This tag is used if a reference is needed in a paper or textbook on a specific result.

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21
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2answers
1k views

Similarities between Post's Problem and Cohen's Forcing

Remark: I have since learned that G.H. Moore addresses this question in the third reference listed at the end of this post, beginning on p. 157 in which he cites a letter from Kreisel to Gödel dated ...
5
votes
1answer
291 views

coloring in lattice

This is a mathematical question raised from engineering and physics: Is there some established mathematical approach in filling a physical lattice with some colored basis (black and white here)? For ...
4
votes
0answers
281 views

Reference for Wang Tile

I am working on projects in solving ground state of generalized ising models. One recent work involves tiling with basic tiles that filled the whole lattice. For example, we could obtain results: ...
22
votes
9answers
2k views

Determining a surface in $\mathbb{R}^3$ by its Gaussian curvature

A curve in the plane is determined, up to orientation-preserving Euclidean motions, by its curvature function, $\kappa(s)$. Here is one of my favorite examples, from Alfred Gray's book, Modern ...
175
votes
63answers
88k views

Proofs without words

Can you give examples of proofs without words? In particular, can you give examples of proofs without words for non-trivial results? (One could ask if this is of interest to mathematicians, and I ...
79
votes
41answers
24k views

Ways to prove the fundamental theorem of algebra

This seems to be a favorite question everywhere, including Princeton quals. How many ways are there? Please give a new way in each answer, and if possible give reference. I start by giving two: ...
92
votes
10answers
10k views

Is there an introduction to probability theory from a structuralist/categorical perspective?

The title really is the question, but allow me to explain. I am a pure mathematician working outside of probability theory, but the concepts and techniques of probability theory (in the sense of ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Riemann zeta function at positive integers and an Appell sequence of polynomials related to fractional calculus

I was exploring some raising and lowering operators related to an infinitesimal generator for fractional integro-derivatives and found an Appell sequence of polynomials, i.e., an infinite sequence of ...
55
votes
14answers
5k views

Mathematical research published in the form of poems

The article Friedrich Wille: Galerkins Lösungsnäherungen bei monotonen Abbildungen, Math. Z. 127 (1972), no. 1, 10-16 is written in the form of a lengthy poem, in a style similar to that of the ...
10
votes
7answers
3k views

Roadmap to learning about Ricci Flow?

Hello, I'm curious to what books etc. one could use to understand the basics of Ricci flow, what areas of math are needed and so? What areas should one specialize in? See it as a roadmap to ...
26
votes
14answers
4k views

Explicit computations using the Haar measure

This question is somewhat related to my previous one on Grassmanians. The few times I've encountered the Haar measure in the course of my mathematical education, it's always been used in a very ...
8
votes
8answers
2k views

Maxwells equations and differential forms

Hi, is there a textbooks that explains the maxwell equations in differential form? What I understood so far is, that the $E$ and $B$ fields can be assembled to a differential 2 Form $F$, and the ...
23
votes
4answers
4k views

Are nontrivial integer solutions known for $x^3+y^3+z^3=3$?

The Diophantine equation $$x^3+y^3+z^3=3$$ has four easy integer solutions: $(1,1,1)$ and the three permutations of $(4,4,-5)$. Elsenhans and Jahnel wrote in 2007 that these were all the solutions ...
15
votes
9answers
3k views

The free group $F_2$ has index 12 in SL(2,$\mathbb{Z}$)

Is there someone who can give me some hints/references to the proof of this fact?
33
votes
1answer
2k views

Probability that a stick randomly broken in five places can form a tetrahedron

The following problem was brought to my attention by a doctoral dissertation on Mathematics Education, but - as far as I know - the solution remains unknown. I have already asked this question on ...
21
votes
5answers
1k views

Verlinde's formula

"Verlinde's formula" predicts the dimension of the space of conformal blocks of a chiral CFT. Depending on... • which chiral CFT one considers (does one restrict to WZW models, or not?) ...
30
votes
6answers
3k views

Is the Mendeleev table explained in quantum mechanics?

Does anybody know if there exists a mathematical explanation of Mendeleev table in quantum mechanics? In some textbooks (for example in "F.A.Berezin, M.A.Shubin. The Schrödinger Equation") the authors ...
2
votes
3answers
978 views

The Lagrangian formulation of mechanics without going through variational principles.

