# Tagged Questions

**8**

votes

**2**answers

306 views

### Kolmogorov superposition for smooth functions

Kolmogorov superposition theorem states that a continuous function $f(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ can be written as
$$f(x_1,\ldots,x_n)=\sum_{q=0}^{2n}\Phi_q\left(\sum_{p=1}^{n}\phi_{q,p}(x_p)\right)$$
for ...

**119**

votes

**8**answers

13k views

### If $f$ is infinitely differentiable then $f$ coincides with a polynomial

Let $f$ be an infinitely differentiable function on $[0,1]$ and suppose that for each $x \in [0,1]$ there is an integer $n \in \mathbb{N}$ such that $f^{(n)}(x)=0$. Then does $f$ coincide on $[0,1]$ ...

**75**

votes

**9**answers

22k views

### solving $f(f(x))=g(x)$

This question is of course inspired by the question How to solve f(f(x))=cosx
and Joel David Hamkins' answer, which somehow gives a formal trick for solving equations of the form $f(f(x))=g(x)$ on a ...

**57**

votes

**16**answers

11k views

### f(f(x))=exp(x)-1 and other functions “just in the middle” between linear and exponential

The question is about the function f(x) so that f(f(x))=exp (x)-1.
The question is open ended and it was discussed quite recently in the comment thread in Aaronson's blog here http://scottaaronson....

**34**

votes

**7**answers

6k views

### Are some numbers more irrational than others?

Some irrational numbers are transcendental, which makes them in some sense "more irrational" than algebraic numbers. There are also numbers, such as the golden ratio $\varphi$, which are poorly ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

3k views

### Eliminating Gibbs phenomenon, and approximating with jumping functions in Fourier Analysis : An attempt and a question in this regard

This problem seems like a nightmare to me. I tried to expand
$K_{\omega}^f(t)$, but I am clueless of getting some kind of a closed
form or some kernel like structure. If I try to take derivative, ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### Is this statement which relates the Fourier transform of a function to its singularities correct?

I am working on a problem, which would possibly relate the Fourier transform/series with the jump singularities of the function where the function itself or one of its derivatives jump. ((some kind of ...

**16**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Why is there no Borel function mapping every countable set of reals outside itself?

A choice function maps every set (in its domain) to an element of itself. This question concerns existence of an anti-choice function defined on the family of countable sets of reals. In an answer to ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

122 views

### Poisson kernel, $E^{(x, y)}\text{exp}\{i\theta X_t - \theta Y_t\} = e^{i\theta x - \theta y}$

Let $d = 2$, and consider the domain $D = \mathbb{H}$, the upper half-plane. Let $W_t = (X_t, Y_t)$. How do I see that for any $\theta \in \mathbb{R}$ and any $t \ge 0$, we have$$E^{(x, y)}\text{exp}\{...

**154**

votes

**11**answers

46k views

### Have any long-suspected irrational numbers turned out to be rational?

The history of proving numbers irrational is full of interesting stories, from the ancient proofs for $\sqrt{2}$, to Lambert's irrationality proof for $\pi$, to Roger Apéry's surprise demonstration ...

**70**

votes

**32**answers

48k views

### Why do we teach calculus students the derivative as a limit?

I'm not teaching calculus right now, but I talk to someone who does, and the question that came up is why emphasize the $h \to 0$ definition of a derivative to calculus students?
Something a teacher ...

**55**

votes

**18**answers

7k views

### Proofs of the uncountability of the reals.

Recently, I learnt in my analysis class the proof of the uncountability of the reals via the Nested Interval Theorem. At first, I was excited to see a variant proof (as it did not use the diagonal ...

**21**

votes

**24**answers

27k views

### Text for an introductory Real Analysis course.

Any suggestions on a good text to use for teaching an introductory Real Analysis course? Specifically what have you found to be useful about the approach taken in specific texts?

**36**

votes

**2**answers

4k views

### “Closed-form” functions with half-exponential growth

Let's call a function f:N→N half-exponential if there exist constants 1<c<d such that for all sufficiently large n,
cn < f(f(n)) < dn.
Then my question is this: can we prove that no ...

**23**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### is f a polynomial provided that it is “partially” smooth?

Let $f$ be a $C^\infty$ function on $(c,d)$ ,and
let $O=\cup_{n\in \mathbb{Z}^+} (a_n,b_n)$ where $(a_n,b_n)$ are disjoint open interval in $(c,d)$ and $O$ is dense in $(c,d)$.
Suppose for each $n\in ...

**17**

votes

**5**answers

3k views

### Is there a natural measures on the space of measurable functions?

Given a set Ω and a σ-algebra F of subsets, is there some natural way to assign something like a "uniform" measure on the space of all measurable functions on this space? (I suppose first ...

**38**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Smooth functions for which $f(x)$ is rational if and only if $x$ is rational

A friend of mine introduced me to the following question: Does there exist a smooth function $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$, ($f \in C^\infty$), such that $f$ maps rationals to rationals and ...

