# Tagged Questions

Riemannian Geometry is a subfield of Differential Geometry, which specifically studies "Riemannian Manifolds", manifolds with "Riemannian Metrics", which means that they are equipped with continuous inner products.

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### John Nash's Mathematical Legacy

It would seem that John Nash and his wife Alicia died tragically in a car accident on May 23, 2015 (reference). My condolences to his family and friends. Maybe this is an appropriate time to ask a ...
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### When can a Connection Induce a Riemannian Metric for which it is the Levi-Civita Connection?

As we all know, for a Riemannian manifold $(M,g)$, there exists a unique torsion free connection $\nabla_g$, the Levi-Civita connection, that is compatible witht metric. I was wondering if one can ...
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### Riemannian surfaces with an explicit distance function?

I'm looking for explicit examples of Riemannian surfaces (two-dimensional Riemannian manifolds $(M,g)$) for which the distance function d(x,y) can be given explicitly in terms of local coordinates of ...
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### “Gross-Zagier” formulae outside of number theory

The Gross-Zagier formula and various variations of it form the starting point in most of the existing results towards the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture. It relates the value at $1$ of the ...
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### Minimal volume of 4-manifolds

This question came up in a talk of Dieter Kotschick yesterday. The minimal volume of a manifold is the infimum of volumes of Riemannian metrics on the manifold with sectional curvatures bounded in ...
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### Is the Laplacian on a manifold the limit of graph Laplacians?

Here's the sort of thing I have in mind. Let $M$ be a Riemannian manifold, compact if it helps, and let $\Delta_M$ be the Laplace-Beltrami operator. Choose a sequence of triangulations of $M$ so ...
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### Does the curvature determine the metric?

Hello, I ask myself, whether the curvature determines the metric. Concretely: Given a compact Riemannian manifold $M$, are there two metrics $g_1$ and $g_2$, which are not everywhere flat, such that ...
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### What are “good” examples of spin manifolds?

I'm trying to get a grasp on what it means for a manifold to be spin. My question is, roughly: What are some "good" (in the sense of illustrating the concept) examples of manifolds which are spin (...
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### Many flat totally geodesic surfaces ⇒ flat?

Let $M$ be a 4-dimensional Riemannian manifold. Assume there is a huge number (say 100) of flat totally geodesic 2-dimensional surfaces passing through a point $p\in M$ and assume that their tangent ...
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### Intuition behind moduli space of curves

For a genus g compact smooth surface $M$, an algebraic structure is the same as a complex structure is the same as a conformal structure. So the moduli space of smooth curves should be the same as the ...
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### $G_2$ and Geometry

In a recent question Deane Yang mentioned the beautiful Riemannian geometry that comes up when looking at $G_2$. I am wondering if people could expand on the geometry related to the exceptional Lie ...
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### Introductory text on Riemannian geometry

I have studied differential geometry, and am looking for basic introductory texts on Riemannian geometry. My target is eventually Kähler geometry, but certain topics like geodesics, curvature, ...
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### Determining a surface in $\mathbb{R}^3$ by its Gaussian curvature

A curve in the plane is determined, up to orientation-preserving Euclidean motions, by its curvature function, $\kappa(s)$. Here is one of my favorite examples, from Alfred Gray's book, Modern ...
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### A geometric interpretation of the Levi-Civita connection?

Let $M$ be a Riemannian manifold. There exists a unique torsion-free connection in the (co)tangent bundle of $M$ such that the metric of $M$ is covariantly constant. This connection is called the Levi-...
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### Do free higher homotopy classes of compact Riemannian manifolds have preferred representatives?

A well known theorem of Cartan states that every free homotopy class of closed paths in a compact Riemannian manifold is represented by a closed geodesic (theorem 2.2 of Do Carmo, chapter 12, for ...
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### Metrics on the 3-sphere with knotted geodesics

According to answers to this question every metrics on $S^3$ admits a simple closed geodesic. Given a knot (or link) $K$, it's also quite simple to build a metric on $S^3$ such that $K$ is a geodesic (...
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### Some questions about scalar curvature

Recall that the scalar curvature of a Riemannian manifold is given by the trace of the Ricci curvature tensor. I will now summarize everything that I know about scalar curvature in three sentences: ...
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I tried this post on StackExchange with no luck. Hopefully the experts at MathOverflow can help. In algebraic topology there are two canonical "advanced" textbooks that go quite far beyond the usual ...
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### Ellipses on spheres (and other surfaces)

Define an ellipse $E$ on a sphere as the locus of points whose sum of shortest geodesic distances to two foci $p_1$ and $p_2$ is a constant $d$. There are conditions on $\{ p_1, p_2, d \}$ for this ...
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### The Origin of the Musical Isomorphisms

In Riemannian geometry, the "lowering indices" operator is denoted by $\flat:TM \to T^*M$ and the "raising indices" operator by $\sharp:T^*M \to TM$. These isomorphisms are sometimes referred to as ...
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### Is there a Chern-Gauss-Bonnet theorem for orbifolds?

There's a Gauss-Bonnet theorem for compact 2-orbifolds(due to Satake, I think), which gives a relation between the curvature of a Riemannian orbifold and the orbifold topology(i.e. taking into account ...
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### Ricci flat metric on $n$-sphere?

Can you put a Ricci flat metric on the $n$-sphere, $n>4$?
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### Complex manifolds in which the exponential map is holomorphic

Let $X$ be a complex manifold and $g$ a hermitian metric on $X$. Consider the Riemannian exponential $\exp_p: T_p X \to X$. If $\exp_p$ is holomorphic for every $p \in X$, then $(\exp_p)^{-1}$, ...
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### Algebraic (semi-) Riemannian geometry ?

