The general enterprise of calibrating the strength of classical mathematical theorems in terms of the axioms, typically of set existence, needed to prove them; originated in its modern form in the 1970s by H. Friedman and S. G. Simpson (see R.A. Shore, "Reverse Mathematics: The Playground of Logic", ...

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Why is adopting Russell's Axiom of Reducibility as strong as eliminating the Ramified Hierarchy?

In order to respond to concerns of impredicativity, Bertrand Russell developed a system of ramified second-order logic, which is like regular second-order logic except the comprehension schema is ...
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Reverse mathematics strength of identically zero polynomials are the zero polynomial

According to wikipedia, the statement "every polynomial over a countable field that is not the zero polynomial has only finitely many roots" is equivalent to RCA0 over RCA0* (which is called ERCA-0 in ...
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“Hard” separation results in reverse mathematics (or similar)

This is a fairly broad question. In particular, I specify 5 questions (Q1, Q2.1, Q2.2, Q3, Q4) which for me all fall under one umbrella. Since this is unreasonably broad, I'm really interested in an ...
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Strength of claims about extensions of partial preorders and orders to linear ones

Consider these two axioms: Every partial order extends to a linear order. Every partial preorder (reflexive and transitive relation) extends to a linear preorder while preserving strict orderings: ...
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What is known of the reverse math of Riemann-Roch?

I hope this is not too trivial, but I think this may be well known to someone (not me).
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Fragments of Morse—Kelley set theory

Morse—Kelley set theory (hereafter MK) is the impredicative counterpart of von Neumann—Bernays—Gödel set theory (NBG), where formulas containing class quantifiers are permitted in the comprehension ...
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361 views

Is there a notion of “predicative given the real numbers”?

A definition is called impredicative if it involves quantification over a domain that contains the thing being defined. For instance, if you define hereditary property to be a property which applies ...
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Non-Computational classical subterms

Assume we have a proof term of the form $(a^{A\rightarrow^c B\rightarrow^{nc} C}b^Ac^B)^C$, where $c$ is classical (that is, contains free instances of duplex negatio affirmat). The extracted term ...
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What is the role of the (formalized) omega rule in Ramified Analysis?

In the 1960's, Feferman and Schutte did groundbreaking proof-theoretic work to find out the strength of predicative systems of second-order arithmetic. They used the ramified theory of types, a ...
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What references cover finitary systems of Ramified Analysis with transfinite levels?

The ramified theory of types, invented by Bertrand Russell, is a way of dealing with impredicativity by breaking the comprehension schema of second-order logic into levels. The comprehension schema ...
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Definitions for Oddness

In the thread Even Xor Odd Infinities I defined odd models of Modular Arithmetic (MA) as models satisfying the axioms of MA and two first order statements. Even XOR Odd Infinities? $O1) \forall x(x=0 ...