The real-analysis tag has no wiki summary.

**60**

votes

**9**answers

14k views

### solving f(f(x))=g(x)

This question is of course inspired by the question How to solve f(f(x))=cosx
and Joel David Hamkins' answer, which somehow gives a formal trick for solving equations of the form $f(f(x))=g(x)$ on a ...

**82**

votes

**8**answers

9k views

### If $f$ is infinitely differentiable then $f$ coincides with a polynomial

Let $f$ be an infinitely differentiable function on $[0,1]$ and suppose that for each $x \in [0,1]$ there is an integer $n \in \mathbb{N}$ such that $f^{(n)}(x)=0$. Then does $f$ coincide on $[0,1]$ ...

**43**

votes

**16**answers

9k views

### f(f(x))=exp(x)-1 and other functions “just in the middle” between linear and exponential.

The question is about the function f(x) so that f(f(x))=exp (x)-1.
The question is open ended and it was discussed quite recently in the comment thread in Aaronson's blog here ...

**43**

votes

**13**answers

5k views

### Proofs of the uncountability of the reals.

Recently, I learnt in my analysis class the proof of the uncountability of the reals via the Nested Interval Theorem. At first, I was excited to see a variant proof (as it did not use the diagonal ...

**30**

votes

**7**answers

4k views

### Are some numbers more irrational than others?

Some irrational numbers are transcendental, which makes them in some sense "more irrational" than algebraic numbers. There are also numbers, such as the golden ratio $\varphi$, which are poorly ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

817 views

### Has anyone seen this series?

I come across the following infinite series.
$$
\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{t^n}{n!\: n^{a}}, \quad\text{for $t>0$ and $a>0$}.
$$
In particular, I am interested in the case where $a=1/4$.
...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

274 views

### measure zero in R but not in R^2

I want to find some subset of R^2 which its intersection with every vertical line is measure zero if we see it as a subset of R and it is not measure zero in R^2?

**1**

vote

**1**answer

416 views

### New differintegral formula: how is it related to other differintegral formulas?

Lets define new differintegral formula as
$$\mathbb{D}^s_xf(x)= \sum_{m=0}^{\infty} \binom {s}m \sum_{k=0}^m\binom mk(-1)^{m-k}f^{(k)}(x)$$
or, equivalently,
$$\mathbb{D}^s_xf(x)= \lim_{t\to s} ...

**70**

votes

**17**answers

15k views

### Why is differentiating mechanics and integration art?

It is often said that "Differentiation is mechanics, integration is art." We have more or less simple rules in one direction but not in the other (e.g. product rule/simple <-> integration by ...

**21**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Analogues of Luzin's theorem

If $X$ is a compact metric space and $\mu$ is a Borel probability measure on $X$, then the space $C(X)$ of continuous real-valued functions on $X$ is a closed nowhere dense subset of ...

**21**

votes

**8**answers

4k views

### Can Cantor set be the zero set of a continuous function?

More generally, can the zero set $V(f)$ of a continuous function $f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ be nowhere dense and uncountable? What if $f$ is smooth?
About two days ago I discovered that in this ...

**28**

votes

**2**answers

814 views

### Square root of a positive $C^\infty$ function.

Suppose $f$ is a $C^\infty$ function from the reals to the reals that is never negative. Does it have a $C^\infty$ square root? Clearly the only problem points are those at which $f$ vanishes.

**16**

votes

**8**answers

2k views

### Function with range equal to whole reals on every open set

There is an example of a function that is unbounded on every open set. Just take $f(n/m) = m$ for coprime $n$ and $m$ and $f(irrational) = 0$.
I want to generalize this in a way to get a function ...

**7**

votes

**17**answers

15k views

### Text for an introductory Real Analysis course.

Any suggestions on a good text to use for teaching an introductory Real Analysis course? Specifically what have you found to be useful about the approach taken in specific texts?

**30**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### An Entropy Inequality

Let $X,Y$ be probability measures on $\{1,2,\dots,n\}$, and set $K=\sum_i\sqrt{X(i)Y(i)}$ so that $Z:=\frac{1}{K}\sqrt{XY}$ is also a probability measure on $\{1,2,\dots,n\}$. How can we prove the ...

**21**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### is f a polynomial provided that it is “partially” smooth?

Let $f$ be a $C^\infty$ function on $(c,d)$ ,and
let $O=\cup_{n\in \mathbb{Z}^+} (a_n,b_n)$ where $(a_n,b_n)$ are disjoint open interval in $(c,d)$ and $O$ is dense in $(c,d)$.
Suppose for each $n\in ...

**27**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### “Closed-form” functions with half-exponential growth

Let's call a function f:N→N half-exponential if there exist constants 1<c<d such that for all sufficiently large n,
cn < f(f(n)) < dn.
Then my question is this: can we prove that no ...

