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13
votes
0answers
761 views

Regularizing the divergent sum $1^k + 2^k + \cdots$

EDIT: Under this "regularization", the harmonic series can be interpreted as $s_{-1}$ and assigned a value $$s_{-1} = \lim_{k \rightarrow 1} \zeta(k) (2-2^k) = -2 \log 2$$ I was looking at ...
12
votes
0answers
499 views

How to explain the picturesque patterns in François Brunault's matrix?

How to explain the patterns in the matrix defined in François Brunault's answer to the question Freeness of a Z[x] module depicted below? -- Choosing colors according to the highest power of 2 which ...
8
votes
0answers
453 views

Can an infinite sum depending on the logarithms of all positive integers be rational or algebraic?

Consider $$ C = \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{(-1)^{f_1(n)} f_2(n) \log{n} + f_3(n)}{f_4(n)}$$ The sum converges. $f_1$ is either $0$ or $n-1$, $f_2,f_3,f_4$ are polynomials with integer coefficients and $ ...
8
votes
0answers
367 views

Composition of two formal series

There are two formal semi-infinite Laurent series $$ f_+(z)=z+\sum_{k=2}^{\infty} a_k z^k $$ and $$ f_-(z)=z+\sum_{k=0}^{\infty} b_k z^{-k} $$ Their composition (we assume that this composition ...
6
votes
0answers
163 views

Zeros of polynomials related to Jensen polynomial associated with Riemann xi function $\xi(x)$

We encountered polynomials defined by the recursive relations for the coefficients $b_k>0$ as defined below: $$p_{n}(x)=\sum_{k=0}^{n}\binom{2n}{2k}b_k x^k$$ ...
6
votes
0answers
304 views

Graphs with graphic imbalance sequences

Let $G$ be simple undirected graph and $e=uv\in E(G)$. The imbalance of the edge $e$ is the value $imb(e)=|d(u)-d(v)|$. Let $M_{G}$ denotes the imbalance sequence (or more correctly, multiset of ...
5
votes
0answers
142 views

Irrationality of the sum of the reciprocal of perfect powers

A couple of days ago I was trying to remember a classical exercise (which I now find out goes by the name of Goldbach-Euler theorem). Eventually I figured out that it asked to prove that ...
5
votes
0answers
118 views

Inverse problems for an asymptotic series which depends on a parameter?

I have the series $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}(-1)^{n}a_{n}(\nu)\frac{\sin[\nu\,(m-n)]}{\nu\,(m^2-n^2)}=\frac{1}{m}$, where $m$ is an integer. Is it possible to compute the coeffients $a_{n}(\nu)$? An ...
5
votes
0answers
294 views

Does every strictly increasing, unbounded sequence of positive real numbers contain arbitrarily long, finite subsequences which are “sort of increasing” or “sort of decreasing” (as defined below)?

Is the following true? If $(x_0, x_1, \dots)$ is a strictly increasing, unbounded sequence of positive real numbers, then there exist fixed $M,N \geq 1$ such that the sequence $(x_0, x_1, \dots)$ ...
4
votes
0answers
309 views

Number of Configurations in the optimal Hanoi tower

There is a unique strategy how to move $n$ disks from the first rod to the second optimally and it takes $2^n-1$ steps, solution is obtained by simple recursion. I am interested into the following ...
4
votes
0answers
210 views

$\sum_{p,q \text{ primes } p \le q} 1/(pq\log(pq))$

The sum $$ \sum\limits_{p,q \text{ primes } p \le q} \frac{1}{pq\log(pq)}$$ is related to a conjecture of Erdős about primitive sequences. It converges because the sequence is primitive. If my ...
4
votes
0answers
211 views

Useful lower bound on an infinite sum

Fix integer $s.$ I have encountered the following infinite sum. $$\sum_{k=0}^\infty \Pi_{l=1}^k\left[1-(1-2^{-l})^s\right]$$ Is there a useful lower bound on this expression? For instance, if $s=1,$ ...
4
votes
0answers
145 views

Are there infinite sequences of rational cubes whose first differences are positive squares?

