# Tagged Questions

**0**

votes

**0**answers

116 views

### a question on sum of Gaussian binomial coefficients

I was trying to calculate something and at some point I get the following sum:
\begin{equation}
\sum_{t=0,t \text{ even}}^{s}{s+3n \brack s-t}\sum_{i = 0}^{t/2}q^{2i^2}{t/2+2n-i \brack t/2-i}{n ...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

343 views

### Shortest supersequence of all permutations of $n$ elements

Given an alphabet with $n$ characters, what is the shortest sequence that contains all $n!$ permutations as subsequences?
A subsequence can be obtained from a sequence by deleting any characters, ...

**17**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Where in mathematics do these polynomials appear?

Does anyone recognize the following sequence of polynomials?
$f_0(x) = x-1$
$f_1(x) = x^2-x$
$f_2(x) = x^4-2x^2+x$
$f_3(x) = x^8-3x^4+3x^2-x$
$f_4(x) = x^{16}-4x^8+6x^4-4x^2+x$
$\vdots$
The ...

**-1**

votes

**1**answer

243 views

### Does anyone recognize this generating function [closed]

$a_1=1, a_2=1, a_3=3, a_4=15, a_5=105$
Reccurence formula is
$a_{k+1}=\sum\limits_{\lambda_1+\lambda_2+\ldots+\lambda_s=k,\ \lambda_i\geq1} a_{\lambda_1}a_{\lambda_2}...a_{\lambda_s}{k \choose ...

**-2**

votes

**1**answer

79 views

### Monotonic sequence (edited) [closed]

For any two n-dim vector $v$ and $v'$ define $v\leq v'$ iff for each $1\leq i\leq n$, $v_i\leq v_i'$.
Suppose further that the entry of vectors can only take values from $m$ distinct values $\{a_1, ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

82 views

### Usage of multinomial theorem with infinite series

What are the conditions for using the multinomial theorem with infinite series? I have an expression but I don't know if I can use it. The expression is:
$$
\left[\sum_{m=0}^{\infty} \frac{\mu^m ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

307 views

### Asymptotic behaviour of sequence

I am interested in the sequence
$$a(n)=\sum_{k=0}^n {p(n-k) \choose k}$$
where $p(n)$ is a polynomial equation.
When $p(n)=n$ this reduces to the Fibonacci sequence, but what about when $p(n)$ is ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

100 views

### Multivariate generating function

I am investigating the perturbation of the Jordan canonical form. In my work I must calculate the number of ways to factor $p^ {n-k} q^k$ where $p$ and $q$ are distinct primes ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

193 views

### A question on graphic sequences

Let $G$ be a graph and $d_{G}(u)$ denotes degree of a vertex $u$ in $G$. Consider the next multiset $$M_{G}:=\{|d_{G}(u)-d_{G}(v)|:\ uv\in E(G)\}.$$
Conjecture: $M_{G}$ is graphical for every $G$.
...

**38**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Numbers that are generic w.r.t. exponentiation

This is a follow-up to my old question Number of distinct values taken by $x\hat{\phantom{\hat{}}}x\hat{\phantom{\hat{}}}\dots\hat{\phantom{\hat{}}}x$ with parentheses inserted in all possible ways.
...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

512 views

### How to explain the picturesque patterns in François Brunault's matrix?

How to explain the patterns in the matrix defined in François Brunault's
answer to the question Freeness of a Z[x] module depicted below? --
Choosing colors according to the highest power of 2 which ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

328 views

### Number of Configurations in the optimal Hanoi tower

There is a unique strategy how to move $n$ disks from the first rod to the second optimally and it takes $2^n-1$ steps, solution is obtained by simple recursion. I am interested into the following ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

258 views

### Convolution inverse of recursively defined sequence is alternating

Consider the double sequence $A(n,k)$ which is recursively defined by
$$A(n,n)=1 \text{ for } n=0,1,2,\dots \text{ and }$$
$$A(n,k)=2\sum_{l=1}^{k+1} \binom{2n+1}{2l} A(n-l,k+1-l) \text{ for }0\leq k ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

959 views

### Cycling through the Zeta Garden: Zeta functions for graphs, cycle index polynomials, and determinants

Zeta functions abound in mathematics. Audrey Terras describes in Zeta Functions and Chaos three zeta functions--the zeta fct. of a projective non-singular algebraic variety; the Artin-Mazur zeta ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

673 views

### series expansion of the q-Pochhammer symbol

The following identity arose while I was working on a recent MO question:
$-\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n}\frac{(-x)^n}{1-x^n}=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n}\frac{x^n}{1-x^{2n}}.$
I have no doubt ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

283 views

### Maximal difference between k randomly drawn numbers from 1 to n – Looking for formula to sequence

Hello!
I have an interesting problem that seemed simple to me, but I'm unable to solve it on my own.
Suppose I am drawing k numbers out of n numbers labeled from 1 to n.
Considering all ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

372 views

### Converting a recursive definition to an explicit one

Is there an explicit form for $a_x$ (whole numbers x) given that $a_x = \displaystyle\sum_{i=1}^{x-1} \binom{x-1}{i} a_i$?
I've listed out the first few terms:
for $x=0,1,2,3,4,5,6, 7$
we have $a_x ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

294 views

### Equidecomposable graphs, unimodality and asymptotics

I will call two graphs $G$ and $H$, $r$-equidecomposable (in analogy with Hilbert's third problem) if they can be written as unions of disjoint subgraphs
$$G\cong \bigsqcup_{i=1}^r G_i\quad ,\quad ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### sum calculation

I would like to calculate, or bound from above, the following sum
$$
\sum_{i=0}^n(n-2i)^p{p \choose i},
$$
here $p\geq 2$.
Any references are very welcome.
Thank you.

