Real-valued functions of real variable, analytic properties of functions and sequences, limits, continuity, smoothness of these.

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0
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105 views

local analyticity of volumes of slices of semi-algebraic sets

I would like a reference and/or a simple proof using well-known results of the following, which I think is true. (If it's false, I'd like to know that as well of course -- and ideally a way to modify ...
11
votes
0answers
85 views

Concept associated to the Eudoxus reals

I am aware of three different constructions of the field of real numbers : The Cauchy sequence construction : in this case, we see the field $\mathbb{Q}$ as a metric space and $\mathbb{R}$ is the ...
0
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0answers
66 views

Mean curvature and submanifold

Consider $S^{N-1}$ the unit sphere and let us focus our attention on the cap $$ G=S^{N-1}\cap\{x_N>0\} $$ with boundary $\partial G= S^{N-2}\times\{0\}$: it is quite obvious to see that $G$ is a ...
-1
votes
0answers
214 views

Becoming a Mature Mathematician [on hold]

I am currently a sophomore in my undergraduate mathematics program. It has taken me a while to take school seriously; I was one of "those" students who just skated by without studying until Linear ...
2
votes
1answer
123 views

Ask for a special function related to the error function

I am wondering whether anyone knows the following integration has a named special function or a reference $$ F_{a,b}(z) :=\frac{2}{\sqrt{\pi}} \int_0^z \text{erf}(a+b y)\: e^{-y^2} \text{d}y $$ for ...
6
votes
2answers
176 views

Can a nowhere differentiable function preserve measurability?

I want to know whether a continuous nowhere differentiable function $f: \mathbf{R} \to \mathbf{R}$ can map Lebesgue measurable sets to Lebesgue measurable sets. More generally I'm interested to know ...
0
votes
0answers
48 views

Fourier analytic estimate

The following question arises naturally from applications to the image processing. Let $\alpha\in [0,1]$ and assume that for infinitely many $n\ge 1$ we have $$\sum_{k=1}^n\frac{1-|\cos(2\pi ...
2
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0answers
23 views

Points of continuity of a lower semicontinuous function have non empty interior

Let $X\subset \mathbb R^d$ having non empty interior and let $f:X\to\mathbb{R}$ be lower semicontinuous. I know that the set of discontinuities of such a function is contained in a meager set, and ...
-1
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1answer
39 views

Is every implicit function reparametrized? [on hold]

Consider a continously differentiable non-constant function $f:\mathbb{R}^2\to\mathbb{R}$. Define $$ K=\{x\in\mathbb{R}^2|f(x)=0\}. $$ I wish to know whether there is a continuously differentiable ...
4
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1answer
58 views

Integral Expression in Complex Dynamics

Let $\phi\in \mathbb{C}(z)$ be a degree $d\geq 2$ rational map, which we can write as $\phi = \frac{f}{g}$ for $f,g\in \mathbb{C}[z]$. Let $\omega_{FS}$ denote the Fubini-Study form on ...
1
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1answer
216 views

Sets of Vitali's type in models of $\mathsf{ZF}+\mathsf{GCH}$ where $V \neq L$

Consider sets of Vitali's type in models of $\mathsf{ZF}+\mathsf{GCH}$ where $V \neq L$. Are there sets of Vitali's type in both $L$ and $V \backslash L$? If so, is there any way one can distinguish ...
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0answers
80 views
+50

Closed-Form solution for system of simple nonlinear equations

I am interested in analytical solutions for a system of nonlinear equations. (The question was first asked at math.SE, where (after 1months and one rounds of bounty) there is only interesting ...
38
votes
1answer
971 views

Does there exist a bijection of $\mathbb{R}^n$ with itself such that the forward map is connected but the inverse is not?

Let $(X,\tau), (Y,\sigma)$ be two topological spaces. We say that a map $f: \mathcal{P}(X)\to \mathcal{P}(Y)$ between their power sets is connected if for every $S\subset X$ connected, $f(S)\subset Y$ ...
1
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0answers
43 views

A sufficient condition of the following integral to be positive

Suppose $G=(A,B,E)$ is a bipartite graph whose partition has the parts $U=\{u_1,\cdots,u_m\}$ and $V=\{v_1,\cdots,v_n\}$. Consider the following integral ...
2
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0answers
46 views

On two functions with isodirectional gradients

Let $U\subset \mathbb{R}^n$ be open and $f,g:U \to \mathbb{R}$ be two $C^1$ functions whose gradients are always in the same direction, i.e. $\forall i,j \in \left\{1,...,n\right\}$ \begin{equation} ...
0
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0answers
27 views

Joint distribution of eigenvalue and matrix entry

Let $X=(X_{n,m})_{n,m=1}^N$ be a $N\times N$ GUE random matrix, and let $\lambda_1,\dots,\lambda_N$ denote its unordered eigenvalues. What can be said about the distribution of, say, ...
-3
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0answers
36 views

the hessian and the gradient [closed]

$A\in{\mathbb{R^{m\times n}}}$, $b\in{R^m}$. For $ x\in{\mathbb{R^n} }$, we define q(x)=f(Ax+b), with $f:\mathbb{R^m}\longrightarrow{\mathbb{R}}$. Calculate the hessian matrix and the gradient of f .
-2
votes
0answers
71 views