This is related to How many sequences of rational squares are there, all of whose differences are also rational squares? Are there infinite sequences $a_n$ of rational cubes whose first ...
4
votes
0answers
193 views

Number of times lead changes in a multi-candidate election (reference-request)

In a two candidate election where votes are distributed uniformly at random between the candidates, the probability that the lead changes when tallying the $i$-th vote is the same as the probability ...
4
votes
0answers
665 views

Computability of OEIS A034891 …partitions of n into prime parts (1 included)

On the seqfan mailing list RGWv gave short algorithm for computing A000041 number of partitions of n the partition numbers: f[1, 1] = 1; f[n_, k_] := f[n, k] = If[n < 0, 0, If[k > n, 0, If[k == ...
3
votes
0answers
85 views

“Shifted” Vandermonde determinant is nonzero?

I have already posted this question at MSE here, but as it received a few upvotes, but no comments or answers I choose to cross-post it here. Let $P$ be a degree-two polynomial, with roots ...
3
votes
0answers
101 views

Prove that when converge, the following expansions are equal

Prove $f_1(x)=f_2(x)=f_3(x)$ when converge. $$f_1(x)=\sum_{m=0}^{\infty} \binom {x}m \sum_{k=0}^m\binom mk(-1)^{m-k}f(k)$$ $$f_2(x)=\lim_{n\to\infty}\binom xn\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{x-n}{x-k}\binom ...
3
votes
0answers
188 views

The functional equation of Hofstadter's Q sequence

Hofstadter's Q sequence is defined by $Q(1) = Q(2) = 1$ and $Q(n) = Q(n-Q(n-1)) + Q(n-Q(n-2))$ for $n \geq 3$. So far hardly anything on this sequence has been proved -- not even that $Q(n)$ is ...
3
votes
0answers
135 views

Shift-invariant submultiplicative seminorms of $\ell^{\infty}$

Question: Is there a shift-invariant submultiplicative seminorm $||\cdot||$ of $\ell^\infty$ which satisfies the following property? If $f:\mathbb{N}\rightarrow\mathbb{N}$ is an increasing function ...
3
votes
0answers
198 views

What is the (fractional) half-derivative of zeta at $s=0$ (and how to compute it)?

(I asked this in MSE before but there was only a general reference which did not help for my specific question) I think I understood the concept of fractional derivatives applied to ...
3
votes
0answers
250 views

Convolution inverse of recursively defined sequence is alternating

Consider the double sequence $A(n,k)$ which is recursively defined by $$A(n,n)=1 \text{ for } n=0,1,2,\dots \text{ and }$$ $$A(n,k)=2\sum_{l=1}^{k+1} \binom{2n+1}{2l} A(n-l,k+1-l) \text{ for }0\leq k ...
3
votes
0answers
212 views

Alternating sums of powers of the lngamma ($\small f_p(x) = \sum \log(k!)^p x^k $ at $\small x=-1$)

I'm still fiddling with this recent question and come to a detail, whether I can find closed forms for the sums of the $\small lngamma() $ function. Precisely $$ \small f_p(x) = \sum_{k=0}^{\infty} ...
3
votes
0answers
657 views

Method for variable substitution in multiple summation

I want to ask: is there any general method for variable substitution in multiple summation? For example in the following equation a new variable $\lambda=n+m-2\mu$ is introduced to transform the LHS ...
3
votes
0answers
319 views

Finch's sequence over $\mathbb{F}_3$

In http://algo.inria.fr/csolve/seqmod3.pdf -- "Periodicity in sequences mod 3" Steven Finch (also cited in Sloane's OEIS A112683) defines the following sequences in $\mathbb{F}_3$: For each positive ...
2
votes
0answers
88 views

A second polylogarithm ladder for the tribonacci and n-nacci constants

In "A seventeenth-order polylogarithm ladder", on page 6 (eq 25), Bailey et al give a dilogarithmic ladder that begins with, $$0 = ...
2
votes
0answers
119 views

