1
vote
0answers
127 views

Motivating mathematics(particularly algebraic number theory) through historical problems [closed]

Most mathematical textbooks start a subject by going backwards, historically. They will define the terms that were invented to solve a problem in their polished form and then use these definitions and ...
6
votes
1answer
304 views

Different approaches to forcing

There are many different approaches to the forcing method, and I am looking for all known such approaches. So my question is: Question 1. Which different approaches to set theoretic forcing are ...
6
votes
0answers
215 views

Silver's unpublished work on reverse Easton iteration

Silver was the first person who used the method of reverse Easton iterations in connection with large cardinals, and used it to force the failure of $GCH$ at some measurable cardinal. At most papers ...
1
vote
0answers
102 views

First Description of how to Remove Radicals from Equations

Who first described the technique of removing radicals as indicated in the answers to questions Tools for Removing Radicals from Equations and Rewrite sum of radicals equation as polynomial equation ? ...
10
votes
1answer
301 views

Elements of the method of forcing in some papers of N. N. Luzin

In the paper Eléments de la méthode de forcing dans quelques travaux de N. N. Lousin. (French) [Elements of the method of forcing in some papers of N. N. Luzin] Amphora, 469–479, Birkhäuser, ...
7
votes
2answers
469 views

Survey of the history of calculus?

Boyer 1939 is a nice readable survey of the history of the calculus, but it's showing its age. Discussing the notion of instantaneous velocity, he has: Mathematics knows no minimum interval of ...
9
votes
2answers
424 views

Origin of the term “generic” in set theory

In set theory, in particular the context of forcing, if $M$ is a model of $\sf ZFC$ and $P\in M$ is a partial order, we say that $G\subseteq P$ is a generic filter (or $M$-generic or generic over $M$) ...
3
votes
1answer
371 views

Levi's book on Leibnizian calculus

Raphael Levi learned from Leibniz at a late stage in Leibniz's career. This might be a definite advantage for understanding Leibniz. Leibniz did not elaborate some of the philosophical principles ...
2
votes
3answers
549 views

The Hidden Aspect of Set Theory [closed]

This question is inspired by a similar question at the beginning of Kunen's new book, "Set Theory". Many mathematicians believe they are exploring a "real" universe. In such a Platonic point of ...
1
vote
1answer
96 views

Original sources for two theorems by Bass, Matlis and Papp

It is an interesting fact that a commutative ring $R$ is noetherian if and only if direct sums of injective $R$-modules are injective, and if and only if every injective $R$-module is a direct sum of ...
22
votes
2answers
1k views

Was Vinogradov's 1937 proof of the three-prime theorem effective?

Was Vinogradov's first proof of the three-prime theorem effective? Reasons for my question: Vinogradov presented his proof in 1937 in a monograph; the English translation by K.F. Roth and A. ...
13
votes
2answers
807 views

Who first defined _simply connected_, reference?

The following definition is due to Donald J. Newman: A connected open subset $D$ of the plane $\mathbb C$ is simply connected if and only if its complement $\widetilde D = \mathbb C \setminus D$ ...
9
votes
2answers
370 views

Historical quotation search: Equations/formulae in (Latin?) prose, before modern symbolic notation

I have been trying, without success, to find a vaguely-remembered quotation: the quadratic equation (or perhaps the quadratic formula), given in (Latin?) prose, along lines like “Consider that ...
4
votes
1answer
482 views

Origin of “Woodin cardinal”

Sorry if this is a completely stupid question (I'm a not a set-theorist, though I've been doing some reading in the subject), but I was wondering, specifically, about the exact provenance of the name. ...
16
votes
2answers
606 views

Felix Klein on infinitesimals

This is a reference request prompted by some intriguing comments made by Felix Klein. In 1908, Felix Klein formulated a criterion of what it would take for a theory of infinitesimals to be ...
11
votes
2answers
483 views

Riemann's quote cited by Lakatos: what is the context?

"If only I had the theorems! Then I should find the proofs easily enough." This quote is generally attributed to Bernhard Riemann. In particular, on page 9 in Proofs and refutations by Imre ...
8
votes
0answers
242 views

From Frege to Gödel - German equivalent?

I know this question does not quite fit here, but I felt it could best be answered here. I recently stumbled upon the book From Frege to Gödel, which is a sourcebook containing some of the most ...
18
votes
2answers
2k views

Where are Georg Cantor's Original Manuscripts?

