# Tagged Questions

**14**

votes

**2**answers

387 views

### Pathological behavior of Borel sets?

Usually in set theory, Borel sets are much more nicely behaved than arbitrary sets of reals. One reason for this is Borel determinacy, which immediately yields measurability, Baireness, and the ...

**1**

vote

**3**answers

262 views

### Why doesn't choice imply global choice (in NBG)?

I thought ZFC proved the existence of an inductive well-ordering that is itself a set for any stage of V. NBG with only the regular AC should then prove/assert the existence of a class R of ordered ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

232 views

### Linear maps between arbitrarily chosen vectors of vector spaces $V$ and $W$

I recently came across this question:
Is the axiom of choice needed to prove the following statement:
Let $V, W$ be vector spaces, and suppose $V \neq \{0\}$. Let $v \in V$, $v \neq 0$, $w \in W$. ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

148 views

### Countable axiom of choice: why you can't prove it from just ZF [migrated]

This is a follow-up question to the discussion about the finite axiom of choice here.
Suppose we have a countable collection of non-empty sets {A_1, A_2, A_3, ....} Reasoning as indicated in that ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

142 views

### Function Approximation in c.c.c Forcings without AC in Ground Model

Consider the following basic theorem.
Theorem. If $M$ is a c.t.m of ZFC and $\mathbb{P}$ a c.c.c forcing notion in $M$ and $G$ a $\mathbb{P}$ - generic filter on $M$ then for all $A,B$ in $M$ and for ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

105 views

### Re-interpreting vector spaces in a choice-less model of ZF as modules over a regular ring in ZFC

I am searching a module $M$ over a (von Neumann) regular ring $A$ ($\forall a\in A$, $\exists x\in A$: $axa=a$) with two properties:
(1) every finitely generated submodule of $M$ is projective ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

123 views

### Intermediate submodels which do not satisfy AC

The following is known:
Theorem. Suppose $V[G]$ is a generic extension of $V$ by a set forcing, and let $N$ be a model of $ZFC$ with $V\subseteq N\subseteq V[G].$ Then $N$ is a generic extension of ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

148 views

### How many Dedekind-finite sets can $\mathbb{R}$ be partitioned into?

Building off Asaf Karagila's answer to my previous question (Can $\mathbb{R}$ be partitioned into dedekind-finite sets?) on partitioning $\mathbb{R}$ into strictly Dedekind-finite sets:
(1) What ...

**11**

votes

**4**answers

818 views

### Weak forms of the Axiom of Choice

Let $n\geq 2$ be a natural number and consider the following:
$AC(n)$: For each family $\{X_i\}_{i \in I}$ of $n$-element sets the product $\prod_{i\in I}X_i$ is non-empty.
Is it known that for ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

220 views

### Can $\mathbb{R}$ be partitioned into dedekind-finite sets?

Assuming $ZF$ itself is consistent, it is consistent that there are sets $D$ which are infinite but cannot be placed in bijection with any of their proper subsets; such sets are called "strictly ...

**5**

votes

**3**answers

188 views

### In $L$, does there exist a definable non-principal ultrafilter on $\mathbb{N}$

The axiom of constructibility $V=L$ leads to some very interesting consequences, one of which is that it becomes possible to give explicit constructions of some of the "weird" results of AC. For ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

130 views

### What is the meaning of restricting a Boolean value to a subalgebra?

$\require{AMScd}$
I am studying the proof that the ordering principle does not imply the axiom of choice in Jech's book "The Axiom of Choice" (Section 5.5). Let $P$ be the set of finite partial ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

179 views

### A question about the first Cohen model

Consider the first Cohen model, i.e. let $M$ be a countable transitive model of ZFC + $V=L$, let $\mathbb P$ be the poset consisting of finite partial functions from $\omega\times\omega$ to $2$, let ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

540 views

### Subsets of Real Numbers (Edited & Revised Version)

Question 1: Is it consistent with $\text{ZF}$ that only countable subsets of $\mathbb{R}$ are well-orderable?
Question 2: Is it consistent that for some $\lambda$, $\aleph_0 < \lambda < ...