In some texts on classical mechanics and not only, the Euler--Lagrange equations of motion are directly obtained as solution of variational problems. On the other side, sometimes reading about ...
17
votes
5answers
2k views

Proof of the Reidemeister theorem

While preparing for my introduction to topology course, I've realized that I don't know where to find a detailed proof of the Reidemeister theorem (two link diagrams give isotopic links, iff they can ...
13
votes
3answers
649 views

Is there a midsphere theorem for 4-polytopes?

The (remarkable) midsphere theorem says that each combinatorial type of convex polyhedron may be realized by one all of whose edges are tangent to a sphere (and the realization is unique if the center ...
10
votes
0answers
735 views

Complexes of representations with complementary central charges

This is another question asking for references. There is an important phenomenon of correspondence between (complexes of) representations of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras with the complementary ...
8
votes
5answers
2k views

totally disconnected and zero-dimensional spaces

When do the notions of totally disconnected space and zero-dimensional space coincide? From what I gather, there are at least three common notions of topological dimension: covering dimension, small ...
14
votes
1answer
2k views

Points on a sphere

Wonder whether you know where the following pearl of Topology first appeared: Prove that at any instant of time you can find three isothermal points on the surface of the Earth that correspond to ...
8
votes
3answers
618 views

Consistency of Analysis (second order arithmetic)

Is there a proof of the consistency of Analysis (second order arithmetic), which is similar to Gentzen's proof of the consistency of arithmetic? Update: Which (different) methods can be used to ...
8
votes
5answers
1k views

Measure theory treatment geared toward the Riesz representation theorem

I'm looking for recommendations for books (or lecture notes) that develop measure theory in sufficient detail to state and prove the Riesz representation theorem (which is the characterization of the ...
13
votes
1answer
395 views

Unpublished works of Woodin on SCH and Radin forcing

There are many unpublished results of Hugh Woodin on ''singular cardinals hypothesis'' and '' Radin forcing''. Some of his results are published later by others, but it seems that there are still many ...
4
votes
4answers
940 views

Delaunay triangulations and convex hulls

This is a reference request. I have the impression that those who work in computational geometry are accustomed to the following. You have some locally finite set of sites in $\mathbb{R}^n$ and you ...
16
votes
1answer
651 views

Formality of classifying spaces

Let $G$ be a compact Lie group (or reductive algebraic group over $\mathbb{C}$), and let $BG$ be its classifying space. Fix a prime $p$. Let $\mathcal{A}$ denote the dg algebra of singular cochains on ...
12
votes
3answers
442 views

Hecke equidistribution

For a prime $p\equiv 1\pmod{4}$, we can write $p=a^2+b^2=N(a+bi)$. Therefore $$ a+bi=p^{1/2}e^{i\varphi} $$ where $\varphi\in [0,2\pi]$. I know that Hecke proved that $\varphi$ is equidistributed. I ...
10
votes
1answer
528 views

Integer-distance sets

Let $S$ be a set of points in $\mathbb{R}^d$; I am especially interested in $d=2$. Say that $S$ is an integer-distance set if every pair of points in $S$ is separated by an integer Euclidean distance. ...
5
votes
1answer
460 views

List of open problems of formal languages [closed]

As we know, there are some open problems of formal languages. I am wondering if there is a somehow complete list of open problem of formal languages. If there isn't such a list, can we make it one as ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Consequences of Legendre's conjecture

I am looking for a list/reference which explores the consequences of Legendre's conjecture, which states that one can always find a prime number between $n^2$ and $(n+1)^2$.
5
votes
1answer
582 views

Uniform boundedness of an $L^2[0,1]$-ONB in $C[0,1]$

Assume that we have an orthonormal basis of smooth functions in $L^2[0,1]$. Are there useful practical criteria to determine whether the sup-norm of the basis functions has a uniform bound? I am sure ...
3
votes
4answers
1k views

Measure on real Grassmannians

OK, so I'm reading about this nice measure you can define on a (real) Grassmannian on Wikipedia. Basically, and to save you the trip through the link, consider the Haar measure $\theta$ on $O(n)$, fix ...
2
votes
2answers
455 views