**12**

votes

**11**answers

1k views

### Classic applications of Baire category theorem

I've seen Baire category theorem used to prove existence of objects with certain properties. But it seems there is another class of interesting applications of Baire category theorem that I have yet ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

352 views

### Classes of (non-continuous) functions with the fixed point property

Let $K$ be a convex body in $ R^d$. (Say, a ball, say a cube...) For which classes $ \cal C$ of functions, every function $ f \in {\cal C}$ which takes $K$ into itself admits a fixed point in $K$.
...

**15**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Is a real power series that maps rationals to rationals defined by a rational function?

Suppose that the function $p(x)$ is defined on an open subset $U$ of $\mathbb{R}$ by a power series with real coefficients. Suppose, further, that $p$ maps rationals to rationals. Must $p$ be defined ...

**11**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Is there a natural measures on the space of measurable functions?

Given a set Ω and a σ-algebra F of subsets, is there some natural way to assign something like a "uniform" measure on the space of all measurable functions on this space? (I suppose first ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

613 views

### Transcendentality of all irrationals in the Cantor set

Hi, I am a student researcher trying to prove that all irrationals within the Cantor set are transcendental. This is grounded, intuitively, in Cantor set members' being non-normal; since algebraic ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

938 views

### Generalization of Darboux's Theorem

Darboux's Theorem. If $f:[a,b]\to\mathbb R$ is differentiable and $f'(a)<\xi<f'(b)$, then there exists a $c\in (a,b)$, such that $\,f'(c)=\xi$.
Does any of the following generalizations
Let ...

**13**

votes

**0**answers

665 views

### Almost everywhere differentiability for a class of functions on $\mathbb{R}^2$

A while ago, I came across the following problem, which I was not able to resolve one way or the other.
Let $f,g\colon\mathbb{R}^2\to\mathbb{R}$ be continuous functions such that $f(t,x)$ and ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

193 views

### Sum of product maximum

For which pairs of integers $(n,m)$ is the maximum of the following function $$f(x)=\sum_{i_1+\dots +i_n=m}\prod_{k=1}^n x^{i_k}_{k},\ \ x=(x_1,\dots,x_n), \|x\|=1$$ attained when $x_1=\dots=x_n$?
...

**19**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Is this statement which relates the Fourier transform of a function to its singularities correct?

I am working on a problem, which would possibly relate the Fourier transform/series with the jump singularities of the function where the function itself or one of its derivatives jump. ((some kind of ...

**16**

votes

**5**answers

865 views

### Floors of powers of reals, how much do the first few determine the next?

Call an integer sequence $\mathbf{x}=\left( x_1,x_2,\cdots \right)$ feasible if it is $f(r)=\left(\lfloor r \rfloor, \lfloor r^2 \rfloor, \lfloor r^3 \rfloor,
\ldots, \lfloor r^n \rfloor, \ldots ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

288 views

### Is it possible to have the set $f^{-1}(\lbrace x \rbrace)$ perfect for every $x$?

There are examples of functions $f \colon [0,1] \longrightarrow [0,1]$ such that
for any $\alpha $, $f^{-1}(\lbrace \alpha \rbrace)$ is uncountable. My favorite example is $$f(r) = \limsup_n ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

484 views

### Proof of the “Neo-classical Inequality”

I came across the following inequality, dubbed the "Neoclassical Inequality" which holds uniformly in $p\geq 1, n$:
$\frac{1}{p^2}\sum_{j=0}^n\frac{a^{j/p}b^{(n-j)/p}}{(j/p)!((n-j)/p)!}\leq ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

186 views

### Spectrum of this ODE

I noticed something interesting studying this Sturm-Liouville Problem:
$$ \frac{d}{dx}\left(\sqrt{(1-x^{2})}\frac{df}{dx} \right)+\frac{\left(n \alpha x+\alpha^2 x^{2} + ...

**5**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Zeros of “exponential” function

Define ${f}_{i}(x) = \sum_{j=1}^{i} (-1)^{i-j}{i \choose j}j^x$, where $i=1,2,3,...$ and $x \in \mathbb{R}$.
For integer $x \geq i$, ${f}_{i}(x)$ reduces to ${f}_{i}(x)=i!S(x,i)$, where $S(x,i)$ is ...

**27**

votes

**2**answers

849 views

### Continuous functions $f$ with $f(A)$ linearly independent when $A$ is independent

Is there any characterization of continuous functions $f : \Bbb{R}\longrightarrow \Bbb{R}$ such that for any linearly independent set $A$ (over the rationals) $f(A)$ is also linearly independent ?

**13**

votes

**2**answers

455 views

### A natural center of a convex weakly compact set in Banach space

Question: Let $S$ be a convex weakly compact set in Banach space $H$. Propose a natural way to define the unique center $O \in S$.
Motivation: A lot! For example, in game theory $S$ can be a set of ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

330 views

### Riemannian distance functions on the real line

A distance function $d: \mathbb{R} \times \mathbb{R} \rightarrow [0,\infty)$ that is defined by a smooth Riemannian metric on the real line satisfies the following properties:
$d$ is a length metric ...