I hope these are not to vague questions for MO. Is there an analog of the concept of a Riemannian metric, in algebraic geometry? Of course, transporting things literally from the differential ...
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### Isometric embedding of SO(3) into an euclidean space

Consider $SO(3)$ with its bi-invariant metric and $R^n$ the euclidean space of dimension $n$. What is the minimal value of $n$ such that there exists an isometric embedding $f: SO(3) \to R^n$?
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### Is there a smooth manifold which admits only rigid metrics?

Does there exist a (finite dimensional) smooth manifold $M$, such that every Riemannian metric on $M$ has no isometries except the identity? Of course, such a manifold must not admit a diffeomorphism ...
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### When is a closed differential form harmonic relative to some metric?

Let $\omega$ be a closed non-exact differential $k$-form ($k \geq 1$) on a closed orientable manifold $M$. Question: Is there always a Riemannian metric $g$ on $M$ such that $\omega$ is $g$-harmonic,...
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### Curves of constant curvature on S^2

Most probably this is a well known question. Consider $S^2$ with a Riemannian metric. I would like to ask what is known about the structure of the set of simple (without self-intersections) closed ...
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### Open Questions in Riemannian Geometry

What are some major open problems in Riemannian Geometry? I tried googling it, but couldn't find any resources.
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### Questions on J. F. Nash's answer about his errors in the proof of embedding theorem

In the interview of John Nash taken by Christian Skau and Martin Gaussen, in EMS Newsletter, September, 2015 when asked Is it true, as rumours have it, that you started to work on the embedding ...
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### Is every topological (resp. Lie-) group the isometrygroup of a metric space (resp. Riemannian manifold)?

The isometry group of a metric space is a topological group (with the compact open topology). The isometry group of a Riemann Manifold is a Liegroup. (Thm. of Steenrod-Myers) So, is every topological ...
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### Is the following a sufficient condition for asphericity?

I recently came across the following question while working on some problems on manifolds with lower Ricci curvature bounds. Given $n$ does there exist a large $R>0$ with the following property: ...
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### Area of distance sphere in manifold with Ricci $\ge 0$.

Let $M$ be a open complete manifold with Ricci curvature $\ge 0$. By a theorem of Calabi and Yau, the volume growth of $M$ is at least of linear. I am wondering whether the following statement is true:...
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### Avoiding integers in the spectrum of the Laplacian of a Riemann surface

Let $\Sigma^2$ be an orientable compact surface of genus $gen(\Sigma)\geq2$, and denote by $\mathcal M(\Sigma)$ the moduli space of hyperbolic metrics on $\Sigma$, i.e., Riemannian metrics of constant ...
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### Are the eigenvalues of the Laplacian of a generic Kähler metric simple?

It is a theorem of Uhlenbeck that for a generic Riemannian metric, the Laplacian acting on functions has simple eigenvalues, i.e., all the eigenspaces are 1-dimensional. (Here "generic" means the set ...
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### Largest hyperbolic disk embeddable in Euclidean 3-space?

Hilbert proved that there's no complete regular (C^k for sufficiently large k) isometric embedding of the hyperbolic plane into R^3. On the other hand, the pseudosphere is locally isometric to the ...
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### If there is a dense geodesic, are almost all geodesics equidistributed? Dense?

Let $M$ be a complete finite volume Riemannian manifold and $\gamma : \mathbb{R}^{\geq 0} \to M$ a geodesic. Suppose that $\mathrm{im}(\gamma)$ is dense. Is it equidistributed in the Riemannian ...
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### geometric interpretation of Lie bracket

On page 159 of "A Comprehensive Introduction To Differential Geometry Vol.1" by Spivak has written: We thus see that the bracket $[X,Y]$ measures, in some sense, the extent to which the integral ...
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### Gromov-Hausdorff limits of 2-dimensional Riemannian surfaces

Let $\{M_i\}$ be a sequence of 2-dimensional orientable closed surfaces of genus $g$ with smooth Riemannian metrics with the Gauss curvature at least $-1$ and diameter at most $D$. By the Gromov ...
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### Why is it important that partial derivatives commute?

I am asking this in the context of differential geometry (specifically Riemannian). When the Levi-Civita Connection is defined, we require that the torsion tensor is 0, which in local coordinates ...
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### Manifold with all geodesics of Morse index zero but no negatively curved metric?

A closed oriented Riemannian manifold with negative sectional curvatures has the property that all its geodesics have Morse index zero. Is there a known counterexample to the "converse": if (M,g) is ...
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### Why are they called isothermal coordinates?

On a Riemannian manifold, a coordinate system is called "isothermal" if the Riemannian metric in those coordinates is conformal to the Euclidean metric: $$g_{ij} = e^{f} \delta_{ij}$$ My question is:...
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### Does a Riemannian manifold with bounded geometry admit an isometric proper embedding into Euclidean space with uniformly thick tubular neighborhood

Suppose $(M,g)$ is an open Riemannian manifold with bounded geometry, i.e., the injectivity radius is $\ge \epsilon>0$ and each iterated covariant derivative of curvature is bounded with respect to ...
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### Curvature and Parallel Transport

Here is an updated formulation of the question, which is more precise and I think completely correct: Suppose $M$ is a Riemannian manifold. Pick a point $p$ in $M$ and let $U$ be a neighborhood of ...
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### When is the time evolution of a Hamiltonian system described by the geodesic flow on a Riemannian manifold?

Here is my precise question. Let $M, \omega$ be a symplectic manifold and let $H: M \to \mathbb{R}$ be any smooth function. The symplectic form gives rise to an isomorphism between the tangent ...
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### Point singularity of a Riemannian manifold with bounded curvature

Suppose you have an incomplete Riemannian manifold with bounded sectional curvature such that its completion as a metric space is the manifold plus one additional point. Does the Riemannian manifold ...