Prove a function is entire

Let $f$ function such that $\int_{R^m} (1+|y|)^N|f(y)|dy <\infty$. Consider a function $g(z) = \int h(y,z) f(y) dy,$ where $|h(y,z)| \leq C e^{|z||y|}$ with $z\in C^m$ and ...
0
votes
0answers
38 views

Limit probability of a complete bipartite random graph $G(n,n,p)$ is connected [closed]

I need to calculate the following probability limit for a complete bipartite random graph $G(n,n,p)$ in the Erdos-Renyi model: \begin{equation} \lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\mathbb{P}[G(n,n,p) \text{ is ...
1
vote
1answer
119 views

Extremal problem for sequences

Let $a_n$ be a sequence of positive numbers and define $$A_n=\sum_{k=1}^{n-1} a_k a_{n-k}.$$ I am interested in the supremum of the following quantity $X/Y$ where $$X=\sum _{i=1}^{\infty } \left(\sum ...
1
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0answers
45 views

Show this function is strictly concave

Please help me show that $f(w)$ is strictly concave in $w\in[0,\infty)$: $f(w)=\sum_{j=1}^N P_j (w)\cdot u_j $ where $P_j (w)=\sqrt{w}\int _{-\infty}^{\infty}\Pi_{k\neq ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

Request for references about computing or estimating Rademacher complexity

Is Rademacher complexity defined for any space of functions? Or are there restrictions on the function space over which this can be defined? For example is the Rademacher complexity defined or has ...
2
votes
1answer
171 views

Extension of a function from almost everywhere to everywhere

The informal general question is: let $f$ be a "sufficiently nice" function, defined "almost everywhere". Can we develop a method to uniquely extend $f$ to the "remaining" points? Example: Let ...
5
votes
1answer
78 views

Density of the linear span of products of harmonic polymomials

Let $\mathcal{H}$ denote the space of all harmonic polynomials with complex coefficients in $n$ variables $x_1,\ldots, x_n$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$. I'm trying to show that the linear span of the set ...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

How much must a curve bend to intersect another curve twice?

Suppose $c_1$ and $c_2$ are segments of smooth plane curves. To be concrete, say $c_1$ and $c_2$ are graphs of smooth functions $f_i:[a_i,b_i]\to \mathbb R$, $i=1,2$. If the curves were lines, then ...
0
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0answers
16 views

Comparison of lengths: Theodorus spiral and Archimedes' Spiral

It is known that the Spiral of Theodorus approximates the Archimedean spiral. Let's consider the arc-length of the Spiral of Theodorus $L_T(\phi)$ and the Archimedean one: $L_A(\phi)$. Can we ...
3
votes
1answer
319 views

About the generating structure of Borel field

This is a graduate-level measure theory problem. I have thought throught it and asked on math.SE but received no satisfying answer. On P.32 of [P.Billingsley] Probability and Measure, 3ed, 1993, the ...
1
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0answers
44 views

Dirichlet series decomposition of arbitrary function

Originally asked on MSE here: http://math.stackexchange.com/q/1780149/52694 Analytic functions can be decomposed into a Taylor series, and furthermore the Taylor series converges back to the original ...
1
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0answers
27 views

Optimizing sum of approximate and exact functions

This is a research question that I had asked in Math.SE about a month ago, but even after putting a bounty on it, I did not get any answers. I have two real values functions, where one ...
-4
votes
1answer
277 views

Proof of formula for $\pi$ [closed]

The number $\pi$ can be expressed as $\pi=\lim_{n\to\infty} \frac{n\sqrt[n]{-1}-n}{\sqrt{-1}}$ or more poetically $\pi=\frac{\infty\sqrt[\infty]{-1}-\infty}{\sqrt{-1}}$. Here we choose the principal ...
5
votes
1answer
183 views

Fourier transform surjective on $L^p(\mathbb{R}^n)$ for $p \in (1,2)$?

I know that $F_2:L^2 \rightarrow L^2$ is of course unitary, whereas $F_1:L^1 \rightarrow C_0$ is injective but not surjective. This can be seen by looking at the dual map. Riesz-Thorin gives us that ...
5
votes
0answers
148 views

Complex Stone-Weierstrass Type problem

I have come across this problem which resembles complex Stone-Weierstrass theorem except for a problem that the conjugate of the functions are not necessarily in the sub algebra. Suppose $\Omega$ is ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views

Algorithm for definite integral of rational functions of x and exp(-x)

I'd like to find the class of functions that may appear as definite integrals of a rational function of $x$ and $\exp(-x)$ from $0$ to $\infty$. For that I imagine there might be an algorithm to ...
19
votes
12answers
2k views

Classic applications of Baire category theorem

I've seen Baire category theorem used to prove existence of objects with certain properties. But it seems there is another class of interesting applications of Baire category theorem that I have yet ...
2
votes
1answer
937 views

For what nonnegative measures $\mu$ does $\mu*e^{-|\cdot|}\in L^{\infty}$?

