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75
votes
4answers
9k views

How small can a sum of a few roots of unity be?

Let $n$ be a large natural number, and let $z_1, \ldots, z_{10}$ be (say) ten $n^{th}$ roots of unity: $z_1^n = \ldots = z_{10}^n = 1$. Suppose that the sum $S = z_1+\ldots+z_{10}$ is non-zero. How ...
23
votes
3answers
2k views

Products of primitive roots of the unity

Let $m>2$ be an integer and $k=\varphi(m)$ be the number of $m$-th primitive roots of the unity. Let $\Phi = \{ \xi_1, \ldots, \xi_{k/2}\} $ be a set of $k/2$ pairwise distinct primitive $m$-th ...
18
votes
0answers
500 views

Which sets of roots of unity give a polynomial with nonnegative coefficients?

The question in brief:   When does a subset $S$ of the complex $n$th roots of unity have the property that $$\prod_{\alpha\, \in \,S} (z-\alpha)$$ gives a polynomial in $\mathbb R[z]$ with ...
17
votes
2answers
902 views

Probability a polynomial has a root which is a root of unity

Consider a degree $n$ polynomial $P(x)$ with coefficients $c_i \in \{-1,0,1\}$ chosen uniformly and independently. What is the probability that $P(x)$ has a root which is a root of unity? ...
15
votes
1answer
961 views

Evaluating a remarkable term for primes p = 5 (mod. 8)

Let $p > 3$ be a prime number, and $\zeta$ be a primitive $p$-th root of unity. I am interested in knowing the exact value of $$w_p = \prod_{a \in (\mathbb F_p^{\times})^2}(1 + \zeta^a) + \prod_{b ...
11
votes
3answers
2k views

An algebraic number is not a root of unity?

This problem is related to my study of the Burau representation of the braid group $B_3$: I was trying to show that certain "congruence subgroups" are of infinite index. There is an approach that ...
9
votes
1answer
262 views

A curious Gauss-Sum type identity

Let $q=e^{2\pi i/m}$, $a\in\mathbb{R}$ and $1\leq j\leq m-1$. I would like to prove that: $$(a-1)\sum_{n=0}^{m-1} q^n\frac{\prod_{k=0}^{j-2} (q^{n+k+1}-a)}{\prod_{k=0}^{j} (aq^{n+k}-1)}=0.$$ For $j=...
6
votes
2answers
404 views

Why are most coefficients of these minimal polynomials divisible by $p$?

For an odd prime $p$, let $\zeta:=e^{\frac{\pi i}p}$ and choose odd $1<n<p$. Further let $q(x)$ and $r(x)$ be integer polynomials such that $r(x)$ has no common factor with $x^n+1$, and $\xi$ ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

Sum of products of p-th powers of roots of 1 and monomial symmetric functions

Hello mathematicians, i'm looking for explicit computations of expressions like $$ \sum_{\substack{0\leq i,j,k<n\\i\neq j\neq k \neq i}}\zeta_n^{ip^{k_1}+jp^{k_2}+kp^{k_3}} $$ and its ...
5
votes
1answer
415 views

Minimal polynomial of sums of roots of unity with constant term $\pm1$

Let prime $p$ and given $\zeta_p = e^{2\pi i/p}$. It is well-known that the minimal polynomial of $x = \zeta_p + \zeta_p^{p-1}$ has a constant term either $\pm 1$ and, for certain $p$, the sum of ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

Can the sum of two roots of unity be a root of unity?

Let $p$ be prime, and $z_0, z_1, ..., z_{p-1}$ be all the $p$-th roots of unity, i.e. solutions of the equation $z^p = 1.$ Is it true or false that a combination of two (or more, in general) of the ...
4
votes
2answers
395 views

Non-standard Gauss sums

I have the following problem. Let $p$ be some prime. What is the value of \begin{equation} \sum_{k=1}^{p-1} \left(\frac{k+1}{p}\right) \omega_p^{kl}, \end{equation} where $\left(\frac{k+1}{p}\right)$ ...
4
votes
1answer
368 views

q-th powers and roots of polynomials

Let $p,q,r$ be integers with $r\ge2$; let $f$ be a polynomial of the form $f(X) = g((X+1)^r)$, which is not a $q$-th power. Let $\omega$ be a $p$-th root of unity. Prove or disprove that the ...
4
votes
1answer
233 views