**25**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Is pi = log_a(b) for some integers a, b > 1?

Are there integers $a, b > 1$ such that $\pi = \log_a(b)$?
Or equivalently: are there integers $a,b > 1$ such that $a^\pi = b$?
Note that the transcendence of $\pi$ makes this a problem - ...

**9**

votes

**4**answers

814 views

### Seeking a Geometric Proof of a Generalized Alternating Series' Convergence

Let $z \in \mathbb{C} \backslash \lbrace 1 \rbrace$ with $|z| = 1$. We consider the following infinite series, which necessarily converges:
$$S(z) := \sum_{n = 1}^{\infty}\frac{z^n}{n}$$
Note that $S(...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

943 views

### Has anyone seen this series?

I come across the following infinite series.
$$
\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{t^n}{n!\: n^{a}}, \quad\text{for $t>0$ and $a>0$}.
$$
In particular, I am interested in the case where $a=1/4$.
...

**3**

votes

**3**answers

845 views

### Non-zero smooth functions vanishing on a Cantor set

It is easy to give examples of continuous functions $f:[0,1]\to \mathbb R_+\cup\{0\}$ non-zero but vanishing on a Cantor set (ex: Can Cantor set be the zero set of a continuous function?). It is ...

**15**

votes

**4**answers

822 views

### Is the sequence of Apéry numbers a Stieltjes moment sequence?

Consider the sequence of Apéry numbers
$$
A_n = \sum_{k=0}^n \binom{n}{k}\binom{n+k}{k}\sum_{j=0}^k \binom{k}{j}^3
= \sum_{k=0}^n \binom{n}{k}^2\binom{n+k}{k}^2 .
$$
In an email, physicist Alan Sokal ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

349 views

### Are all well behaved “mean” functions on $\mathbb{R}^+$ equivalent?

Given a set $S$, a function $M: S\times S \rightarrow S$ is a mean if it satisfies the properties:
$M(a,a)=a\qquad$ (identity)
$M(a,b)=M(b,a)\qquad$ (commutativity).
and possibly
$M(M(a,b),M(a,c)...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

507 views

### Is sigma-additivity of Lebesgue measure deducible from ZF?

Is sigma-additivity (countable additivity) of Lebesgue measure (say on measurable subsets of the real line) deducible from the Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory (without the axiom of choice)?
Note 1. ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

306 views

### measure zero in R but not in R^2

I want to find some subset of R^2 which its intersection with every vertical line is measure zero if we see it as a subset of R and it is not measure zero in R^2?

**1**

vote

**1**answer

228 views

### meromorphic extension of a function

Let $\Lambda\in \mathbf{C}$ be a discrete subset. We assume that $\mathrm{Re}(\lambda)<0$ for all the $\lambda\in \Lambda$. For $i\in \mathbf{N}$, $\lambda\in \Lambda$, let $m_{i,\lambda}\in \...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

440 views

### New differintegral formula: how is it related to other differintegral formulas?

Lets define new differintegral formula as
$$\mathbb{D}^s_xf(x)= \sum_{m=0}^{\infty} \binom {s}m \sum_{k=0}^m\binom mk(-1)^{m-k}f^{(k)}(x)$$
or, equivalently,
$$\mathbb{D}^s_xf(x)= \lim_{t\to s} \...

**88**

votes

**17**answers

20k views

### Why is differentiating mechanics and integration art?

It is often said that "Differentiation is mechanics, integration is art." We have more or less simple rules in one direction but not in the other (e.g. product rule/simple <-> integration by parts/...

**52**

votes

**9**answers

9k views

### Why do functions in complex analysis behave so well? (as opposed to functions in real analysis)

Complex analytic functions show rigid behavior while real-valued smooth functions are flexible. Why is this the case?

**31**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Prove that there exists $n\in\mathbb{N}$ such that $f^{(n)}$ has at least n+1 zeros on $(-1,1)$

Let $f\in C^{\infty}(\mathbb{R},\mathbb{R})$ such that $f(x)=0$ on $\mathbb{R}\setminus (-1,1)$. Prove that there exists $n\in\mathbb{N}$ such that $f^{(n)}$ has at least $n+1$ zeros on $(-1,1)$
I ...

**22**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Analogues of Luzin's theorem

If $X$ is a compact metric space and $\mu$ is a Borel probability measure on $X$, then the space $C(X)$ of continuous real-valued functions on $X$ is a closed nowhere dense subset of $L^\infty(X,\mu)$,...

**34**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### On an example of an eventually oscillating function

For $x\in(0,1)$, put
$$f(x):=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}(-1)^{n}x^{2^{n}}.$$
This function possesses interesting properties. It grows monotonically from $0$ up to certain point. Then it starts to oscillate ...

**30**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Square root of a positive $C^\infty$ function.

Suppose $f$ is a $C^\infty$ function from the reals to the reals that is never negative. Does it have a $C^\infty$ square root? Clearly the only problem points are those at which $f$ vanishes.