Series for envelope of triangle area bisectors

The lines which bisect the area of a triangle form an envelope as shown in this picture It is not difficult to show that the ratio of the area of the red deltoid to the area of the triangle is ...
2
votes
0answers
184 views

Proving that an increasing iterative sequence increases at a decreasing rate

In this question Proving a sequence of integrals increases (iterated minimax distributions) Pietro Majer proved that $$\int_0^1F_n(x) dx \leq \int_0^1F_{n+1}(x) dx$$ when $$F_n(x) = ...
2
votes
0answers
344 views

How to calculate/approximate expectation of function of a binomial random variable?

Hi, I am stuck at following problem in my research. Suppose that $M=m$ is a random variable with binomial distribution with parameters $n,p$. The constants $r$ and $\gamma$ are greater than zero. ...
2
votes
0answers
463 views

What square-summable sequences are “sinc-summable”?

$\operatorname{sinc} : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R} \;\;$ is defined by $\;\; \operatorname{sinc}(x) \; = \; \begin{cases} 1 & \text{if }\:\;x=0 \\ \\ \frac{\operatorname{sin}(x)}x & \text{else} ...
2
votes
0answers
421 views

recursive sum of products of bessel functions

I have found a way to sum products of bessel functions in the form $$S_\ell(x,y)=\sum_{n=-\infty}^\infty (-1)^{n+\ell} I_{\ell-2n}(x)I_n(y)$$ recursively, i.e. once $S_0(x,y)$ is found, via the ...
1
vote
0answers
93 views

Passing to the limit in a PDE (subsequence problems)

For $w \in L^2(0,T;H^1)$, consider the PDE $$\int u'(t)v(t) + \int g(w(t))\nabla u(t) \nabla v(t) = \int f(t) v(t)\quad \forall v \in L^2(0,T;H^1)$$ where $u \in H^1(0,T;L^2)\cap L^2(0,T;H^1)$, and ...
1
vote
0answers
128 views

Asymptotic behaviour of sequence

I am interested in the sequence $$a(n)=\sum_{k=0}^n {p(n-k)-1 \choose k}$$ where $p(n)=(r-1)n^2+(2r-1)n+r$ for some $r \in \mathbb{N}$ or more generally any polynomial equation. When $r=1$ this ...
1
vote
0answers
267 views

Do these infinite series expressing $\zeta(s)$ only (partially) converge at $\Re(s)=\frac12$?

The following analytic continuation for $\zeta(s)$ towards $\Re(s)>-1$ was derived here: $$\displaystyle \zeta(s) = \frac{1}{2\,(s-1)} \left(\sum _{n=1}^{\infty } {\frac {s-1-2\,n}{{n}^{s}}} + ...
1
vote
0answers
73 views

A generalization of alternating series involving modulus?

Alternating series are common in the literature, with important examples including $\displaystyle\sum_{n=1}\frac{(-1)^{n-1}}{n}=\log 2$, ...
1
vote
0answers
85 views

Structural differences between closed forms of two related infinite products?

In this question, I went quite a bit over the top, so I now tried to rephrase it in a much simpler way. Take $a \in \mathbb{R}, s \in \mathbb{C}$ and: $$\displaystyle C(s,a) := \prod_{n=1}^\infty ...
1
vote
0answers
177 views

Convergence of $\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{\psi^{(1)}(1-n/\pi)}{n^3}$

Related to an open problem about another series. Set $$A= \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{\psi^{(1)}(1-n/\pi)}{n^3}$$ where $\psi^{(n)}(k)$ is the polygamma function. Does $A$ converge? The related ...
1
vote
0answers
72 views

The $d$-dimension extension of Bernoulli Polynomial

It is known that Bernoulli polynomial has the following Fourier expansion: \begin{equation*} B_{2n}(x) = \frac{(-1)^{n-1}2(2n)!}{(2\pi)^{2n}}\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\frac{\cos(2k\pi x)}{k^{2n}}. ...
1
vote
0answers
170 views

