**58**

votes

**9**answers

4k views

### Can we unify addition and multiplication into one binary operation? To what extent can we find universal binary operations?

The question is the extent to which we can unify addition
and multiplication, realizing them as terms in a single
underlying binary operation. I have a number of questions.
Is there a binary ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

32 views

### Examples of Lie subalgebras of universal enveloping algebras

I'm looking for non-trivial examples of triples $(\mathfrak g, L, \psi)$, where $\mathfrak g$ and $L$ are finite-dimensional non-abelian Lie algebras over field $\Bbbk$ and $\psi\colon U_{\mathfrak ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

33 views

### Examples of noncommutative Bezout domains

I would like to see some (or many!) examples of noncommutative Bezout domains (one-sided principal ideals sum to one-sided principal ideals). I've read somewhere that it's not easy to find an example ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

266 views

### Integration on Compact Semirings

I want to know if integration of functions $f:X\rightarrow G$ where $G$ is a compact semiring has been defined and if it is possible to ensure that all continuous functions are integrable. This is ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

272 views

### Re-interpreting vector spaces in a choice-less model of ZF as modules over a regular ring in ZFC

I am searching a module $M$ over a (von Neumann) regular ring $A$ ($\forall a\in A$, $\exists x\in A$: $axa=a$) with two properties:
(1) every finitely generated submodule of $M$ is projective ...

**21**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Is there an explicit construction of a free coalgebra?

I am interested in the differences between algebras and coalgebras. Naively, it does not seem as though there is much difference: after all, all you have done is to reverse the arrows in the ...

**0**

votes

**2**answers

434 views

### divisorial ideals

Let $I$ be an ideal of a domain. Then is there an ideal $J$ properly located between $I$ and $I^{\nu}$? Here $I^{\nu}$ is divisor of $I$.

**1**

vote

**0**answers

67 views

### Hopf-Borel theorem over polynomial rings

Hello!
There is a theorem of Borel saying that:
For a connected cocommutative Hopf algebra $A$ over the perfect field $k$ such that underlying graded vector space is finite-dimensional over $k$ we ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

43 views

### Near-ring localizations

Are there any known results on localization for near-rings (i.e., "rings" with non-abelian addition and only one-sided distributive law)? The books on near-rings I checked don't mention this topic at ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

63 views

### Are irreducible matrix algebra neccesarily simple? [migrated]

In more detail, let $F$ be any field and $A$ a set of matrices, $F\cdot Id_n \subseteq A\subseteq GL_n(F)$, closed under addition and product, which is irreducible: If $\{0\}\subsetneq V \subsetneq ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

162 views

### for which truth-operations f can f-membership in a prime ideal be represented by a polynomial?

Nota bene: all rings are supposed commutative with $1$ and all ring homomorphism should be unital.
Let $B$ be the set of truth values {True, False}. For a formula $\phi$ denote by $[\phi]\in B$ it's ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

335 views

### Can a division algebra have degree divisible by its characteristic?

I apologize in advance if this is easy, but I've tried Googling, and had no luck.
I'm currently working on a proof, and I realized in the course of writing that this proof will break if out there ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

54 views

### Orders of certain quotients of power series rings

Let $\Lambda_d := \mathbb{Z}_p[[T_1, \ldots, T_d]]$ denote the ring of formal power series in $d$ variables over the ring of $p$-adic integers. Suppose that $g \in \Lambda_d$ is an irreducible ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

265 views

### If $B\subseteq A$ are free & finite rank $R$-algebras, is $R\to A \otimes_B R$ injective?

(In this question, all rings and algebras are commutative with identity.)
I have a situation that boils down to the following data: a ring $R$, an $R$-algebra $A$ with a subalgebra $B$ such that $A$ ...

**1**

vote

**3**answers

332 views

### Is there a general notion of semigroup action?

The analogous result to Cayley’s theorem or Yoneda lemma in semigroup theory represents semigroups as semigroups of functions from a set to itself. This suggests that a semigroup action consists of a ...

