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1
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1answer
128 views

Relation of spectrum

Let $X$ denotes a complex $C^*$-algebra and $\{Z(t)\}_{t\geq 0}$ is a $C_0$-Semigroup of operators on $X$. If for $x\in X$, I have $x=x^*$ (x is selfadjoint), and its spectrum $\sigma(x)\subset ...
3
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1answer
134 views

what is the meaning of the operator $ EXP[\frac{ \theta }{2}\frac{\partial^2}{\partial \overrightarrow{v}^2}]$

the name of this operator is one-parameter semigroup for example $ EXP[\frac{ \theta }{2}\frac{\partial^2}{\partial \overrightarrow{v}^2}]f$, $ f$is the function of $\overrightarrow{v}$ what is ...
2
votes
1answer
223 views

fraction power of operators in $C_0$ semigroup

Let $X$ be Banach space, and $\{Z(t)\}_{t\geq 0}\subseteq B(X)$ be the $C_0$-Semigroup of operators defined on $X$. Moreover, let $A$ be the infinitesimal generator of $\{Z(t)\}_{t\geq 0}$. A ...
5
votes
2answers
247 views

Proving that a semigroup is regular

In a number of diverse situations of interest to me (mostly associated with something called the abelian sandpile model), one can define a nonabelian semigroup generated by commuting elements ...
13
votes
1answer
405 views

Automorphisms of $P(\Bbb N)$

I believe I've proved that the power semigroup of non-negative integers with addition has a trivial automorphism group. The proof is a bit long, completely elementary and rather unremarkable (as the ...
3
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0answers
147 views

What can we say about a semigroup that's acted on by an ideal of polynomials?

This got no response on MSE, so posting here. Let $S = \{ (a,b) \in \Bbb{Z}^2 : \gcd(a,b) \neq 1 \} \cup (1,1)$. Then $S$ forms a semigroup. The operation being componentwise multiplication. Let ...
2
votes
0answers
61 views

series representation for *un*bounded perturbations of semigroup generators

Let $A$ generate an analytic $C_0$-semigroup on a Banach space $X$ and $B$ be a relatively compact perturbation, i.e., $B$ is compact as an operator from $D(A)$ (with the graph norm) to $X$. Then ...
4
votes
1answer
136 views

Progress on group languages characterizations

Def. A group language is a recognizable language whose syntactic monoid is a group. q1. Is it known a "nice" combinatorial characterization of group languages ? q1.1. If no, is it well understood ...
24
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3answers
660 views

What is the probability two random maps on n symbols commute?

It is well known that two randomly chosen permutations of $n$ symbols commute with probability $p_n/n!$ where $p_n$ is the number of partitions of $n$. This is a special case of the fact that in a ...
3
votes
0answers
69 views

Hindman's theorem variant for noncommutative semigroups

The well set proof of Hindman's finite sums theorem applied to noncommutative semigroups yields a sequence of elements such that finite products ordered coherently with this sequence are in one set. ...
1
vote
1answer
137 views

Idempotents in Green J classes

I recently read this article Syntactic semigroups. In page $8$, he speaks about a J class having an idempotent is called regular: A $\mathcal J$-class containing an idempotent is called regular. ...
2
votes
3answers
300 views

Generalized free product of semigroups with amalgamated subsemigroups

Hanna Neumann in [American Journal of Mathematics, 1948, http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2372201?uid=2&uid=4&sid=21102497379451 ] introduced a notion of generalized free product of ...
6
votes
1answer
207 views

Strongly continuous semigroups that cannot be contractions

Let $X$ be a Banach space, and $(P_t)_{t \ge 0}$ a strongly continuous semigroup of bounded operators on $X$. Using the uniform boundedness principle, it's simple to prove that there are constants ...
5
votes
2answers
305 views

Existence of a possible counterexample in automaton semigroups

In an attempt to resolve a question posed by Cain in his paper on Automaton Semigroups (open problem 6.12), I would like to know if there exists a finite semigroup $S$ satisfying the following ...
0
votes
0answers
60 views

Is there a strongly stable semigroup which is not uniformly bounded

Let $X$ be a Hilbert space and let $(T(t))_{t\geq 0}$ a $C_0$-semigroup on $X$, we recall that: 1- $(T(t))_{t\geq 0}$ is said to be uniformly bounded if there exists $M\geq 0$ such that for all ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Transformation terminology question

Given a transformation $t$ from the transformation semigroup $T_{n}$, if you take powers of $t$ under composition you get a length $s$ stem followed by a cycle. Permutations by definition have a ...
6
votes
2answers
238 views

For a monoid with zero $M$, how many additive operations on $M$ can there be making $M$ a ring?