**2**

votes

**0**answers

366 views

### How to calculate/approximate expectation of function of a binomial random variable?

Hi,
I am stuck at following problem in my research.
Suppose that $M=m$ is a random variable with binomial distribution with parameters $n,p$. The constants $r$ and $\gamma$ are greater than zero. ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

304 views

### differential operator power coefficients

Let $(F(x)\frac{d}{dx})^n=\sum_{i=1}^n H_{n,i}(F, F', F^{(2)}, \ldots , F^{(n)})\frac{d^i}{dx^i}$. I'm curious about the exact formula for $H_{n,i}(y_0, y_1, \ldots , y_n)$. What is known about it?

**6**

votes

**2**answers

748 views

### Is there a combinatorial interpretation of this triangle sequence? Is there a “simpler” formula?

Hi.
I was wondering about this. I've got this triangle sequence:
$$a_{n,k} = \sum_{1 = m_1 < m_2 < \cdots < m_k = n}\ \prod_{j=2}^k S(m_j, m_{j-1})$$.
where the $S(n, k)$ are Stirling ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

193 views

### Number of times lead changes in a multi-candidate election (reference-request)

In a two candidate election where votes are distributed uniformly at random between the candidates, the probability that the lead changes when tallying the $i$-th vote is the same as the probability ...

**18**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Zeroes of the random Fibonacci sequence

Let X_n be the "random Fibonacci sequence," defined as follows:
$X_0 = 0, X_1 = 1$;
$X_n = \pm X_{n-1} \pm X_{n-2}$, where the signs are chosen by independent 50/50 coinflips.
It is known that ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

670 views

### Method for variable substitution in multiple summation

I want to ask: is there any general method for variable substitution in multiple summation?
For example in the following equation a new variable $\lambda=n+m-2\mu$ is introduced to transform the LHS ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

939 views

### Is there a theory about these kinds of recurrence equations? Is this a known formula?

(New information at bottom)
Hi.
For a while, I've been toying around with solving recurrence equations of the form
$$a_1 = r_{1,1}$$
$$a_n = \sum_{m=1}^{n-1} r_{n,m} a_m$$
What are these kind of ...

**28**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### Is there an “elegant” non-recursive formula for these coefficients? Also, how can one get proofs of these patterns?

Hi.
Not sure if this is a "good" question for this forum or if it'll get panned, but here goes anyway...
Consider this problem. I've been trying to find a formula to expand the "regular iteration" ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

434 views

### Trying to sum a series (related to catalan numbers perhaps)

Whilst trying to solve a combinatorics problem I am faced with summing this series:
1+ 2C_1 2/(3^2) + 4C_2 (2^2)/(3^4) + 6C_3 (2^3)/(3^6)+ ... + 2nC_n (2^n)/(3^(2n))+...
Where 4C_2 is 4 choose 2.
...

**23**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Asymptotic growth of a certain integer sequence

Some time ago, while putting my nose in the Sloane's Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, I came over the sequence A019568 defined as follows:
$a(n):=$ the smallest positive integer $k$ such
...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

457 views

### Degree sequences of multigraphs with bounded multiplicity

I got to thinking about this problem while sifting through the math puzzles for dinner thread. There's a fun puzzle by rgrig which asks the guests to prove that when they came to dinner two of them ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

1k views

### Explicit formula for Euler zigzag numbers(Up/down numbers)

I have derived an explicit formula for the Euler zigzag numbers, the number of alternating permutations for n elements:
$$A_n = i^{n+1}\sum _{k=1}^{n+1} \sum _{j=0}^k {k\choose{j}} ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

186 views

### Indexing schemes of binary sequences

I am looking for "low-complexity" indexing methods to enumerate binary sequences of a given length and a given weight.
Formally, let $T_k^n = \{x_1^n \in \{0,1\}^n: \sum_{i=1}^n x_i = k\}$. How to ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

768 views

### Non-arithmetic proof of the integrality of a rational expression

The following expression is an integer for any natural $n,k$
$$c(n,k)=\frac{k^n\prod_{m=0}^{n-1}(1+mk)}{n!}.$$
The generating function for these numbers is $\sum_{n\geq 0} c(n,k)x^n=(1-k^2x)^{-1/k}$, ...

**11**

votes

**5**answers

840 views

### Asymptotics of a Bernoulli-number-like function

Tony Lezard asked me the following question which seemed like it should not be too hard but which I did not immediately see how to answer. Define $f(n,k)$ recursively by $f(1,k) = 1$ and
$$f(n,k) = ...

**2**

votes

**10**answers

6k views

### Uniquely generate all permutations of three digits that sum to a particular value?

I'm looking for a way of generating all permutations of three digits (actually xyz) that sum to the same value.
For example:
...