**121**

votes

**16**answers

18k views

### How do I make the conceptual transition from multivariable calculus to differential forms?

One way to define the algebra of differential forms $\Omega(M)$ on a smooth manifold $M$ (as explained by John Baez's week287) is as the exterior algebra of the dual of the module of derivations on ...

**60**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### Parallelizability of the Milnor's exotic spheres in dimension 7

Are the Milnor's seven dimensional exotic spheres parallelizable?

**34**

votes

**9**answers

4k views

### Classification problem for non-compact manifolds

Background
It is well-known that the compact two-dimensional manifolds are completely classified (by their orientability and their Euler characteristic).
I'm also under the impression that there is ...

**34**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Can cotangent bundles see exotic smooth structures?

I have two questions that are inspired by a couple of questions here on MO (referenced below), as well as by a conversation with some other grad students at a summer school.
Caveat: I'm not a ...

**33**

votes

**15**answers

10k views

### What is the Implicit Function Theorem good for?

What are some applications of the Implicit Function Theorem in calculus? The only applications I can think of are:
the result that the solution space of a non-degenerate system of equations ...

**32**

votes

**7**answers

3k views

### What are the open subsets of $\mathbb{R}^n$ that are diffeomorphic to $\mathbb{R}^n$

Hello,
I would like to know if there is a known necessary and sufficient
property on an open subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$ such that it is diffeomorphic to $\mathbb{R}^n$ :
For example :
1) Are all ...

**32**

votes

**7**answers

4k views

### Is there a preferable convention for defining the wedge product?

There are different conventions for defininig the wedge product $\wedge$.
In Kobayashi-Nomizu, there is $\alpha\wedge\beta:=Alt(\alpha\otimes\beta)$,
in Spivak, we find ...

**32**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### When is a submanifold of $\mathbf R^n$ given by global equations?

Let $M \subset \mathbf R^n$ be a (smooth) submanifold of dimension $d$. Under which conditions does there exist global equations defining $M$? By global equations I mean : does there exist a smooth ...

**31**

votes

**9**answers

6k views

### Why differential forms are important?

Importance of differential forms is obvious to any geometer and some analysts dealing with manifolds, partly because so many results in modern geometry and related areas cannot even be formulated ...

**31**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### What is the classifying space of “G-bundles with connections”

Let $G$ be a (maybe Lie) group, and $M$ a space (perhaps a manifold). Then a principal $G$-bundle over $M$ is a bundle $P \to M$ on which $G$ acts (by fiber-preserving maps), so that each fiber is a ...

**31**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Are submersions of differentiable manifolds flat morphisms?

Let $\pi \colon M\to N$ be a smooth map between real smooth manifolds. Then $C^\infty(M)$ forms a module over $C^\infty(N)$ (via pullback). Is this module flat when $\pi$ is a submersion?
Recall that ...

**29**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### How can you tell if a space is homotopy equivalent to a manifold?

Is there some criterion for whether a space has the homotopy type of a closed manifold (smooth or topological)? Poincare duality is an obvious necessary condition, but it's almost certainly not ...

**28**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Unifying Geometry for Characteristic Classes

When working with characteristic classes (more concretely Chern classes), one finds at least four essentially distinct approaches:
Axiomatic Approach. See, for instance, Vector Bundles and K-Theory, ...

**28**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Strong Whitney embedding theorem for non-compact manifolds

$\newcommand{\RR}{\mathbb{R}}$The present question arises from some confusion on my part regarding the precise statement of the strong Whitney embedding theorem for non-compact manifolds.
The strong ...

**27**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Is it possible to improve the Whitney embedding theorem?

Edited to fix the example, as per Zack's suggestion.
Edit 2: So it turns out that when I think 'manifold' I tend to assume the nicest possible object. As I believe is standard, I would like to ...

**27**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Embeddings of $S^2$ in $\mathbb{CP}^2$

Suppose we are given an embedding of $S^2$ in $\mathbb{CP}^2$ with self-intersection 1. Is there a diffeomorphism of $\mathbb{CP}^2$ which takes the given sphere to a complex line?
Note: I suspect ...

**26**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### Two kinds of orientability/orientation for a differentiable manifold

Let $M$ be a differentiable manifold of dimension $n$. First I give two definitions of Orientability.
The first definition should coincide with what is given in most differential topology text books, ...

**26**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### How can we detect the existence of almost-complex structures?

