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492 views

### Hurwitz integers represented as sums of two squares of Hurwitz integers

I wonder if there exists a characterisation of Hurwitz integers which are represented as sums of two squares of Hurwitz integers, up to multiplication by a unit. And if so, could you please point to a ...

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505 views

### On permuted sum of squares of primes in a list

We want to pick a set of distinct primes (if not possible, then just positive numbers) $p_1,p_2,\dots,p_k$ such that there exists $t$ permutations, ...

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393 views

### Using the decomposition $641 = 5^4 + 2^4$ to factor $F_5$

The question in the title arises from a problem in Stewart's "Galois Theory, Third Edition" (and possibly elsewhere) which has been bugging me for a few days since reading it:
Problem 19.5 (p. 224) ...

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223 views

### Impossible Range for Minkowski-Like Sum of Squares

Given coprime positive integers M,N, and a corresponding integer z outside of the range (for all integers x,a,b,c) of $Mx^2-N(a^2+b^2+c^2)$, is there any such z which is "deceptive", meaning that it ...

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265 views

### Four-Square Theorem for Negative Coefficient

What integers are not in the range of $a^2+b^2+c^2-x^2$ (for all integer combinations of a, b, c, and x)? This form is similar to that of Lagrange's Four-Square Theorem, for which the answer would be ...

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### Numerical coincidence?

(Nobody's answered this one on stackexchange after several days.)
My brother built a garage whose horizontal cross-section is a rectangle that measures $45$ feet by $30$ feet. To make sure the right ...

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691 views

### The four squares theorem from the Gauss-Legendre three squares theorem

Hi,
I've been studying some proofs of The four squares theorem. Some of them are pretty clear. However, I came across a statement that The four squares theorem can be easily derived from ...

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748 views

### Sums of Squares

Every prime $p = 4k + 1$ can be uniquely expressed as sum of two squares, but for which
integers $x$ is $x^2 + y^2 =$ some prime $p$? Stated differently, does the square of
every positive integer ...

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### Confirm/refute $f(x)$ where $f(x) = $x-th Mersenne prime ($M_p$) where $x$ is [1,2,3,4,5,6,7…]

While tinkering with numbers, I found $n=f(x)$ where $n = \sigma(\sigma(n)-n)$ and $x \neq p$ where $p$ is a Mersenne prime exponent, but I need help input in regard to improving accuracy.
First off, ...

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### Realizing proper pure octonions as conjugates

Let us take the octonions as having all integer coefficients and the multiplication table at BAEZ
We have a standard conjugation operator with $\bar{1} = 1$ and $\bar{e_i}= - e_i,$ extend by ...

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### maximum of the sum of polynomials

Hi
I have $n$ polynomials, each one is positive over a certain range and the maximum value each can attain is 1. Also each polynomial has atmost one peak(maximum). Is there some way that I can show ...

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### Information about mutant Leech lattice related to smallest perfect squared square

What happens if we follow the construction of the Leech lattice but replace the relation
$\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{24} n^2 = 70^2$
with the smallest perfect squared square? Explicitly, if we set ...

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274 views

### An S-lemma for polynomials of degree 4 in three variables

Might the following be true:
Let $p,q\in\mathbb{R}[x,y,z]$ be homogeneous polynomials, with $\deg(p)\leq 4$ and $\deg(q)= 2$. Suppose $q(x,y,z)>0$ for some $x,y,z\in\mathbb{R}$. Then the ...

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### Integer partition and sum of squares

Hello,
The question below might be well known, and using different words (I made these up, I'm not a number theorist or specialist in combinatorics)
For all integers $n\geq 2$ denote by ...

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### Product on representations of an integer by a quadratic form?

Define the quadratic form
$$Q(z_1,z_2,z_3,z_4) = 13 + \sum_{i=1}^4 (10+i)z_i +5 \sum_{1 \le i \le j \le 4} z_iz_j.$$
Then, $r_Q(n) := \left|\{(z_1,z_2,z_3,z_4) \in \mathbb{Z}^4 : Q(z_1,z_2,z_3,z_4) ...

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288 views

### Question on Sums of Squares

Is it possible for two different $n$-element sets, each of which consists of $n$ unique positive integers (they can appear in both sets, though) to have the same sum when the squares of their elements ...

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### Representations by positive definite binary quadratic forms

It's known that the number of representations of an integer $k$ by sum of two squares is
$$
4\;\sum_{d|k}\left(\frac{-4}{d}\right)
$$
or
$$
4\sum_{d|k,\; d \textrm{ odd}} (-1)^{\frac{d-1}{2}}= ...

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395 views

### Algorithm for calculating the sum-of-squares distance of a rolling window from a given line function

Given a line function $y = ax + b$, it is easy to calculate the sum-of-squares distance between the line and a window of samples $(1, y_1), (2, y_2), ..., (n, y_n)$ (where $y_1$ is the oldest sample ...

