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**8**

votes

**1**answer

235 views

### A characteristic 2 polynomial recursion

Let $c(n)$ in $\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}[x]$ be defined by the recursion $$c(n+4)=c(n+3)+(x^4+x^3+x^2+x)c(n)+x^n\cdot(x+x^2),$$ and the initial conditions
$$c(0)=0,\quad c(1)=1,\quad c(2)=x,\quad ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

74 views

### Asymptotic upper bound for recursive function $f(x) = f(x-1) + 2f\left(\lceil\frac{x}{2}\rceil \right)+2$

I'm looking for an asymptotic upper bound for the function f(x), which is recursively defined as follows: $$f(x) = f(x-1) + 2f\left(\lceil\frac{x}{2}\rceil \right)+2$$
with $f(1)=1$. I am pretty ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

101 views

### How to solve a complex recursive relation

Before I get started, let me say for complete disclosure this question came up while I was solving a problem from https://projecteuler.net/.
I've been trying to find a non-recursive representation of ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

509 views

### Is this 2x2 determinant sequence positive and increasing?

Let $X_1,X_2,X_3$ be a three discrete (integer and non-negative valued) random variables with local probabilities $a_k:=\mathbb{P}(X_1=k)$, $b_k:=\mathbb{P}(X_2=k)$, $c_k:=\mathbb{P}(X_3=k)$ and ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

190 views

### The p-adic valuation of a linear recurrence

Let $(u_n)_{n \geq 0}$ be an integer-valued linear recurrence of order $k \geq 1$. Precisely,
$$u_n = a_1 u_{n-1} + \cdots + a_k u_{n - k} \quad \forall n \geq k ,$$
for some $a_1, \ldots, a_k \in ...

**9**

votes

**3**answers

465 views

### Product of a Finite Number of Matrices Related to Roots of Unity

Does anyone have an idea how to prove the following identity?
$$
\mathop{\mathrm{Tr}}\left(\prod_{j=0}^{n-1}\begin{pmatrix}
x^{-2j} & -x^{2j+1} \\
1 & 0
\end{pmatrix}\right)=
\begin{cases}
...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

136 views

### Writing the quotient of solutions of linear ODEs as the solution of a nonlinear ODE

Let $A(x)$ and $B(x)$ be solutions to homogeneous linear ODEs with polynomial coefficients, i.e., $A(x)$ satisfies
$$p_KA^{(K)} + p_{K-1}A^{(K-1)} + \cdots + p_1A' + p_0A=0$$
and $B(x)$ satisfies
...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

65 views

### Solving the difference equation $h(\vec x)\cdot A(\vec x)=\sum_{i=1}^m A(\vec x - \vec e_i)$

I am trying to solve the following difference equation:
$$h(x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4) \cdot A(x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4)=A(x_1-1,x_2,x_3,x_4)+A(x_1,x_2-1,x_3,x_4)+A(x_1,x_2,x_3-1,x_4)+A(x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4-1)$$
with ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

32 views

### Multivariate recurrence relation

consider the recurrence relation
\begin{equation}
\mathbb{I}(m<M)[- k_{\rm on} c_{m,n} + (m+1) k_{\rm off} c_{m+1,n}] + \mathbb{I}(m>0)[-k_{\rm off} m \, c_{m,n} + k_{\rm on} c_{m-1,n} ] + ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

72 views

### recursive equation to solve( similar to combinatorics)

I have this recursive equation:
$$\begin{align*} F(m,n)=F&=F(m,n-1)+F(m-1,n)-F(m-1,n-1-m) \\\\ F(m,0)&=F\left(m,m(m+1)/2\right)=1\\ F(m,i)=0&=0\text{ if i<0, i> }i<0\text{ or ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

117 views

### ``Occasional'' Laurent phenomenon

This question is motivated by Richard Stanley's A question on the Laurent phenomenon (motivated by his answer to the question what is the probability that a scissor became the champion?).
He asked ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