**4**

votes

**3**answers

318 views

### Minimal Generalized Continuum Hypothesis & Axiom of Choice

It is well known that working in the frame of $\text{ZF}$, the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis ($\text{GCH}$) implies the Axiom of Choice ($\text{AC}$), i.e. $\text{ZF}+\text{GCH}\vdash \text{AC}$.
...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

147 views

### Discontinuous representations of GL(n,C) in ZF

Discontinuous linear representations of $GL(n,\mathbb{C})$ can be obtained from the so-called "wild" (field) automorphisms of $\mathbb{C}$; but these wild automorphisms in turn require some choice to ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

429 views

### Full conditional probabilities and versions of AC?

A probability is a finitely additive measure on a boolean algebra with total measure $1$.
A function $P:\scr B \times (\scr B - \{ 0 \})$ is a full conditional probability on $\scr B$ (for a boolean ...

**4**

votes

**4**answers

386 views

### Strength of some claims about finitely additive measures on infinite sets?

Assume ZF. Consider the claim:
(1) For any infinite set $\Omega$, there is a finitely additive probability measure $\mu:2^\Omega\to[0,1]$ with $\mu(A) = 0$ whenever $|A|<|\Omega|$.
Then (1) is ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

222 views

### Possible Choices for Cofinality of $\aleph_n$ without Choice

$\text{ZFC}$ proves that each $\aleph_{n}$ for $n\in \omega$ is a regular cardinal. But it seems without the Axiom of Choice there are many consistent possible choices for cofinality of such ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

336 views

### Is sigma-additivity of Lebesgue measure deducible from ZF?

Is sigma-additivity (countable additivity) of Lebesgue measure (say on measurable subsets of the real line) deducible from the Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory (without the axiom of choice)?
Note 1. ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

130 views

### Solovay's Theorem on Partitions of Stationary Sets and Weak Choice Principles

There is a weak choice principle called $DC_\lambda$ which holds in $L(V_{\lambda+1})$ under the assumption of a non-trivial elementary embedding $$j:L(V_{\lambda+1})\prec L(V_{\lambda+1})$$ and it is ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

191 views

### What is the order type of $L$ with Godel's well ordering?

In some sense $Ord$ is a "proper class" ordinal. Unfortunately the notion of a proper class ordinal is not a straight forward generalization of the notion of "set" ordinals because the proper classes ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

157 views

### Proving equivalence of a tree-based version of Countable Choice for families of finite sets

In this paper by Good and Tree, the following result is mentioned without proof as part of Proposition 6.5:
Each of the following statements imply those beneath it.
The countable union of ...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

337 views

### How much choice is required to prove concretizability theorems in category theory?

A concretization of a category is a faithful functor to the category of sets. A category is concretizable if there exists such a functor.
An evident necessary condition for concretizability is ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

230 views

### How to make countably closed forcing “nice” without choice

When working over a model $V$ of $ZFC$, countably closed forcings are extremely nice:
If $\mathbb{P}$ is countably closed, then $V[G]$ has no new $\omega$-sequences of elements of $V$. In ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

249 views

### Singular successors without large cardinals

Assuming the axiom of choice we have that successor cardinals are regular. However as one of the first examples of uses of forcing show, it is consistent relative to $\sf ZF$ that $\omega_1$ is ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

171 views

### The global dimension of fields

In the absence of the Axiom of Choice, it is not necessarily true that all vector spaces over a field have bases.
What are the possible global dimensions of fields in a model of ZF in which AoC ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

415 views

### A question about the Axiom of Choice

Let AC denote the Axiom of Choice. Let PP denote the so-called "Partition Principle" which states that "If S is a non-empty set and T is a non-empty set of pairwise disjoint subsets
of S, then S can ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

195 views

### Proper-class sized “ring” with no maximal ideals

Suppose I have a collection of "elements" together with operations that satisfy the axioms for a commutative ring with identity --- except that these elements form not a set, but a proper class.
Must ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

170 views

### Well-Ordering theorem of cardinal$\kappa$

I've heard from others about the WO($\kappa$) as a counterpart of AC($\kappa$), but I cannot find a suitable way to express it in ZF since "every set of cardnality $\kappa$ can be well-ordered" is ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

295 views

### Cardinals without choice: interpolation (reference wanted)

Is there a published reference for this ZF theorem?
Let $m,n\in\mathbb{N}$. If $a_1,\dots,a_m$ and $b_1,\dots,b_n$ are cardinals such that $a_i\le b_j$ for all $i$ and $j$, then there is a cardinal ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

346 views

### Weakest choice principle required for Robertson-Seymour Graph Minor Theorem?

The main Robertson-Seymour Theorem states that finite graphs form a well-quasi-ordering under the graph minor relation. In other words, in every infinite set of finite graphs, there exist two graphs ...