Unit in cyclotomic field

Let $n \in \mathbb{N}$ and $\zeta$ be a primitive $n$-th root of unity. I want to know for which $n$ the element $1+2(\zeta+\zeta^{-1})$ is a unit in the ring of integers of $\mathbb{Q}[\zeta]$. Can ...
4
votes
3answers
138 views

counting complex roots which are root of unity times a real number

Let $p(x)$ be a monic polynomial over the integers. I want to count the number of roots which have the form $\zeta \cdot r$ where $\zeta$ is a root of unity and $r$ is a real number. To count the ...
4
votes
0answers
294 views

Independent units in pure number fields $\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt[p]{t})$

Theorem: In this paper of Frei and Levesque, they correct the proof of a result of Halter-Koch and Stender: Define the real pure algebraic number field $\mathbb{K}=\mathbb{Q}(\omega_n)$ for $\omega_n=...
3
votes
1answer
326 views

Primes $p=x^2+27y^2$ and Ramanujan's $x_1^{1/3} + x_2^{1/3} + x_3^{1/3}$

I was trying to generalize, $$\sqrt[3]{\sum_{k=0}^4\cos\big(\tfrac{2^k\cdot\,2\pi}{31}\big)}+\sqrt[3]{\sum_{k=0}^4\cos\big(\tfrac{2^k\cdot\,6\pi}{31}\big)}+\sqrt[3]{\sum_{k=0}^4\cos\big(\tfrac{2^k\...
3
votes
1answer
231 views

Diophantine equation with primitive nth root of unity

Fix an $n$th primitive root of unity $\xi$. I need to understand if we can characterize in an easy way all the solutions $k \in \mathbb{Z}$ of the equation $\left|1-\left(-\frac{\xi^k - 1}{\xi-1}\...
3
votes
1answer
249 views

When is possible to factor a field extension into one which adds no roots of unity, followed by one which adds only roots of unity?

The answer to whether this is possible for general fields is no. However, the counterexamples used two ingredients: 1) $\Bbb Q_p$, whose extensions $K$ containing $\Bbb Q_p(\sqrt[p^e]{u})$ might not ...
3
votes
1answer
121 views

Does the Lehmer quintic parameterize certain minimal polynomials of the $p$th root of unity for infinitely many $p$?

The solvable Emma Lehmer quintic is given by, $$F(y) = y^5 + n^2y^4 - (2n^3 + 6n^2 + 10n + 10)y^3 + (n^4 + 5n^3 + 11n^2 + 15n + 5)y^2 + (n^3 + 4n^2 + 10n + 10)y + 1 = 0$$ with discriminant $D = (7 + ...
2
votes
1answer
296 views

Are all sums of subsets of roots of unity unique?

For a prime $p$, let $S$ be the set of all $p$-roots of unity in the complex plane. Now, consider the sum, $W(R)$ of the members of a set $R$ which is a proper subset of $S$. I suspect that $R \ne R'$ ...
2
votes
0answers
101 views

Rational viewing points in a polygon

We refer to the question posed in Seeing the vertices of a polygon with rational angles, but now ask for constructions or for the existence of rational viewing points. We'll call a point $p$ inside (...
1
vote
1answer
2k views

Primitive $k$th root of unity in a finite field $\mathbb{F}_p$

I am given a prime $p$ and another number $k$ ($k$ is likely a power of $2$). I want an efficient algorithm to find the $k$th root of unity in the field $\mathbb{F}_p$. Can someone tell me how to do ...
0
votes
1answer
163 views

How to calculate $N_{L/k}$(roots of unity)?

Suppose that $L/k$ is a Galois extension of number fields and that $G$ is the corresponding Galois group. Further, for $\frak p$ a prime ideal of $\cal O$$_L$, let $K=L^{G(\frak p)}$, where [$L$ : $K$...
0
votes
0answers
78 views

Condensation points of orbits of roots of unity

For a fixed $n\in \mathbb{N}$ we consider the set of $n$-roots of unity $R(n)=\{z\in S^1; z^n=1\}$. It splits into mutually disjoint orbits. Let $R=\bigcup_{n=0}^{\infty} R(2^n-1)$. For each orbit in $...
0
votes
1answer
864 views

nontrivial cube root of unity [closed]

Hi, I have a finite field Fp with p = 11 mod(12) and I am trying to get the third nontrivial root of unity in Fp^2 = Fp^2[x]/(x^2+1). So, i need x where x^3=1. Somehow I came into a source saying ...
0
votes
0answers
330 views

Looking for product of symmetric polynomials evaluated at roots of unity

Consider $a_{1} = \alpha^{N-n}, a_{2} = \alpha^{N-n+1}, a_{3} = \alpha^{N-n+2}, a_{4} = \alpha^{N-n+3}, \cdots, a_{n} = \alpha^{N-1}$ where $\alpha$ is a complex $N$th root of unity where $N = 2 + (n-...