145 views

### Degenerate linear recurrence sequences

Let $(u_n)_{n \geq 0}$ be a linear recurrence given by
$$u_n = a_1 u_{n-1} + \cdots + a_k u_{n-k} \quad \forall n \geq k ,$$
where $u_0, \ldots, u_{k-1}, a_1, \ldots, a_k \in \mathbb{Z}$. We recall ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

68 views

### Stationary distribution of random walk alias solving uncountably many linear equations [closed]

Let us have interval $I = (i_1,i_2)$, function $f_1 : I \mapsto I$, function $f_2 : I \mapsto I$.
Let $x_0$, $x_1$, $x_2$, ... be series of random variables from interval $I$ denoting random walk. ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

104 views

### Number of digits in $n$-th term of generalized Fibonacci/Narayana sequence

Let $d$ be a nonnegative integer, and let the sequence ${F_d(n)}$ be defined as follows:
$F_d(n) = 1$ for $n = 0, 1, \ldots, d$
$F_d(n) = F_d(n-1) + F_d(n-1-d)$ for $n>d$
For $d=0$ the sequence ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

108 views

### Transforming a recurrence to the product of two other recurrences

This question deals with sequence:
$$a_0 = 0,\ a_1 = 7, \quad a_{n+2} = 14a_{n+1} - a_n + 6$$
The question is about establishing that $a_n$ is a composite number (except some finite cases).
In one ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

49 views

### Finding a stochastic differential equation as limit of a discrete stochastic equation

I'm dealing with the following problem:
Choose $Z_0 \in [0,1]$ and define a process governed by the following discrete stochastic equation:
$Z_{k+1}-Z_k=P_k(1-2Z_k)$
where $P_k=0$ with probability ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

105 views

### Help solving a recurrence relation

For solving a related probability problem, I need to solve the following recurrence relation:-
$q(r,b,L)=\frac{b}{r+b}q(r,b-1,L)+\sum_{k=1}^{L}\frac{r}{r+b}\times\cdots \times ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

275 views

### Polynomial recurrence relation covering the integers (and then Gaussian integers)

Say that a polynomial recurrence relation (my terminology)
for $f_i$ is:
$k$ initial conditions setting $f_1,\ldots,f_k$ to integers ($\in \mathbb{Z})$.
A recurrence equation of the form $f_i =$ a ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

108 views

### Definition of primitive divisor of a Lucas sequence

If $\{a_n\}_{n=1}^\infty$ is a sequence of integers, then the definition of primitive divisor of one of its terms is quite natural:
Def. 1. A prime number $p$ is a primitive divisor of $a_n$ if $p ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

68 views

### For which recurrence relations is it decidable whether a formal power series has a maximal zero coefficient?

In this MSE question, I asked whether one can prove that a generating function has infinitely many coefficients equal to zero. The answer given (and accepted) to that rather broad question was “No”.
...

**10**

votes

**3**answers

282 views

### Limiting probabilities for two-player game drawing random uniform numbers

Consider this simple 2-person game I just made up:
Player A goes gets to draw a uniform U[0,1] number up to X times. At any time, he may either keep his number, or draw a brand new uniform number. ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

262 views

### Strong divisibility of Lucas sequences

Let $a$ and $b$ be relatively prime integers and let $u_n$ be their associate Lucas sequence, i.e., the second order linear recurrence sequence satisfying $u_0 = 0$, $u_1 = 1$ and $u_{n+2} = au_{n+1} ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

45 views

### A question on bivariate recurrence

Is there a way to get a closed form of this recurrence (albeit approximate):
$$A(n ,k ) = {1 \over {d^k}}A(n-1, k-1) + (1 - {1 \over {d^k}})A(n-1,k)$$
Where, $n,k \ge 0$ and $d \ge 2$ are integers. ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

293 views

### Faster formula to compute sum over partitions

Let $f$ be a function from the positive integers to the real numbers (or some ring...). Let
$$(\star) \quad F(n) = \sum_{n_1 \leq \cdots \leq n_j\atop n_1 + \cdots + n_j = n} f(n_1) \cdots f(n_j), $$
...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

