# Tagged Questions

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### Silver's unpublished work on reverse Easton iteration

Silver was the first person who used the method of reverse Easton iterations in connection with large cardinals, and used it to force the failure of $GCH$ at some measurable cardinal.
At most papers ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

273 views

### Does OCA imply $2^{\aleph_0}=\aleph_2$?

Is it known whether Todorcevic's Open Coloring Axiom implies $2^{\aleph_0}=\aleph_2$?
The only consistency proofs for OCA that I know are the following:
1) PFA implies OCA (and also ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

226 views

### Relationship between fragments of the axiom of choice and the dependent choice principles

The dependent choice principle ${\rm DC}_\kappa$ states that if $S$ is a nonempty set and $R$ is a binary relation such that for every $s\in S^{\lt\kappa}$, there is $x\in S$ with $sRx$, then there ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

574 views

### Harrington's unpublished note “The constructible reals can be anything”

Around 1974, Leo Harringto wrote an unpublished note entitled "The constructible reals can be anything", in which he proved that it is consistent that being $\Delta^1_n$ is the same as being ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

299 views

### Elements of the method of forcing in some papers of N. N. Luzin

In the paper
Eléments de la méthode de forcing dans quelques travaux de N. N. Lousin. (French) [Elements of the method of forcing in some papers of N. N. Luzin] Amphora, 469–479, Birkhäuser, ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

419 views

### Origin of the term “generic” in set theory

In set theory, in particular the context of forcing, if $M$ is a model of $\sf ZFC$ and $P\in M$ is a partial order, we say that $G\subseteq P$ is a generic filter (or $M$-generic or generic over $M$) ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

350 views

### Demuth's theorem in set theory

I am quite sure the following fact must have been known for set theorists, though I could not find it anywhere.
If $r$ is random over $L$ and $x\in L[r]\setminus L$, then there must be some real ...

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281 views

### Short proof of $\frak p=t$

It is known for a while now that $\frak p=t$, as a result of Malliaris-Shelah. The original paper draws from model theoretic methods.
I've heard rumors that there was a proof which was purely set ...

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221 views

### Only admissibles start gaps in clockable ordinals

This is a question about ITTM model introduced by Hamkins et al. In this paper it is proven that no admissible ordinal is clockable, so it either starts or lies within a gap in clockable ordinals. I ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

216 views

### Absolutness of $\Pi_1^1$ statements

Shoenfield absoluteness is well known for $\Pi_2^1$-statements, but it does not hold between a countable transitive model of ZFC and the universe.
But it is also known that $\Pi_1^1$ statements are ...

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342 views

### Last Status of Feferman's Conjecture on Indefinite Value of Continuum

The "true" value of $2^{\aleph_0}$ is one of the most fundamental open questions of mathematics and its philosophy. Hundreds of set theoretic results during the last century don't say anything more ...

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votes

**1**answer

119 views

### Class theory with support for self-application of class functions?

To every natural number $n$, we can assign its Church numeral $\underline{n}.$ A formal definition would be:
$\underline{0}(f)=\mathrm{id}_{\mathrm{dom}(f)}$
$\underline{n+1}(f) = ...

**2**

votes

**3**answers

546 views

### The Hidden Aspect of Set Theory [closed]

This question is inspired by a similar question at the beginning of Kunen's new book, "Set Theory".
Many mathematicians believe they are exploring a "real" universe. In such a Platonic point of ...

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2k views

### What “forces” us to accept large cardinal axioms?

Large cardinal axioms are not provable using usual mathematical tools (developed in $\text{ZFC}$).
Their non-existence is consistent with axioms of usual mathematics.
It is provable that some of ...

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**2**answers

586 views

### Questions about Prikry forcing and Cohen forcing

I have some questions.
The first one is about the product of Prikry's forcing.
Let $\kappa$ be a measurable cardinal, $U_1, U_2$ be normal measures on $\kappa$ and let $\mathbb{P}_{U_1}, ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

455 views

### Have axioms / axiom schemata of this flavour been proposed or otherwise considered?

With the exception of a few miscellaneous cases, the axioms (and/or schemeta) of ZFC can roughly be divided into two kinds:
Those that guarantee the existence of more complicated sets, given that ...

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**1**answer

246 views

### What year was Hechler forcing created?

Hechler forcing is described on page 278, Jech.
Does anyone know when Hechler forcing was first used in a publication?