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### Legendre and sums of three squares

The Three-Squares-Theorem was proved by Gauss in his Disquisitiones, and this proof was studied carefully by various number theorists. Three years before Gauss, Legendre claimed
to have given a proof ...

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### A 'generalized Four Squares Theorem'?

The $4$-dimensional lattice $\mathbb{Z}^{4}$ has vectors of length $\sqrt{n}$ for any positive integer $n$ by the Four Squares Theorem, but this need not be true for higher-dimensional integral, ...

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### quartic diagonal as a sum of squares of quadratic forms

I would appreciate if someone can point out to the literature related to characterizing the set of all different ways to write real quartic diagonal $\sum \limits_{k=1}^n x_k^4, x \in \mathbb{R^n}$ as ...

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### On a claim of Ramanujan in his “Lost Notebook”.

As I was flipping through the scanned version of Ramanujan's "Lost Notebook" in our library, I came across a result which caught my attention. And as any excited teenager would do, I immediately ...

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### Sum of squares modulo a prime

What is the probability that the sum of squares of n randomly chosen numbers from $Z_p$ is a quadratic residue mod p?
That is, let $a_1$,..$a_n$ be chosen at random. Then how often is $\Sigma_i ...

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### The Hilbert-Waring theorem using the sum-of-squares function.

I've asked the same question at the Math Stack Exchange site, but I didn't have any luck there. So I'm posting the same question here.
Denote by $r_{s,k}(x)$, the number of ways in which $x$ can be ...

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### Exact formula for the number of integers in an interval which are the sum of two squares.

Denote by $\lambda(n)$, the number of numbers between $0$ and $n$ which are the sum of two squares. Landau, and Ramanujan have proven independently, that $$\lambda(n) \sim \frac{n}{\sqrt{\ln(n)}}$$
...

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### Is there another simple formula for the sum-of-squares function?

The sum-of-squares function (denoted $r_{2}(n)$) gives the number of ways in which a given number $n$ is expressible as the sum of two squares. The following is from the article on this function from ...

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### Sum of squares of determinants of principal minors

I am interested in computing the sum of squares of determinants of principal minors. Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ positive semidefinite matrix and $A_S$ be a principal minor of $A$ indexed by the set $S ...

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### Least sum squares given constraints on subcomponents

Hi all,
I recently encounter a difficult problem.
I wish to minimize in $ \mathbf{x} $ the sum $\min \sum_{i=1..n} (\mathbf{x}^T \mathbf{A}_i \mathbf{x})^2$ given the constraints on the norms of ...

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### Is this Negativstellensatz with uniform denominators known?

A theorem of Reznick states that if $f>0$ is a real homogeneous polynomial in several polynomials that is positive away from the origin of ${\mathbb{R}}^n$, then for large $N$, the form $(\sum ...

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### Euler and the Four-Squares Theorem

There are several questions in the Euler-Goldbach correspondence that
I am unable to answer. Sometimes it does not take very much: in his
letter to Goldbach dated June 9th, 1750, Euler conjectured
...

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### Denominators in the solution to Hilbert's XVII

Hilbert's seventeenth problem asks to prove that every positive semidefinite form can be written as the sum of squares of rational functions. Currently we don't seem to have a good understanding of ...

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### Sums of two squares in (certain) integral domains

While giving the first of eight lectures on introductory model theory and its applications yesterday, I stated Hilbert's 17th problem (or rather, Artin's Theorem): if $f \in ...

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### Ways to prove an inequality

It seems that there are three basic ways to prove an inequality eg $x>0$.
Show that x is a sum of squares.
Use an entropy argument. (Entropy always increases)
Convexity.
Are there other means?
...

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### Enumerating ways to decompose an integer into the sum of two squares

The well known "Sum of Squares Function" tells you the number of ways you can represent an integer as the sum of two squares. See the link for details, but it is based on counting the factors of the ...

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### Convergence of the sum of squares of averages of a sequence whose sum of squares is convergent

Can we find a sequence $u_n$ of positive real numbers such that
$\sum_{n=1}^\infty u_n^2$ is finite, yet $\sum_{n=1}^\infty ({u_1+u_2+...+u_n\over n})^2$ is infinite ?
After several attempts, I ...

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854 views

### solutions to equation mod a prime

I know that characterizing the solutions to an equation in a finite field is generally difficult, but I was wondering if anyone had anything to say about the equation
(ab)^2 + a^2 + b^2 = 0 mod p
I ...

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### What's the probability that k + n^2 is squarefree, for fixed k?

While playing around with this question (when is the sum of two squares squarefree?), from some experimental computations (and bolstered by the fact that the density of squarefree positive integers is ...