**22**

votes

**8**answers

6k views

### Can Cantor set be the zero set of a continuous function?

More generally, can the zero set $V(f)$ of a continuous function $f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ be nowhere dense and uncountable? What if $f$ is smooth?
About two days ago I discovered that in this ...

**21**

votes

**9**answers

3k views

### Function with range equal to whole reals on every open set

There is an example of a function that is unbounded on every open set. Just take $f(n/m) = m$ for coprime $n$ and $m$ and $f(irrational) = 0$.
I want to generalize this in a way to get a function ...

**21**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Does Arzelà-Ascoli require choice?

Inspired by a recent Math.SE question entitled Where do we need the axiom of choice in Riemannian geometry?, I was thinking of the Arzelà--Ascoli theorem. Let's state a very simple version:
...

**38**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Every real function has a dense set on which its restriction is continuous

The title says it all: if $f\colon \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ is any real function, there exists a dense subset $D$ of $\mathbb{R}$ such that $f|_D$ is continuous.
Or so I'm told, but this leaves me ...

**19**

votes

**12**answers

3k views

### Classic applications of Baire category theorem

I've seen Baire category theorem used to prove existence of objects with certain properties. But it seems there is another class of interesting applications of Baire category theorem that I have yet ...

**30**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### An Entropy Inequality

Let $X,Y$ be probability measures on $\{1,2,\dots,n\}$, and set $K=\sum_i\sqrt{X(i)Y(i)}$ so that $Z:=\frac{1}{K}\sqrt{XY}$ is also a probability measure on $\{1,2,\dots,n\}$. How can we prove the ...

**9**

votes

**8**answers

15k views

### Real analysis has no applications?

I'm teaching an undergrad course in real analysis this Fall and we are using the text "Real Mathematical Analysis" by Charles Pugh. On the back it states that real analysis involves no "applications ...

**22**

votes

**1**answer

438 views

### Which ordered fields are homeomorphic to their power?

It is well known that $\mathbb{R}^2\ncong \mathbb{R}$. It is also known that $\mathbb{Q}^2\cong \mathbb{Q}$. It is a corollary to Sierpiński's theorem which states that every countable metric space ...

**15**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Is a real power series that maps rationals to rationals defined by a rational function?

Suppose that the function $p(x)$ is defined on an open subset $U$ of $\mathbb{R}$ by a power series with real coefficients. Suppose, further, that $p$ maps rationals to rationals. Must $p$ be defined ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Density of smooth functions under “Hölder metric”

This question came up when I was doing some reading into convolution squares of singular measures. Recall a function $f$ on the torus $T = [-1/2,1/2]$ is said to be $\alpha$-Hölder (for $0 < \alpha ...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

443 views

### Classes of (non-continuous) functions with the fixed point property

Let $K$ be a convex body in $ R^d$. (Say, a ball, say a cube...) For which classes $ \cal C$ of functions, every function $ f \in {\cal C}$ which takes $K$ into itself admits a fixed point in $K$.
...

**11**

votes

**4**answers

692 views

### Relating the roots of polynomials to the solution sets of certain functional equations

Consider a functional equation of the following form:
$$\sum_{k=0}^n a_k\,\underbrace{f(f(\cdots f}_{k}(x)\cdots )=0\quad \big(f:\,\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R},\;a_i\in \mathbb{R},\;\text{and}\;f^0=\text{...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

806 views

### Transcendentality of all irrationals in the Cantor set

Hi, I am a student researcher trying to prove that all irrationals within the Cantor set are transcendental. This is grounded, intuitively, in Cantor set members' being non-normal; since algebraic ...

**18**

votes

**0**answers

961 views

### Almost everywhere differentiability for a class of functions on $\mathbb{R}^2$

A while ago, I came across the following problem, which I was not able to resolve one way or the other.
Let $f,g\colon\mathbb{R}^2\to\mathbb{R}$ be continuous functions such that $f(t,x)$ and $g(t,...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Generalization of Darboux's Theorem

Darboux's Theorem. If $f:[a,b]\to\mathbb R$ is differentiable and $f'(a)<\xi<f'(b)$, then there exists a $c\in (a,b)$, such that $\,f'(c)=\xi$.
Does any of the following generalizations
Let $...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

792 views

### Ratio sum comparison on operators

It is known by the Lidskii inequality, that $\sum_{i=1}^n \left|s_i(S)-s_i(T)\right|\le\sum_{i=1}^n s_i(S+T)$,
where $s_i(S)$ is the $i$-th singular value of $S$.
How would one prove that
$$\sum_{i=1}^...

**17**

votes

**5**answers

956 views

### Floors of powers of reals, how much do the first few determine the next?

Call an integer sequence $\mathbf{x}=\left( x_1,x_2,\cdots \right)$ feasible if it is $f(r)=\left(\lfloor r \rfloor, \lfloor r^2 \rfloor, \lfloor r^3 \rfloor,
\ldots, \lfloor r^n \rfloor, \ldots \...