**10**

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**1**answer

333 views

### Applications of SCH outside of set theory

Recall that the Singular Cardinals Hypothesis (SCH) says that if $\kappa$ is a singular cardinal and $2^{cf(\kappa)}<\kappa,$ then $\kappa^{cf(\kappa)}=\kappa^+.$ Clearly it has many applications ...

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378 views

### Covering the space by disjoint unit circles

Sierpinski has proved the following two interesting theorems.
Theorem 1. The Euclidean plane $\mathbb{R}^2$ is not a union of nondegenerate disjoint circles.
Theorem 2. The Euclidean space ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

217 views

### Perfect set property implies $\omega_1$ is a limit cardinal in $L$

Specker proved in 1957 that if in $V$ every set of real numbers has the perfect set property, than in $L$, $\omega_1^V$ is actually a limit cardinal.
The original proof is in German, and I've been ...

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**1**answer

208 views

### Forcing Notions with Unknown Real/Cardinal Preserving Situations

Question. Is there any set forcing notion $\mathbb{P}$ in one of the following categories?
(a) $\mathbb{P}$ preserves cardinals but it is still open whether $\mathbb{P}$ adds reals or not.
(b) ...

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votes

**1**answer

185 views

### Obtaining a lightface pointclass from a boldface one

Define a pointclass to be:
boldface inductive-like if it is $\mathbb{R}$-parameterized, has the scale property, and is closed under $\wedge$, $\vee$, $\forall^\mathbb{R}$, $\exists^\mathbb{R}$, and ...

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votes

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286 views

### What is the shape of large cardinal tree in implication strength order?

There are two natural orders on large cardinal axioms.
(a) Consistency strength order
$\sigma \leq_C \theta \Longleftrightarrow ZFC\vdash Con(ZFC+\theta)\longrightarrow Con(ZFC+\sigma)$
(b) ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

482 views

### Origin of “Woodin cardinal”

Sorry if this is a completely stupid question (I'm a not a set-theorist, though I've been doing some reading in the subject), but I was wondering, specifically, about the exact provenance of the name. ...

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291 views

### Forcing for Arbitrary First Order Theories

Forcing is a relative model construction method for models of $ZF$ as a particular first order theory using models of another first order theory (forcing companion) that in this case is the theory of ...

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**0**answers

167 views

### How many Dedekind-finite sets can $\mathbb{R}$ be partitioned into?

Building off Asaf Karagila's answer to my previous question (Can $\mathbb{R}$ be partitioned into dedekind-finite sets?) on partitioning $\mathbb{R}$ into strictly Dedekind-finite sets:
(1) What ...

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vote

**1**answer

169 views

### Different Methods for Forcing Total Failure of Generalized Continuum Hypothesis

It seems there are few papers on total failure of Generalized Continuum Hypothesis.
As an example Merimovich in 2007 constructed a model of ZFC such that GCH fails everywhere assuming consistency of ...

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**3**answers

297 views

### Who proved “sets in every generic are already in the ground model?”

Suppose $\mathbb{P}$ is a notion of forcing in the ground model $V$, and $X$ is a set which is in $V[G]$ for every $\mathbb{P}$-generic filter $G$. Then $X\in V$ already, by a fairly simple (if ...

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**4**answers

969 views

### What is the definition of a large cardinal axiom?

In different books one can find different implicit definitions for a large cardinal axiom.
My question is that which one of these definitions are more popular or standard amongst set theorists?
Any ...

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votes

**1**answer

240 views

### Are superstrong stronger than strongly compact cardinals? (or vice versa)

In the last part of Kanamori's excellent "The Higher Infinite" there is a small diagram about the strength and consistency strength of some major large cardinal axioms.
Below supercompact cardinals ...

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**2**answers

2k views

### Where are Georg Cantor's Original Manuscripts?

Georg Cantor is famous for introducing transfinite numbers and set theory.
A main part of his mathematical point of view about this new type of "numbers" and this new "realm of mathematics" cannot be ...

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424 views

### The Theory of Transfinite Diophantine Equations [closed]

The theory of Diophantine equations is one of the main stream research areas in number theory. There are many known results and unknown conjectures about the existence of non-trivial solutions for ...

**7**

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**1**answer

259 views

### $\aleph_2$ Suslin Hypothesis

Is it still open whether ZFC+GCH is consistent with the statement that there are no $\aleph_2$-Suslin trees?

**2**

votes

**1**answer

208 views

### Forcing Language

I asked the following question (slightly paraphrased) about a week ago in Stack exchange but no one knew the answer to the particular question. I was hoping someone here might be able to help me.
...