Let $(M,\times)$ be a monoid with zero. Let $\Sigma(M,\times)$ be the set of binary operations $+$ on $M$ such that $(M,+,\times)$ is a ring. Let $\sim$ be an equivalence relation on ...
4
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0answers
90 views

How much do idempotent ultrafilters generate in terms of semigroups?

It is known that the set of ultrafilters on, say, the natural numbers $\mathbb{N}$, can naturally be endowed with the structure of a compact topological left semigroup (which fails to be anything ...
0
votes
1answer
97 views

What are the semigroups in which congruence classes can be multplied like sets?

For a semigroup $S$ and a congruence $\rho$ on $S$, let's say that $\rho$ is good when for all $a,b\in S$ we have that $[ab]=[a][b],$ where $[x]$ denotes the congruence class of $x$ modulo $\rho$ and ...
0
votes
1answer
177 views

Cauculation of a conplex integrand. A question from the book PDE by A. Friedman

In the book Partial Diferential Equations by A. Friedman 1969. Part 2 on page 104, in the proof of theorem 2.1 (d). A is a operator of type $(\psi,M)$ ($-A$generate a analytic semigroup), and ...
0
votes
1answer
182 views

Embedding a semigroup into a divisible semigroup

The following is motivated by the fact that I'd like to have a way, much better if canonical, to isometrically embed a normed group into a normed divisible group. But semigroups are a much more ...
2
votes
2answers
267 views

Projective limit construction of a semigroup

Let $\tilde{\mathbb N}$ be the Abelian semigroup (under addition) given by $\mathbb N\cup\{0,\infty\}$, and let $S_n$ be the Abelian monoid $\tilde{\mathbb N}^{2^n}$ under point-wise addition. ...
0
votes
1answer
85 views

What is the way to after finding Cohen-Macaulay semigroup as ring of monomial?

http://people.missouristate.edu/lesreid/reu/2007/PPT/robin.ppt it said missing part inside and not missing part outside is non Cohen-Macaulay semigroup which determine whether is missing in the ...
3
votes
4answers
394 views

On the notion of partial semigroup

A partial binary operation on a set $X$ is just a (partial) function $\varphi: X \times X \rightharpoonup X$ (I'm using \rightharpoonup for partial maps), and a partial magma is a pair $\mathbb M = ...
2
votes
2answers
296 views

How many idempotent relations are there on an $n$-element set?

As far as I know, it is an open problem to give a formula counting transitive relations on an $n$-element set. Is it easier to count the idempotent relations, that is relations that are both ...
0
votes
2answers
479 views

on the set of numbers generated by integer linear combination of two real numbers.

Let $b > a > 0$ be two real numbers. I am interested in the set of numbers $X(p,q) = p a + q b$ with $p,q$ positive integers. Basically this is the set $a \mathbb{N} + b \mathbb{N}$. What ...
2
votes
2answers
315 views

On exponential formula

Let $T(t),t\geq 0$, be a $C_0$-semigroup on a Banach space $X$. If $A$ is the infinitesimal generator of $T(t),t\geq 0$, then $$T(t)x=\lim_{n\infty}(I-\frac{t}{n}A)^{-n}x$$ for every $x \in X, t\geq ...
2
votes
0answers
245 views

Continuity of multiplicative character

Let $G$ be a discrete group and $\beta (G)$ denote the Stone-Cech compactification of $G$, a right topological semigroup. By a multiplicative character, I mean a mapping that preserves multiplication ...
3
votes
0answers
112 views

A question of terminology - Unitizations of semigroups

There are at least two standard ways of unitizing a (small) semigroup $\mathbb A$: (i) We add an identity regardless that $\mathbb A$ is already unital. (ii) We add an identity only if none is ...
2
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1answer
142 views

Name for a regular band

Is there a name for regular bands that satisfy $xyx=yx$ for all $x$,$y$?
4
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1answer
144 views

Generator of a $C_0$-semigroup restricted to a subspace

Suppose we have a decreasing filtration of Banach spaces $(E_t)\_{t\geq0}$, inclusions $V_{s+t,t}:E_{s+t}\to E_t$ and projections $P_{t,s+t}:E_t\to E_{s+t}$ such that $P_{t,s+t}V_{s+t,t}=I_{E_{s+t}}$. ...
1
vote
0answers
64 views

Semiflows and continuous symmetries

Given a differential equation on a Banach space $\mathcal{X}$ of the form $\frac{d u}{d t} = F(u)$, it is often the case that $F$ is equivariant under translations, i.e. that $T_\alpha F(u) = ...
1
vote
1answer
175 views

Counting modular squares in an interval

For an integer $m$, let $S^m_{x_0,x_1} = \{ t | x_0 ≤ t ≤ x_1 $ and $t$ is a square modulo $m \}$. Let $S^m_x$ = $S^m_{0,x}$. Determining whether the sets $S^m_x$ are empty is easy (1 is always a ...
1
vote
2answers
279 views

What are the monoids in which every globally idempotent subsemigroup contains the identity element?