Any smooth $k$-manifold $M$ comes with a well-defined map $f:M\rightarrow BGL_{k}(\mathbb{R})$ (up to homotopy) classifying its tangent bundle. Since $GL_{k}(\mathbb{R})$ deformation-retracts onto ...

**24**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Is the space of diffeomorphisms homotopy equivalent to a CW-complex?

Clarification: My question concerns the homotopy type of the space of $C^k$ diffeomorphisms with the compact-open $C^k$ topology, where $0< k \leq\infty$. I have stated my question below with $k=1$ ...

**24**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### What is meant by smooth orbifold?

There seems to be some confusion over what the tangent space to a singular point of an orbifold is.
On the one hand there is the obvious notion that smooth structures on orbifolds lift to smooth ...

**24**

votes

**1**answer

529 views

### Diffeomorphisms of finite order not in the image of a circle action

Does there exist a closed smooth manifold $M$ and a diffeomorphism $f\colon M \to M$ such that:
$f$ is isotopic to the identity,
$f$ is of finite order, $f^n=ID$, and
$f$ is not contained in the ...

**24**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Can you flip the end of a large exotic $\mathbb{R}^4$

Can you flip the end of a large exotic $\mathbb{R}^4$
Background
Definition (Exotic $\mathbb{R}^4$):
An exotic $\mathbb{R}^4$ is a smooth manifold $R$ homeomorphic but not diffeomorphic to ...

**23**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### Level sets of Morse functions

Every compact two dimensional manifold admits a Morse function such that any its regular level set is at most two circles. I am interested in a generalization of that phenomenon.
Does there exist a ...

**23**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### How to get convinced that there are a lot of 3-manifolds?

My question is rather philosophical : without using advanced tools as Perlman-Thurston's geometrisation, how can we get convinced that the class of closed oriented $3$-manifolds is large and that ...

**23**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### Exotic differentiable structures on R^4?

This was going to be a comment to Differentiable structures on R^3, but I thought it would be better asked as a separate question.
So, it's mentioned in the previous question that $\mathbb{R}^4$ has ...

**23**

votes

**2**answers

806 views

### Ellipses on spheres (and other surfaces)

Define an ellipse $E$ on a sphere as the locus of points whose sum of
shortest geodesic distances to two foci $p_1$ and $p_2$ is a constant $d$.
There are conditions on $\{ p_1, p_2, d \}$ for this ...

**23**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Cobordism of orbifolds?

Is it possible to setup classical cobordism theory in the context of orbifolds? For example, let's consider the free abelian group generated by oriented smooth orbifolds and quotient by those which ...

**22**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Can all n-manifolds be obtained by gluing finitely many blocks?

Fix a dimension $n\geqslant 2$. Let $S= \{M_1,\ldots, M_k\}$ be a finite set of smooth compact $n$-manifold with boundary. Let us say that a smooth closed $n$-manifold is generated by $S$ if it may ...

**22**

votes

**1**answer

295 views

### Finite limits in the category of smooth manifolds?

The category of smooth manifolds does not have all finite limits. However, it does have some limits: it has finite products, it has splittings of idempotents, and it has certain other limits if we ...

**21**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Universal property of the tangent bundle

If $X$ is a scheme (over some base scheme, but which I will ignore) its tangent bundle $T(X)$ is defined as the relative spectrum of the symmetric algebra of its sheaf of differentials. Combining the ...

**21**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Periodic Orbit property

A topological space $X$ satisfies "Periodic orbit property", briefly POP, if for every continuous map
$f:X \to X$, there exist a natural number $n$ and a point $x_{0}\in X$ such that ...

**21**

votes

**0**answers

711 views

### Do there exist exotic 4-tori?

More precisely: are there known manifolds which are homeomorphic, but not diffeomorphic to the standard 4-torus? Are there any nice invariants distinguishing such manifolds?
Related: if such a ...

**20**

votes

**2**answers

544 views

### Is there a smooth manifold which admits only rigid metrics?

Does there exist a (finite dimensional) smooth manifold $M$, such that every Riemannian metric on $M$ has no isometries except the identity?
Of course, such a manifold must not admit a diffeomorphism ...

**20**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### When is a closed differential form harmonic relative to some metric?

Let $\omega$ be a closed non-exact differential $k$-form ($k \geq 1$) on a closed orientable manifold $M$.
Question: Is there always a Riemannian metric $g$ on $M$ such that $\omega$ is ...