$ 2|f^{'}(0)| = \sup_{z, w \in D} |f(z)-f(w)|$ if and only if $f$ is linear

I know the following is a well-known result. Let $D = B(0,1) \subset \mathbb{C} $ a disc, $f$ holomorphic on $D$. Show that $$ 2|f^{'}(0)| \le \sup_{z, w \in D} |f(z)-f(w)|$$ Furthermore, there is ...
14
votes
1answer
949 views

Some unpublished notes of Hofstadter

I'm looking for some unpublished notes called "Eta Lore," which are apparently related to a talk Douglas Hofstadter first gave at the Stanford Math Club in 1963. I know these notes exist because ...
8
votes
1answer
358 views

On the irrationality measure of $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a^{-b^n}$

Pick integers $a, b \ge 2$ and let $\xi_{a,b}$ be the sum of the series $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a^{-b^n}$. It is known that $\xi_{2,2}$ is transcendental: I learned a proof of this from notes by M. ...
7
votes
2answers
405 views

Equivariant Stratifications of a Variety

Let $X$ be a complex variety acted upon algebraically by a complex torus $T$. Suppose that $\{X_{\beta}\}_{\beta\in S}$ is a finite $T$-equivariant stratification of $X$, so that the $X_{\beta}$ are ...
6
votes
0answers
181 views

“Fraïssé limits” without amalgamation

All structures are countable with countable signature. Given a structure $\mathcal{A}$, the age of $\mathcal{A}$, $Age(\mathcal{A})$, is the set of structures isomorphic to finitely-generated ...
4
votes
2answers
216 views

Asymptotics of special square-free numbers

What is the asymptotic number of square-free numbers less than $x$ with exactly $k$ prime divisors?
4
votes
1answer
412 views

Quantitative Version of Jensen's Inequality?

Hi, I've been looking at situations where Jensen's inequality is almost tight, and found myself proving a lemma that I'm nearly certain exists somewhere in the literature. The specifics are as ...
2
votes
2answers
256 views

Basic questions on the Hilbert scheme/ Douady space

Let $X$ be a complex projective scheme (resp. complex analytic space). The Hilbert scheme (resp. Douady space) parameterizes closed subschemes (resp. complex analytic subspaces) of $X$. More ...
2
votes
1answer
192 views

Min Bend Orthogonal Knots

I am seeking literature on 3D orthogonal drawings of knots, especially minimum bend drawings. An orthogonal drawing employs segments parallel to the axes of a Cartesian coordinate system. A bend is a ...
21
votes
6answers
2k views

Covering a unit ball with balls half the radius

This is a direct (and obvious) generalization of the recent MO question, "Covering disks with smaller disks": How many balls of radius $\frac{1}{2}$ are needed to cover completely a ball of radius ...
10
votes
2answers
540 views

What are Moschovakis cardinals?

The question is exactly that of the title: what are Moschovakis cardinals? Background. In a recent answer to the question, "Are there examples of statements that have been proven whose consistency ...
6
votes
1answer
243 views

Reference for embeddings of reflection groups (related to folding ADE Coxeter graphs?

There are a couple of indirect methods, using Lie theory or Springer's general theory of regular elements in (real, complex) reflection groups, to construct natural embeddings among certain Weyl ...
3
votes
3answers
476 views

Estimate for products of integers that are relatively prime with $N$

Let $N$ be a positive integer. Are there known estimates for the product of all numbers that are smaller than $N$ and relatively prime with $N$? One can assume that $N$ is free of squares, if this ...
2
votes
0answers
133 views

Rewrite sum of radicals equation as polynomial equation

My question is about a method described in Dr.Math forum for simplifying equations involving sums of radical functions. (The following is a transcription of the example given by Dr. Vogler): --- ...
2
votes
1answer
224 views

Tools for Removing Radicals from Equations

I am currently doing some investigations on Sylvester's 4 Point Problem Probability of 4 Points being in Convex Configuration and repeatedly face the problem of solving equations between sums of ...
2
votes
1answer
154 views

reference request: Riesz/Newton potential and HLS inequality in L1.logL1

Let's consider in dimension $d\geq 3$ the Newton/riesz potential $f=I_2[g]$ $$ f(x)=\int_{R^d}\frac{1}{|x-y|^{d-2}}g(y)dy, $$ which solves $-\Delta f=g$ (up to positive normalizing constants, which I ...