Georg Cantor is famous for introducing transfinite numbers and set theory. A main part of his mathematical point of view about this new type of "numbers" and this new "realm of mathematics" cannot be ...
54
votes
14answers
5k views

Mathematical research published in the form of poems

The article Friedrich Wille: Galerkins Lösungsnäherungen bei monotonen Abbildungen, Math. Z. 127 (1972), no. 1, 10-16 is written in the form of a lengthy poem, in a style similar to that of the ...
7
votes
0answers
175 views

Reference Request: Topological h-cobordism theorem in higher dimensions

I think this question on math.stackexchange is more appropriate on mathoverflow. Correct me, if you don't think so. The h-cobordism theorem is true in the topological and in the smooth category in ...
2
votes
0answers
168 views

Does anyone know what is the right reference for the following simple lemma from harmonic analysis?

The lemma says that given $\lambda\geq 1$, $p\geq 1$, $a_j\geq 0$, for a collection of balls $\{B_j\}_{j\in\mathbb{N}}$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$, it holds $$\|\sum_j a_j\chi_{\lambda B_j}\|_p\leq ...
4
votes
2answers
280 views

Who first used the cross-ratio to describe shapes in hyperbolic geometry?

I was reading this Wikipedia article today:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shape#Similarity_classes and I realized that it strongly resembles the use of coss-ratios as "shape parameters" in hyperbolic ...
25
votes
9answers
2k views

Are there some other notions of “curvature” which measure how space curves?

I am learning differential geometry and have a few questions on curvature. -- Background: Gauss invented "Gauss curvature" to measure how surface curves. Riemann gives an ingenious generalization ...
12
votes
1answer
1k views

Fourier transform of the unit sphere

The Fourier transform of the volume form of the (n-1)-sphere in $\mathbf R^n$ is given by the well-known formula $$ \int_{S^{n-1}}e^{i\langle\mathbf a,\mathbf u\rangle}d\sigma(\mathbf u) = (2\pi)^{\nu ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the source of this E̶r̶d̶ő̶s̶ quote?

Namely, the following one "All problems appeared once in the [American Mathematical] Monthly." I remember reading it several years ago... When I first posed the question, I believed that I had ...
10
votes
1answer
313 views

Who is Petrov of the Petrov-Galerkin method?

I was not able to find the origin of the name Petrov in the Petrov-Galerkin method for the numerical approximation of PDEs. Wikipedia refers to a certain Alexander G. Petrov, but it is still not ...
1
vote
0answers
167 views

How to find old papers on Notices of AMS [duplicate]

I need some papers published on notices of AMS almost 40 years ago. Does someone know if there is any online database that provide these papres? Thank you!
8
votes
1answer
411 views

“'Category' was defined in order to define 'functor', which was defined in order to define 'natural transformation'”

I am looking for the source (and original version) of the above oft-repeated quotation. Mac Lane mentions it in Categories for the Working Mathematician, attributing it to Eilenberg-Mac Lane; however, ...
12
votes
6answers
1k views

The origins of forcing in mathematical logic and other branches of mathematics

As everyone knows, forcing was created by Cohen to answer questions in set theory. Question 1. What are the first applications of set theoretic forcing in other branches of mathematical logic, like ...
16
votes
1answer
874 views

Arnold on Newton's anagram

Arnold, in his paper The underestimated Poincaré, in Russian Math. Surveys 61 (2006), no. 1, 1–18 wrote the following: ``...Puiseux series, the theory which Newton, hundreds of years before ...
2
votes
3answers
298 views

Good Books on the history of Zero

I am looking for books that discuss the origins of the zero, specifically the differences in the use and concept of the zero number among different civilizations (considering also the Mesoamerican ...
6
votes
1answer
621 views

What are current trends/questions in algebraic logic?

What are current trends/questions in algebraic logic? I mean the research developed by Paul Halmos. Could anyone give some references for the overview of its history? Any overview of its application ...
12
votes
3answers
899 views

When was the continuum hypothesis born?

The question Solutions to the Continuum Hypothesis states that the continuum hypothesis was posed by Cantor in 1890. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuum_hypothesis the year 1878 is quoted ...
14
votes
3answers
1k views

Who introduced the terms “equivalence relation” and “equivalence class”?