**20**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Algorithmically unsolvable problems in topology

This question is inspired by a paper by B. Poonen that appeared on the arxiv some time ago: http://arxiv.org/abs/1204.0299. The paper gives a sample of algorithmically unsolvable problems from various ...

**19**

votes

**7**answers

3k views

### Why should I prefer bundles to (surjective) submersions?

I hope this question isn't too open-ended for MO --- it's not my favorite type of question, but I do think there could be a good answer. I will happily CW the question if commenters want, but I also ...

**19**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### GAGA and Chern classes

My question is as follows.
Do the Chern classes as defined by Grothendieck for smooth projective varieties coincide with the Chern classes as defined with the aid of invariant polynomials and ...

**19**

votes

**0**answers

275 views

### Can one properly embed a differential manifold into numerical space of double dimension? [duplicate]

If $X$ is a $ C^\infty$ differential manifold of dimension $n$, then there exists an embedding $f:X\to \mathbb R^{2n+1}$.
This is a not too difficult theorem due to Whitney, proved in many textbooks.
...

**18**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Least number of charts to describe a given manifold

Hello, I'm wondering if there is a standard reference discussing the least number of charts in an atlas of a given manifold required to describe it.
E.g. a circle requires at least two charts, and ...

**18**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Manifolds with two coordinate charts

What is an early reference for the fact that if a compact, connected $n$-manifold $M$ is covered by two open sets homeomorphic to $\mathbb{R}^n$ then $M$ is homeomorphic to $S^n$?
And is it true that ...

**18**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Characteristic classes of sphere bundles over spheres in terms of clutching functions

I'm trying to understand Milnor's proof of the existence of exotic 7-spheres.
Milnor finds his examples among $S^{3}$ bundles over $S^{4}$ (with structure group $SO(4)$ ). Such a bundle can be ...

**18**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Noncommutative smooth manifolds

Connes defined a noncommutative analog of a closed oriented Riemannian spin^c manifold using spectral triples.
Using his definition it is unclear how to separate the smooth structure from the metric.
...

**17**

votes

**7**answers

3k views

### Are there two non-homotopy equivalent spaces with equal homotopy groups?

Could someone show an example of two spaces $X$ and $Y$ which are not of the same homotopy type, but nevertheless $\pi_q(X)=\pi_q(Y)$ for every $q$? Is there an example in the CW complex or smooth ...

**17**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Compactification theorem for differentiable manifolds ?

Just parallelling this question, that seemed not to admit an easy answer at all, let's "soft down" the category and ask the same thing in the case of $\mathcal{C}^{\infty}$-differentiable manifolds ...

**17**

votes

**1**answer

890 views

### What's the Kirby Diagram of a universal $\mathbb{R}^4$?

What's the Kirby diagram of a universal $\mathbb{R}^4$?
Background
Define $\mathcal{R}$ as the set of smoothings of $\mathbb{R}^4$. For two oriented elements $R_1$, $R_2$ in $\mathcal{R}$ we can ...

**17**

votes

**1**answer

538 views

### Differential Topology over $\mathbb{Q}$

I have a specific question in mind, but it requires some explanation and context before it can be formally stated. To summarize it in a sentence, this is it:
Are every two rational manifolds of the ...

**17**

votes

**1**answer

634 views

### How are these algebraic and geometric notions of homotopy of maps between manifolds related?

Let $M$ and $N$ be smooth manifolds, and $f,g: M \to N$ smooth maps. Denote by $(\Omega^\bullet M,\mathrm d_M)$ and $(\Omega^\bullet N, \mathrm d_N)$ the cdgas of de Rham forms in each manifold, and ...

**16**

votes

**4**answers

495 views

### The limit of edge-midpoint convex polyhedra

Starting with a convex polyhedron $P_1 \subset \mathbb{R}^3$,
replace that with $P_2$, the convex hull of the midpoints of the edges of $P_1$.
Continuing this process, we obtain a ...

**16**

votes

**1**answer

505 views

### Is there a notion of a chain complex with corners?

Roughly speaking, algebraic topology works by reducing questions about topological objects such as manifolds and cell to questions about chain complexes.
On the topological side, although in the PL ...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

889 views

### Nice application of generalized smooth spaces

I am a fan of category theory in general, and I appreciate that various brands of generalized smooth spaces (Diffeological spaces, Chen spaces, Frolicher spaces ...) form much nicer categories of ...