A semigroup is called globally idempotent when for any $x\in S$ there are $y,z\in S$ such that $x=yz$. Is there a name for monoids whose every globally idempotent subsemigroup contains the identity ...
0
votes
1answer
165 views

When does a power semigroup have a zero, and what can the zero be?

Let $S$ be a semigroup. The power semigroup of $S$ is the set $P(S)=2^S\setminus\lbrace\varnothing\rbrace $ with the operation $$AB=\lbrace ab\ |\ a\in A,\ b\in B\rbrace.$$ This operation is ...
24
votes
5answers
2k views

How many binary operations are associative?

Let $X$ be a finite set of $n$ elements, and consider a binary operation $\odot: X \times X \rightarrow X$. There are $n^{n^2}$ such binary operations, as the $n \times n$ table entries can each be ...
3
votes
2answers
162 views

A linearly orderable monoid which does not embed into a linearly orderable group

It is known (after an example of A.I. Mal'cev) that there exist cancellative semigroups which do not embed into a group. On the other hand, it is not difficult to see that every linearly orderable ...
1
vote
0answers
89 views

Equivalence between Algebraic Semi-group Structures and Coalgebra Structures for an Algebraic Variety?

I was looking at this old question Hopf algebra and group structure correspondence for algebraic varieties which says that there exists an equivalence between algebraic group structures on an ...
0
votes
0answers
175 views
2
votes
1answer
167 views

On the notion of torsion-freeness in semigroup theory

The following seems to be the "official" notion of torsion-freeness in the context of semigroups: TF1. A (multiplicatively written) semigroup $\mathfrak A$ is torsion-free if there do not ...
1
vote
1answer
196 views

Strictly totally ordered semigroups - Looking for references

Let $\mathfrak A = (A, \cdot)$ be a semigroup (written multiplicatively). We say that $\mathfrak A$ is linearly orderable if there exists a total order $\le$ on $A$ such that $ac < bc$ and $ca < ...
4
votes
1answer
344 views

What do we know about the semigroup $e^{it\sqrt{-\Delta}}$

I'm very interested in the properties of the semigroup $e^{it\sqrt{-\Delta}}$, it may has some fundamental differences(such as the kernel) with the well-known schrodinger semigroup $e^{it\Delta}$. ...
4
votes
1answer
252 views

Reference for subsemigroups of $\mathbb{N}^n$

A well known result about the natural numbers $\mathbb{N}$ says that for any finite subset $A \subset \mathbb{N}$ there exists $R \ge 0$ such that if $n$ is in the subgroup of $\mathbb{Z}$ generated ...
2
votes
1answer
218 views

Embedding Semigroups in Rings

Let $S$ be a finite commutative semigroup with identity. Under what conditions (on the semigroup $S$) it is possible to find a ring $R$ such that the multiplicative structure of $R - \{0\}$ is ...
3
votes
2answers
227 views

Minimal right ideals in finite semigroup

Let $E$ be a finite semigroup. According to N. Bourbaki (Algèbre I p. 121 exerc. 14 c), if $M$ and $M'$ are minimal right ideals in $E$, then they are isomorphic. I spent some time browsing through ...
3
votes
1answer
205 views

Is the universal inverse semigroup of a commutative semigroup an embedding?

The question of existence of a universal inverse semigroup of an arbitrary semigroup has been answered before (this is a construction similar to the Grothendieck group). Let's refer to the universal ...
2
votes
2answers
213 views

Idempotent semigroups: Are they all residually finite?

As pointed out by Mark Sapir in his answer to a related question, every residually finite divisible semigroup is idempotent (hence uniquely divisible). On another hand, it is not difficult to prove ...
2
votes
1answer
269 views

On a property of subsemigroups

Let $H$ denote a subsemigroup of a semigroup $G$. I'm interested in the following property: $$\forall g\in G\exists h\in H:gh\in H.$$ This property is weaker than the property that $H$ is an ideal ...
3
votes
1answer
247 views

A semigroup with the property that $x^n = a$ has at least one solution

Is there a standard name for a (multiplicatively-written) semigroup $(A, \cdot)$ such that, given an arbitrary $a \in A$, the equation $x^n = a$ has at least one solution $x \in A$ for each $n \in ...
7
votes
2answers
377 views

Is the class of inverse semigroups globally determined?

This question is a follow-up to this one I asked on math.stackexchange. I've decided to ask here because I believe this is a research-level question. I'm sorry if I'm wrong -- I'm not a researcher ...