Consider that the question does not concern the origin of the ideas of equivalence relation and equivalence class. It exactly concerns the origin of the terms "equivalence relation" and "equivalence ...
15
votes
2answers
930 views

Where did Sophus Lie write the group commutator for two one parameter groups

If $X,Y$ are vector fields and $\def\Fl{\operatorname{Fl}}\Fl^X_t$ and $\Fl^Y_t$ their local flows, let $[\Fl^X_t,\Fl^Y_t]:= \Fl^Y_{-t}\Fl^X_{-t}\Fl^Y_t\Fl^X_t$ denote the group commutator of the ...
36
votes
4answers
3k views

What is the source of this famous Grothendieck quote?

I've seen the following quote many times on the internet, and have used it myself. It is usually attributed to Grothendieck. It is better to have a good category with bad objects than a bad category ...
21
votes
2answers
989 views

The Erdős-Turán conjecture or the Erdős' conjecture?

This has been bothering me for a while, and I can't seem to find any definitive answer. The following conjecture is well known in additive combinatorics: Conjecture: If $A\subset \mathbb{N}$ ...
8
votes
0answers
420 views

Reference/quote request: “All of combinatorics is the representation theory of $S_n$”

I think I remember reading somewhere a glib (or is it deep?) quote, perhaps due to Rota?, which was something like "All of combinatorics is essentially [or can be reduced to?] the representation ...
11
votes
1answer
205 views

What is flexible about flexible algebras?

A possibly non-associative algebra is flexible if it satisfies the identity $$(xy)x=x(yx).$$ This is clearly a very weak form of associativity —and obviously an associative algebra is flexible— but it ...
3
votes
0answers
121 views

Citation for subset complement result

Let $S=\lbrace s_1,\ldots,s_n \rbrace \subset \lbrace1,\ldots,2n\rbrace$. Consider two operations on $S$: the complement $C(S)=\lbrace 1,\ldots,2n \rbrace \setminus S$ and a reflection* ...
3
votes
0answers
198 views

Where was the arithmetic zeta function of a scheme first defined?

Let $X$ be an arithmetic scheme, that is, a scheme of finite type over the integers. We denote the set of closed points of $X$ by $|X|$. For every $x\in|X|$, write $N(x)$ for the cardinality of the ...
21
votes
2answers
1k views

Similarities between Post's Problem and Cohen's Forcing

Remark: I have since learned that G.H. Moore addresses this question in the third reference listed at the end of this post, beginning on p. 157 in which he cites a letter from Kreisel to Gödel dated ...
4
votes
1answer
598 views

Ancient method to study Archimedean spiral

It is well-known the properties of Archimedean spiral ($\rho = k\phi$) which is the locus of points corresponding to the locations over time of a point moving away from a fixed point with a constant ...
5
votes
0answers
256 views

Sophus Lie on the symplectic foliation theorem

Given a Poisson manifold $(P,\{\cdot,\cdot\})$, its characteristic distribution $\mathcal C$ is the singular tangent distribution on $M$ generated by the Hamiltonian vector fields,i.e. $$\mathcal ...
6
votes
1answer
337 views

Where do the Kähler Identities first appear?

The Kähler identities (sometimes known as the Hodge identities) are an important collection of relationships between operators on the exterior algebra of a Kähler manifold. These relationships ...
6
votes
1answer
828 views

Deligne's letter to Looijenga from 1974

Hello, I wonder if anyone has a copy of Deligne's letter to Looijenga from 1974 mentioned as reference [26] in Bessis' paper Finite complex reflection arrangements are $K(\pi,1)$ from 2006, see ...
15
votes
1answer
464 views

The Riemann zeros and the heat equation

The Riemann xi function $\Xi(x)$ is defined, with $s=1/2+ix$, as $$ \Xi(x)=\frac12 s(s-1)\pi^{-s/2}\Gamma(s/2)\zeta(s)=2\int_0^\infty \Phi(u)\cos(ux) \, du, $$ where $\Phi(u)$ is defined as $$ ...
11
votes
7answers
2k views

What are some Applications of Teichmüller Theory?

I'm trying to collect some specific examples of applications of Teichmüller Theory. Here are some things I have collected thus far: No-wandering-domain Theorem (Sullivan) Theorems of Thurston ...
8
votes
1answer
526 views

Who was Hermann Künneth?

Question as in the title: Who was Hermann Künneth? Where can I find some biographical information beyond what is available on Wikipedia? The well-known Künneth formula, for example in the form of ...
3
votes
0answers
245 views

A Question Regarding Boolean-valued Models

What were the intuitions motivating the creation (or discovery, if you will) of Boolean-valued models? I have searched for the Scott-Solovay paper on the subject, but to no avail. There also seems to ...