143 views

### Solving a recurrence (with the form of a convolution) involving binomial coefficients

While dealing with a problem related to intersection of hyperplanes I have come across the following recurrence to obtain the values of $K_{j}$
\begin{array}{cccccccccc}
1 & = & ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

185 views

### Arithmetical properties of certain recurrence relations

Consider the following recurrence relation:
$$(4i+6j+1)(2i+3j)a_{i,j}=3j a_{i+1,j-1}-2i a_{i-1,j}+32i(i-1) a_{i-2,j+1}, i\ge0, j\ge0,$$
$$a_{0,0}=1.$$
This equation appeared in the article ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

95 views

### Convergence and summation of power towers or Ackermann functions

I deleted this at StackExchange as it seems advanced or not very relevant for there and I want to ask here.
Let z be a complex number, $Im(z)\neq 0$ or $Re(z)<4$, m be a natural number, let ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

145 views

### General four-term recurrence relations

I was perusing through this paper and I was wondering if there is any literature on general four term recurrence relations. Specifically, say a recurrence of the form
...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

516 views

### Hamming weight of Fibonacci numbers

The Hamming weight $w(n)$ is the number of 1s in $n$ when written in binary. Is there some effective bound on Fibonacci numbers $F_n$ with $w(F_n)\le x$ for a given $x$?
Clearly only $F_0=0$ has ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

219 views

### Infinitely many sufficiently large powers in linear recurrences

Edit Aaron solved the original question with the
fourth order $$ a(n)=n2^n+\frac{(-1)^n-1^n}{2} $$
trying to make the question harder.
Let $a(n)$ be a linear recurrence with constant coefficients,
of ...

**11**

votes

**4**answers

603 views

### Relating the roots of polynomials to the solution sets of certain functional equations

Consider a functional equation of the following form:
$$\sum_{k=0}^n a_k\,\underbrace{f(f(\cdots f}_{k}(x)\cdots )=0\quad \big(f:\,\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R},\;a_i\in ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

282 views

### Does there exist a recurrence relation which cannot be written in a closed form? [closed]

I'm looking for an example of a recurrence relation where it provably does not have a closed form.
Does such a thing exist?
For example, I believe $S(n, k)$, or the Stirling numbers of the second ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

160 views

### Solving a two dimensional non-homogenous linear recurrence

How one can solve the following recurrence:
\begin{align}
X[i,0] &=0 \quad \forall i =1,\ldots, m\\
X[m,n] &= a_n X[m,n-1]+b_n \sum_{i=k_m}^{m-1}X[i,i] +c_n
\end{align}
Where $a_i\ge 1 ,~ 0 ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

294 views

### Asymptotic growth of recurrence relation $x_n=\min\limits_{n_1+n_2=n}(a(x_{n_1}+x_{n_2})+2n_1n_2)$

Suppose $a>0$ . Define
$$x_n=\min_{n_1+n_2=n}(a(x_{n_1}+x_{n_2})+2n_1n_2) \text{ with } x_1=0.$$
Can we find $r>0$ such that there exists two positive constant $c_1,c_2$ such that
...

**22**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Multiplying by irrational numbers in combinatorial problems

This is getting no attention on stackexchange.
Everybody knows that the number of derangements of a set of size $n$ is the nearest integer to $n!/e$.
It had escaped my attention until last week, ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Beyond Collatz: A $5n+1$ conjecture? [closed]

Let
$$x_{n+1} = \begin{cases} x_n/2 &;\text{if } x_n \equiv 0 \pmod{2}\\ k\,x_n+1 &; \text{if } x_n\equiv 1 \pmod{2} \end{cases}$$
and $k=3$ and $x_n\in\Bbb N$. Collatz conjectured for this ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

151 views

### Non-crystallographic cluster algebras

Background
Fomin and Zelevinsky have introduced cluster algebras in an influential article. To define a cluster algebra, Fomin and Zelevinsky have defined a mutation of seeds. Here, a seed ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

73 views

### Approximate closed-form solution for a recurrence

Find an (approximate) closed-form solution for $S(m, b)$.
$$S(m,b)=\sum_{i=0}^{\lfloor (e-1)/2\rfloor}{e \choose i}S(m-1, b-i) \quad +
\sum_{i=\lfloor (e-1)/2\rfloor+1}^{\min(b,e)}{e\choose ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