**21**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Hahn's Embedding Theorem and the oldest open question in set theory

Hans Hahn is often credited with creating the modern theory of ordered algebraic systems with the publication of his paper Ãœber die nichtarchimedischen GrÃ¶ssensysteme (Sitzungsberichte der ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

281 views

### Is the axiom of choice really related to choice? [closed]

I am not an an expert in set theory, so this question could be trivial. I am sorry in that case.
Let $I$ be a set and $\{ X_i \}_{i \in I}$ be a collection of sets such that $X_i \neq \emptyset$ for ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

336 views

### How much of ZFC do I need to construct this cofinal, order-preserving class function?

EDIT: I'm bumping this, because while Joel ruled out some naive options, my question in bold below is not yet answered.
Suppose I have a directed partially ordered set $(\Gamma,\leq)$ with a bottom ...

**26**

votes

**0**answers

859 views

### When does $A^A=2^A$ without the axiom of choice?

Assuming the axiom of choice the following argument is simple, for infinite $A$ it holds: $$2\lt A\leq2^A\implies 2^A\leq A^A\leq 2^{A\times A}=2^A.$$
However without the axiom of choice this doesn't ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

548 views

### Are all models of ZF + DC + “All set of reals are lebesgue measurable” also models of CH? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate:
Lebesgue Measurability and Weak CH
I have studied a little set theory and I found that Solovay constructed a model of ZF+DC+"All set of reals are Lebesgue measurable" and ...

**3**

votes

**3**answers

448 views

### Set theory question

It is known from a result of Sierpinski that the generalized continuum hypothesis (GCH) implies the axiom of choice (AC). It is also known from the celebrated results of Cohen that AC is independent ...

**11**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Cantor's diagonal argument and ZF

Cantor's diagonalization construction, on a certain view, furnishes functions
$$d_X:{\rm Injections}(X,P(X))\rightarrow P(X)$$
that satisfy $\forall X\forall i\ \ d_X(i)\not\in i(X)$
In ZF, can ...

**8**

votes

**3**answers

757 views

### Axiom of Choice and continuous functions

Do you know if the following statement is an equivalent form of the axiom of choice or not?
If $X$ is a compact metric space, then every continuous function $f: X \longrightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

253 views

### on the Axiom of Choice and the Spectrum of Rings

consider the following theorem, when $R$ is a commutative ring with a non-zero identity:
A ring $R$ is zero-dimensional if and only if $\mbox{Spec(R)}$ is Hausdorff.
The proof uses the Axiom of ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

537 views

### Mathematics with the negation of AC

Clearly Very important results in Math require the Axiom of choice, for example "any vector space has a base". But in the absence of AC (i.e., only in ZF) it is possible that a vector space has no ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

553 views

### Category and the axiom of choice

What are (if any) equivalent forms of AC (The Axiom of Choice) in Category Theory ?

**2**

votes

**1**answer

337 views

### Notation arb(x)

Suppose we have extended $ZF$ by adding to $ZF$ an unary function symbol $arb$ (an arbitrary element of a set) and a corresponding axiom "For every non-empty set $S$, $arb(S)$ is in $S$".
Will be the ...

**0**

votes

**2**answers

241 views

### Equivalent Forms of AC

There are many algebraic equivalences of AC in the literature. A famous one is "every ring with identity has a maximal ideal".
Where can I find this equivalences, specially those in rings theory !? ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

265 views

### what axioms are between AC and Countable choice !

Hi All. Need some information. We all know axiom of choice (AC) and countable choice. Which axioms are between these two. I mean weaker that Axiom of choice but stronger than countable choice ?

**5**

votes

**1**answer

284 views

### Existence of model of ZF without AC, but with many choice function

Question 1: Does there exist models of the Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory without the axiom of choice, but such that every indexed family of non-void sets whose index set has a well-orderable cardinal ...

**4**

votes

**5**answers

972 views

### What axioms are stronger than the Axiom of choice?

What other axioms in set theory are stronger than AC ? I mean what are those axioms that will imply AC ?

**2**

votes

**3**answers

253 views

### Construct a fixed-point set operator

How to find an uncountable set $S$, and construct an function $f : 2^S
\longrightarrow S$ such that for any $T \subseteq S$, $f \left( T \right) \in
T$?
for example, let $S =\mathbb{R}$, how can I ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

284 views

### Name for this generalized pigeonhole principle?

For a set $X$, let $|X|$ denote its cardinality.
A block of a partition is a non-empty element of the partition.
Let $P$ and $Q$ be two partitions of a set $X$.
If $|P| < |Q|$ then $P$ ...