**17**

votes

**6**answers

10k views

### Determinant of sum of positive definite matrices

Say $A$ and $B$ are symmetric, positive definite matrices.
I've proved that $\det(A+B) \ge \det(A) + \det(B)$ in the case that $A$ and $B$ are two dimensional.
Is this true in general for ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

124 views

### Operator connected with Hermite polynomials

For $n \geq 1$, define the following operator $M_n$ on the ring of all polynomials with real coefficients.
$$M_n P(x) = nP(x)^2 - x \int_0^x (P'(t))^2 \, \mathrm{d}t$$
Monomials $x^k$ are mapped to $n ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

151 views

### Isomorphism of matrix ring over ore domain

Let $R_1,R_2$ be (left and right) ore domains. Does $ Mat_n(R_1)\cong Mat_m(R_2)$ implie m=n and $q.f.(R_1)\cong q.f.(R_2)$?
An counter example, a proof or a reference is welcomed.
Thanks

**2**

votes

**0**answers

70 views

### Separating duality for TVS?

What is the modern concept (term) for "separating duality" (dualité séparante in french) in the sense of Bourbaki (TVS Ch II § 6) as explained in the following ?
...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

45 views

### $I$ is principal if and only if $ID_M$ is principal for all $M \in Max(D)$

In a semmi-quasi local domain $D$ ( i.e. $D$ has finitely many maximal ideals),
an ideal $I$ is principal if and only if $ID_M$ is principal for all $M \in Max(D)$.
[See Comm. Rings by Kaplansky, ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

328 views

### Who defined and who coined “module”?

The title of my Q. says it all:
QUESTION: Who defined and who coined: module?
Would it be Emmy Noether?
EDIT In view of @anon's and KConrad's answers, and as it could have been ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

186 views

### Kaplansky Idempotent conjecture and Extension theory

We consider the Idempotent Kaplansky conjecture with $\mathbb{C}$- coefficients, that is the problem of nontrivial idempotents for group algebra $\mathbb{C}\Gamma$ where $\Gamma$ is a torsion free ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Are there any finitely generated artinian modules that are not Noetherian?

It is well known that for rings, Artinian implies Noetherian (the famous Hopkins–Levitzki theorem) and it is also well known that there are Artinian modules which are not Noetherian. A simple example ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Hilbert's 17th Problem for smooth functions

Consider an open subset $U \subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$ and a smooth function $f\colon U \longrightarrow \mathbb{R}$ with $f(x) \ge 0$ for all $x \in U$.
It is then known (if I remember correctly: by ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

152 views

### Linear dependency of real numbers with integer coefficients adding up to zero [closed]

Let $x = (x_1, \dots, x_n)$ be a vector of real number. I was asking myself if there was an efficient way of telling whether there exists a non-zero vector of integers $z \in \mathbb Z$ such that both
...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

92 views

### A special Lie subalgebra

Motivated by comments of the following post A question on involutions on the Lie algebra of vector fields we ask the following question:
Let $L$ be a Lie algebra. We consider the Lie subalgebra ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

54 views

### Change of relative base

If $k$ is a commutative ring, $A$ a $k$-algebra and $\phi: k \rightarrow k'$ is a morphism of rings then how (/under what conditions) can the relative homology functors $Ext_{A/k}(-,-)$ and ...

**14**

votes

**7**answers

3k views

### What are the reasons for considering rings without identity?

I think a major reason is because Lie algebras don't have an identity, but I'm not really sure.

**5**

votes

**1**answer

258 views

### Behavior of the projective dimension of modules in a continuous chain of extensions

Let $R$ be an arbitrary ring. Let $D$ be the class of $R$-modules of projective dimension less than or equal to a natural number $n$. If $L$ is the direct union of a continuous chain of submodules ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

205 views

### Rings in which every module has an injective image

Consider the class of rings $R$ with identity such that any left $R$-module has a non-zero injective homomorphic image. Any such ring is clearly a left V-ring. Is it true that any such ring must be ...

**2**

votes

**3**answers

128 views

### Does a BCL algebra define a partial order?

A BCL algebra is a universal algebra with a binary operation denoted as "$*$" and a $0$-ary operation (constant) denoted as "$0$", satisying the following axioms:
(1) $x * x = 0$;
(2) if $x * y = 0$ ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

217 views

### String diagrams for bimodules over noncommutative algebras?

I'm trying to do some calculations with bimodules (over Azumaya algebras, as it happens), and I need a string diagram notation that mixes the tensor product over the base ring (a symmetric monoidal ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

36 views

### Gelfand Kirillov dimension of induced modules

How does the Gelfand-Kirillov dimension of induced modules behave?
In patricular, if $S$ is an Ore extension of $R$, how is the GK-dimension of an $R$-module say $N$ related to the GK dimension of $N ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

122 views

### What is a degenerate Legendre Transformation?

I am studying the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian description of some dynamical systems. The problem with this description of the particular kind of systems I am studying, is that the Legendre ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

240 views

### Noncommutative HKR theorem

What is the analog of HKR theorem in the noncommutative world?
Recall that the well-known theorem by Hochschild-Kostant-Rosenberg says that for a smooth commutative algebra $A$ of finite type ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