262 views

### Closed form solution to an iterative equation.

$f(n+1) = f(n) + f(n)^{a}$ where $a \in (0,1)$ and $n \ge 1$ with $f(1) = m$.
If $a=0$, we see $f(n) = m + n - 1$ and if $a=1$, we see $f(n) = 2^{n-1}m$. So the recursion seems to interpolate ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

262 views

### Giving a general term of a recursive function, and upper bound for it

Let a constant $B \ge 1$, and let $l_1 = 0$, $b_1 = 0$ be the values of $l$ and $b$ (respectively) at time $t = 1$.
Let $l_{t+1} = l_t + 1$ if $b_i < B$, and $l_{t+1} = l_t$ otherwise
Let ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

794 views

### References on techniques for solving equations with discontinuous functions such as floor and ceiling?

Here I describe the sort of reference I'm after with a motivating example. I am not seeking solutions to my equations on this forum; I'm quite happy to do that myself. Rather, I'm asking for some good ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

159 views

### Master theorem for probabilistically inspired recurrences

Is there a general solution for multi-variable recurrences of the following form which come from Markov chain analysis?
$f(i,j,k) = p_1 f(i-1, j,k) + p_2 f(i, j-1,k) + p_3 f(i,j,k-1) + p_4 ...

**4**

votes

**3**answers

939 views

### Linear Recurrence Relations in 2 Variables with Variable Coefficients

Consider the following recurrence relation:
$$-2a_{n,m} +a_{n-1,m}+a_{n,m-1}=0,$$
where $a_{n,m} \in \mathbb{C}.$I would like a purely combinatorial way to understand the subspace of solutions to this ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

891 views

### Methods for solving two variable recurrence

I have a recurrence
$$f(i,j) = 1+ \frac{N-i}{N} f(i,j-1) + \frac{i}{N} f(i-1, j)$$
$$f(i,0) = 0$$
$$f(0,j) = j$$
I would like to compute $f(N,M)$ in terms of N and M. The system is defined for ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

319 views

### Books request on nonlinear recurrence relations.

Hi, do you have some sort of a bibliography on advanced techniques in recurrence equations, such as nonlinear ones and others?
As I see it recurrence equations are quite similar to differential ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

108 views

### A recursive Double sequence related to uniform Cardinal B-spline

Given a sequence $A_n(k)$ defined as follows:
$A_0(0)=1$, $A_0(k)=0$ for all nonzero integers $k$ and
$$A_{n}(k)=(n+1-k)^2A_{n-1}(k-1)+2(n(n+1)-k^2)A_{n-1}(k)+(n+1+k)^2A_{n-1}(k+1)$$
for all positive ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

100 views

### Trying to get an idea of the maths I could use for this optimization problem

Firstly, apologies if some of the notation or terminology is odd, or if I am defining functions that have standard notation associated with them already - I am not familiar with the concepts in this ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

97 views

### Perturbation analysis for three term recurrences

Jacobi polynomials, denoted by $J^{(\alpha,\beta)}_n$, on $[-1,1]$ satisfy a three term recurrence
$$ J_{n+1}^{(\alpha,\beta)}(x) = (A_n+B_nx)J^{(\alpha,\beta)}_n + C_nJ_{n-1}^{(\alpha,\beta)}(x), ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

164 views

### Partitions of central sets via dynamical systems

In the book "Recurrence in Ergodic Theory and Combinatorial Number Theory", 1981, Furstenberg introduced the notion of central sets.
He proved in Theorem 8.8 that in each finite partition of ...

**6**

votes

**5**answers

482 views

### Uniqueness of values in recurrence relations

Given an integer $k > 1$, define the sequences $X(k,n), Y(k,n)$ as follows:
$a=4k-2,$ $y_0 = 1,$ $y_1 = a + 1,y_n = ay_{n-1} - y_{n-2}$
$b = 4k + 2,$ $ x_0 = 1,$ $x_1 = b - 1,$ $x_n = ...