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votes

**1**answer

246 views

### Consistency Strength of the Failure of Square on Singular Cardinals

Q1. What is the consistency strength of the failure of square on singular cardinals?
Q2. What are known as partial results in this direction?

**6**

votes

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236 views

### Possible Choices for Cofinality of $\aleph_n$ without Choice

$\text{ZFC}$ proves that each $\aleph_{n}$ for $n\in \omega$ is a regular cardinal. But it seems without the Axiom of Choice there are many consistent possible choices for cofinality of such ...

**7**

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**4**answers

453 views

### A Special Pair of Models for ZFC (New Version)

Are there two models $M$ and $N$ for $\text{ZFC}$ such that:
(1) $M\subseteq N$
(2) $\aleph_{1}^{N}=\aleph_{1}^{M}$
(3) $\aleph_{2}^{N}=\aleph_{\omega +1}^{M}$
Update: According to Peter's useful ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

545 views

### A Hot Betting On HOD

Remark: This question is based on an open question at the end of a paper by Hamkins, Kirmayer, and Perlmutter: "Generalizations of the Kunen Inconistency".
$HOD$ as an inner model of $ZFC$ lies ...

**3**

votes

**3**answers

375 views

### A Question on Special Forcings

The usual use of forcing begins with a "countable" and "transitive" ground model of $ZFC$ and reaches to a "countable" and "transitive" generic model of $ZFC$ with the "same ordinals". In a discussion ...

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votes

**2**answers

271 views

### Can we force with Fraisse filters to solve Vaught's conjecture?

Around the classic Fraisse amalgamation theorem in model theory we have the following notions:
Definition (1): If $M$ be an $\mathcal{L}$-structure then define:
$age(M):=\lbrace N~|~N~\text{is ...

**10**

votes

**3**answers

669 views

### Is the class of n-dimensional manifolds essentially small?

Question: Consider the proper class of all $n$-dimensional smooth manifolds. If we take the equivalence classes where two manifolds are identified if there exists a diffeomorphism between them, is ...

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**0**answers

164 views

### Proving equivalence of a tree-based version of Countable Choice for families of finite sets

In this paper by Good and Tree, the following result is mentioned without proof as part of Proposition 6.5:
Each of the following statements imply those beneath it.
The countable union of ...

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votes

**1**answer

505 views

### Does “Higher Infinite” have a volume II?

Kanamori in the introduction of his famous book "The Higher Infinite" says that his book is the first volume of a complete book and the second volume is about large cardinals and forcing. I saw ...

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**0**answers

168 views

### Can one construct Freyd-Mitchell's embeddings that respect sheafifications?

For a certain presheaf $P$ with values in an abelian category $A$ satisfying AB5 and its sheafification $S$ (with respect to a small Grothendieck site) I would like to prove: $S(f):S(X)\to S(Y)$ is ...

**13**

votes

**6**answers

1k views

### The origins of forcing in mathematical logic and other branches of mathematics

As everyone knows, forcing was created by Cohen to answer questions in set theory.
Question 1. What are the first applications of set theoretic forcing in other branches of mathematical logic, like ...

**11**

votes

**4**answers

536 views

### Proving ZFC results using large cardinals

There are many $ZFC$ results that their proof uses forcing: The idea is that we force the statement to be true, and then using absoluteness (or other reasons) we conclude that the result is true in ...

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**0**answers

624 views

### categorical characterization of large cardinals

Question 1. Is there a categorical representation of Kunen's inconsistency result?
Question 2. Is there a categorical characterization of very large cardinals (in particular for strong and ...

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votes

**1**answer

212 views

### $\Sigma^0_1\wedge\Pi^0_1$-Determinacy holds in the second admissible above the game

Let $T$ be a game tree and $T\in N\in M$, where $N,M$ are the two least admissibles containing $T$. Let $A$ be a boolean combination of two lightface open sets in $[T]$, or alternatively, a boolean ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

263 views

### Universal $(\Sigma^2_1)^{\text{Hom}_{\mathord{<}\lambda}}$ set

Does anyone know of a reference for the fact that if $\lambda$ is a limit of Woodin cardinals, then the pointclass $(\Sigma^2_1)^{\text{Hom}_{\mathord{<}\lambda}}$ is $\omega$-parameterized? By ...

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votes

**2**answers

348 views

### Definitions of ordinal besides von Neumann & Frege-Russel?

So my Google-fu didn't show any references on this. I'm studying an obscure set theory (ML, a variation on NF with proper classes) and it seems to not deal well with the standard definitions of ...