**7**

votes

**4**answers

540 views

### Seeking a Geometric Proof of a Generalized Alternating Series' Convergence

Let $z \in \mathbb{C} \backslash \lbrace 1 \rbrace$ with $|z| = 1$. We consider the following infinite series, which necessarily converges:
$$S(z) := \sum_{n = 1}^{\infty}\frac{z^n}{n}$$
Note that ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

541 views

### Does the Weierstrass function have a point of increase?

Problem
The Weierstrass function $W(x)$ is given by
$W(x)=\sum_{n\geq 0} a^n \cos(b^n \pi x)$
where $0< a <1$ and $b$ is an odd integer such that $ab > 1+3\pi/2$.
A function ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

193 views

### Smallest positive zero of Weierstrass nowhere differentiable function

Consider the Weierstrass nowhere differentiable function $f(x) = \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{1}{2^n} \cos(4^n \pi x)$. It seems that the smallest positive zero of $f(x)$ occurs at $x=\frac{1}{5}$, but I ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

365 views

### Does a nonlinear additive function on R imply a Hamel basis of R?

A function is additive if $f(x+y) = f(x) + f(y)$. Intuitively, it might seem that an additive function from R to R must be linear, specifically of the form $f(x) = kx$. But assuming the axiom of ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

340 views

### Can any antidifference (indefinite sum) of a function be expressed in elementary functions and generalized polygamma function if its integral can be expressed in elementary functions?

If the integral or multiplicative integral of a function can be expressed with elementary functions, does it mean its indefinite sum (antidifference) or indefinite product respectively can be ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

244 views

### Cantor set intersecting a geometric sequence

I was working on a problem involving finding all points in the intersection of the Cantor set $C$ and the geometric sequence $\{ (2/3)^i \}_{i=1}^\infty$. The only points I have in this intersection ...

**7**

votes

**4**answers

919 views

### The non-convergence of f(f(x))=exp(x)-1 and labeled rooted trees

This question is closely related to MO f(f(x))=exp(x)-1 and other functions “just in the middle” between linear and exponential. Consider $e^{e^x-1}$, this is the generating function of the Bell ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

432 views

### Expression for the sum of square roots of zeros of a polynomial

Let $f(x)$ be a polynomial of degree $n$ with rational coefficients whose zeroes are nonnegative real numbers: $x_1, \dots, x_n\geq 0$.
General question. Does there exist a simple expression for the ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

762 views

### Property/Relations using Fourier series/transform, which give complete information about all the jump singularities of a function.

Consider a function which has only jump singularities of the form of the function itself or one of its derivatives jumping. Now let $\hat{f}(k)$ be its Fourier transform/series. We know the decay of ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

611 views

### Implicit function theorem at a singular point?

Let $F:\mathbb{R}^2 \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be three times continuously differentiable in some open neighborhood $\mathcal{U}$ of $(0,0)$. Suppose that $F(0,0) = F_x(0,0) = F_y(0,0) = F_{xy}(0,0) = 0$ ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

783 views

### Dependence of error on mesh for Riemann sums

Suppose $f$ is continuous on $[a,b]$ with $I = \int_a^b f(x)\: dx$,
and for every $\epsilon > 0$ let $\delta(\epsilon)$ be the largest
$\delta > 0$ such that every Riemann sum arising from a ...

**5**

votes

**3**answers

279 views

### Non-continuous higher differentiability

The standard definition is that a function $f:\mathbb{R}^n\to \mathbb{R}$ is differentiable at a point $x$ if there exists a linear map $\mathrm{d}f_x: \mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}$ such that
$$f(x+h) ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

493 views

### Extending an assignment property from Q to R (or C)

Property of any odd number of nonnegative integers:
Given $x_1 \leq \ldots \leq x_{2n + 1}$ with each $x_i \in \mathbb{Z}_{\geq 0}$, suppose that for any $x_i$ we remove, the remaining numbers can be ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

88 views

### Error of midpoint method for differentiable functions

Is it the case that for every differentiable function $f$ on $[0,1]$ (with finite one-sided derivatives at the endpoints), the midpoint method of estimating $\int_0^1 f(x) \: dx$ has error $o(1/n)$?
...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

279 views

### Using a quadratic kernel instead of a linear kernel in the Laplace transform

Suppose $f$ is a bounded continuous function on $[0,\infty)$ such that $\int_0^\infty f(t) \exp(-xt) \: dt \rightarrow 0$ as $x \rightarrow 0^+$. Does it follow that $\int_0^\infty f(t) \exp(-xt^2) \: ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

200 views

### Level sets of a Weierstrass nowhere-differentiable function

Can anyone describe level sets of a Weierstrass nowhere-differentiable function? For example, let $f(x) = \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{1}{2^n} \cos( 4^n \pi x)$. For some $c \in (-2,2)$, what is known ...