I am trying to characterize all measures on $\mathbb{R}$ such that $$ \sup_{x\in\mathbb{R}} \: (\mu*f)(x)<+\infty, $$ where $f(x)$ is some specific integrable functions, such as $f(x)=e^{-|x|}$, ...
153
votes
11answers
45k views

Have any long-suspected irrational numbers turned out to be rational?

The history of proving numbers irrational is full of interesting stories, from the ancient proofs for $\sqrt{2}$, to Lambert's irrationality proof for $\pi$, to Roger Apéry's surprise demonstration ...
1
vote
1answer
101 views

An analytic family of in fact non-existent improper Riemann integrals

Question: Are there any useful interpretations or "applications" of the formula $$\intop_0^\infty e^{-ax}\frac{\sin x}{x}\,dx=\frac{\pi}{2}-\arctan(a)\qquad \forall\;a\in \mathbb{R}, $$ in which the ...
-3
votes
0answers
71 views

Bernoulli's Inequality when $-2≤x<-1$ [migrated]

Why is it that Bernoulli inequality $(1+x)^r>1+rx$ is said to be true for every integer $r≥0$ and every real $x≥-1$; why the range $-2≤x<-1$ is not included? It seems that, by induction (or ...
3
votes
2answers
277 views

A possible norm on a subspace of $C^\infty([0,1])$?

I have posted the following question (with minimal differences) on MSE some days ago, without receiving a satisfactory answer, so let me try here again. Take the vector space of infinitely ...
2
votes
1answer
130 views

Uniqueness from orthogonality relation?

This question was posted yesterday on MathOverflow by Michael Smith and received a number of upvotes. I too think the question was interesting. However, for some unknown to me reasons, it has been ...
1
vote
0answers
43 views

Quotient of two smooth functions extension

Assume we are given smooth functions $f, g: U \to \mathbb{C}$, where $0 \in U \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ is open and $0 \in g^{-1}(0) \subset \{x_n = 0\}$. Furthermore, suppose that $\nabla g \neq 0$ on ...
1
vote
1answer
102 views

A problem about the quotient space of an extended Dirichlet space

Let $(\mathscr{E},\mathscr{F})$ be a recurrent Dirichlet form on $L^2(X;m)$ and $\mathscr{F}_e$ the corresponding extended Dirichlet space, then $1\in\mathscr{F}_e$ and $\mathscr{E}(1,1)=0$. Let ...
1
vote
0answers
77 views

extension for a complex operator

Let be $\lambda>0$. Put $$ L_{\lambda}=\Big[-\frac{\partial^{2}}{\partial z \partial \overline{z}}+\lambda^{2}|z|^{2} +\lambda\Big(\overline{z}\frac{\partial}{ \partial ...
2
votes
1answer
96 views

Can there be a numerical system in which logarithms can be expressed in terms of exponentials in closed form?

The invention of complex numbers allowed to express trigonometric functions through hyperbolic ones in closed form. Is there possible an extension of real/complex numbers in which logarithms and ...
30
votes
4answers
7k views

Integrability of derivatives

Is there a (preferably simple) example of a function $f:(a,b)\to \mathbb{R}$ which is everywhere differentiable, such that $f'$ is not Riemann integrable? I ask for pedagogical reasons. Results in ...
18
votes
3answers
464 views

Does $a_n=\prod^n_{k=1}(1-e^{k\alpha \pi i})$ converge to zero when $\alpha$ is irrational?

I came across a problem concerning about the convergence of products. I wonder if the complex series $a_n=\prod^n_{k=1}(1-e^{k\alpha \pi i})$ converges to zero when $\alpha$ is irrational. Of course, ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Inverting two paraboloid relations

Let's suppose we have two variables $(\alpha, \beta)$ on two functions $k_1, k_2$ that can be defined in terms of matrix relations: $$ k_1 = \left| \xi^T \mathcal{F}^T \mathcal{F} \xi \right| $$ $$ ...
2
votes
3answers
236 views

Nonzero solutions of an infinite product

Let $-\frac{1}{2}\le a \le\frac{1}{2}$ and $b\in[0,\infty)$. Definitions: $$f_k(a;b):=\frac{(2k+\frac{1}{2}+a)^2+b}{(2k+\frac{1}{2}-a)^2+b}(\frac{k}{k+1})^{2a},$$ $$f(a;b):=\prod\limits_{k=1}^\infty ...
3
votes
1answer
380 views

On the embedding of a function space $X$ into $L^2\cap L^4$

It is well-known that if $\Omega\in \mathbb{R}^n$ is a bounded domain, then we have the embedding $$ L^4({\Omega})\subset L^2({\Omega}) $$ since $||f||_{L^2(\Omega)}\leq C(\Omega) ||f||_{L^4(\Omega)}$ ...
2
votes
1answer
90 views

Are compactly supported continuous functions dense in the Continuous functions of Sobolev space? [closed]

I have a question about Sobolev space. Let $\Omega$ be an open subset of $\mathbb{R}^{d}$, we consider the Sobolev space $H^{1}(\Omega):=\left\{ u \in L^{2}(\Omega) : D_{j}u \in L^{2}(\Omega), ...