Zeta sum $\sum_{n=2}^\infty \frac{\zeta(n)}{a^n}$

Probably this is known, but mathworld and wolfram alpha don't recognize this potential identities. Numerical evidence suggests: $$ \sum_{n=2}^\infty \frac{\zeta(n)}{a^n} =? \sum_{n=1}^\infty ...
1
vote
0answers
103 views

Bounding a recursively defined sequence

I have a sequence $\lambda_0,\lambda_1,\ldots,$ which is defined recursively as $$ \lambda_0 = \frac{1}{2},$$ and $$\lambda_{k+1} = \max_{\lambda\in [1,b]} \left(\frac{1}{2\lambda}\prod_{0\leq ...
1
vote
0answers
160 views

Calculating $n$ for $\sigma(\sigma(n)-n) = n$ [redefined]

As in A072868 described by OEIS; Defined by $\sigma(\sigma(n)-n) = n$. Since these numbers are important in regard to many things, specially mersenne primes, since ${n-1 \over 2}\times ...
1
vote
0answers
128 views

Limit of Sequence of unusual Prime Product

Let $p_n$ be the nth prime and $p_L$ be closest to its square root: \begin{equation} p_L^2 \approx p_n \approx x \end{equation} Let $\sigma \in Z^+$ be a positive integer constant. Define the ...
1
vote
0answers
232 views

An infinite set of identities using Stirling numbers 1st kind - are they all zero?

I have the following set of series involving the Stirling numbers 1'st kind and binomials, which can be understood as a set of dot-products of row- and column-vectors of two infinite matrices (where R ...
1
vote
0answers
193 views

Is there an infinite sequence of positive integers $a_n$ s.t. $\sum_{n=1}^\infty{\frac{1}{a_n}}$ converges and $a_n$ contains arbitrary long arithmetic progressions?

This is somewhat related to Erdős conjecture on arithmetic progressions Is there an infinite sequence of positive integers $a_n$ s.t. $\sum_{n=1}^\infty{\frac{1}{a_n}}$ converges and $a_n$ ...
1
vote
0answers
180 views

Applying the ideas of power series to certain convolutions - which identities transfer?

Let's suppose I'm working with some set of functions $f_k(n)$. $f_1(n)$ is essentially the root of my functions, and could be nearly anything, and then $f_k(n) = (f_1(n) * f_{k-1}(n))$ for some ...
1
vote
0answers
386 views

A transformation of infinite series

Suppose I have a convergent infinite series $\sum_{n=0}^\infty (-1)^n a_n = S_0$ and $0 < S_0 < 1$. Write $s_n$ for the $n$-th partial sum. ($s_n = \sum_{k=0}^n (-1)^k a_k$) Now consider the ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Show that uniform continuity implies stochastic equicontinuity

Let $\Theta$ be a metric space and assume it is compact. Let $W_t: \Omega \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^k$ be a random variable for $t\leq T$. Let $m(.,\theta): \mathbb{R}^k\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^s$. Let ...
0
votes
0answers
105 views

Base-signed harmonic series

This question is directly related to this question by Douglas Zare. The harmonic sequence $$s = 1 - \frac{1}{2} - \frac{1}{3} + \frac{1}{4} - \frac{1}{5} + \frac{1}{6}+\frac{1}{7}-\frac{1}{8} - ... ...
0
votes
0answers
36 views

Supersets of P-finite sequences and rings

P-finite sequences are a superset of C-finite sequences. While doing programming work, the question came up what generalizations or supersets of P-finite sequences have people described. In other ...
0
votes
0answers
64 views

Usage of multinomial theorem with infinite series

What are the conditions for using the multinomial theorem with infinite series? I have an expression but I don't know if I can use it. The expression is: $$ \left[\sum_{m=0}^{\infty} \frac{\mu^m ...
0
votes
0answers
94 views

Multivariate generating function

I am investigating the perturbation of the Jordan canonical form. In my work I must calculate the number of ways to factor $p^ {n-k} q^k$ where $p$ and $q$ are distinct primes ...