256 views

### Metrics and completions on the direct limit of matrices of all sizes over arbitrary fields

Let $M_n$ denote the $n$ by $n$ matrices.
Consider the homomorphisms
$$\phi_{n,kn}: M_n \rightarrow M_{kn}$$
which takes a matrix $A \in M_n$ to $A \otimes I_k \in M_{kn}.$
This gives a sensible way ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

117 views

### General criterion to find a Z-basis in a fixed generating subset

Let $V=\mathbf{Z}^N$ be a free $\mathbf{Z}$-module of rank $N$. Let $S\subseteq V$
be a fixed finite subset.
Consider the submodule $M:=\langle S\rangle\leq V$ generated by $S$. We know form the ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

239 views

### Motivation behind the definition of hochschild cohomology

For an associative algebra $A$ one can define the Hochschild cohomology of $A$ as $ HH^n(A,A):= Hom_{\mathcal{D}(A^{op} \otimes A)}(A, [n]A)$ (this definition also works for the graded and dg cases as ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

258 views

### Existence of a ring with specified residue fields

Given a finite set of fields $k_1, \ldots, k_n$, is there a (commutative with $1$) ring $R$ with (maximal) ideals $m_i$ such that $R/m_i \cong k_i$?
To prevent things from being too easy, I ...

**4**

votes

**3**answers

699 views

### Splitting of a division algebra with an involution of second kind

Let $k$ be a field, $K/k$ a separable quadratic extension,
and $D/K$ a central division algebra of dimension $r^2$ over $K$
with an involution $\sigma$ of second kind
(i.e. $\sigma$ acts non-trivially ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

511 views

### Counting representations of $k[x,y]$ when $k$ is finite

$\newcommand{\GFq}{\mathbf F_q}$
Let $r_n(q)$ denote the number of isomorphism classes of $n$-dimensional modules of the $\GFq$-algebra $\GFq[x,y]$. Is it known whether there exists a polynomial ...

**20**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Freeness of a Z[x]-module

Definition: Call a mapping $f: \mathbb{Z} \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}$
a generalized polynomial if for any distinct integers $m$ and $n$
we have $(m - n)|(f(m)-f(n))$.
It is easy to check that polynomial ...

**2**

votes

**4**answers

473 views

### Products of Boolean algebras and probability measures thereon

These are really two questions, but the second presupposes the first.
First, let $( B_i )_{i\in I}$ be an arbitrary family of Boolean algebras. I want to directly form a product of them that is like ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

177 views

### Minimal fields of isomorphism for varieties

Let $V$ be an algebraic variety over a field $K$. Is there a constant $d = d(V) \in \mathbb{N}$ such that for any variety $W$ defined over $K$ and isomorphic to $V$ over the algebraic closure of $K$, ...

**11**

votes

**7**answers

698 views

### Properties of rings that have an elegant description in terms of the associated category of modules

Suppose $A$ is a ring. Then $A$ happens to be a division ring iff every left $A$-module is free. (See here for proofs). I think this is very beautiful; what other properties of rings have an elegant ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

20 views

### Projecting solutions of Hermitian forms over local rings

Let $R$ be a local ring (commutative and with $1$) with maximal ideal $M$, with an involution $\theta$. Let $h$ be a Hermitian form on $R^n$, i.e. $h:R^n\times R^n\rightarrow R$ such that $h$ is ...

**3**

votes

**3**answers

963 views

### a quotient of an injective module which is not injective

If R is an infinite direct product of fields, then R is an injective R-module...But I need an example of a quotient ring R, R/S, that is not injective ?? I feel that "if we take S as an infinite ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

185 views

### Matrix representation of real *-algebras

It is a standard fact that everyt real $n$-dimensional algebra is a subalgebra of $M_n(\mathbb R)$.
The transposition map, operating in $M_n(\mathbb R)$, is an involutive ($(A^t)^t=A$) ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

65 views

### Intersection of Maximal Left Ideals with Finite Dimensional Quotient

Let $\Gamma$ be a finitely generated group and let $A=\mathbb{C}[\Gamma]$ be the corresponding group algebra over $\mathbb{C}$. Let $X$ be the set of all maximal left ideals of $A$ and let $X_0=\{I ...

**21**

votes

**6**answers

828 views

### How to recognize a Hopf algebra?

Suppose we are handed an algebra $A$ over a field $k$. What should we look at if we want to determine whether $A$ can or cannot be equipped with structure maps to make it a Hopf algebra?
I guess in ...