**63**

votes

**16**answers

5k views

### When are two proofs of the same theorem really different proofs

Many well-known theorems have lots of "different" proofs. Often new proofs of a theorem arise surprisingly from other branches of mathematics than the theorem itself.
When are two proofs really the ...

**55**

votes

**29**answers

6k views

### Can infinity shorten proofs a lot?

I've just been asked for a good example of a situation in maths where using infinity can greatly shorten an argument. The person who wants the example wants it as part of a presentation to the general ...

**40**

votes

**4**answers

4k views

### What was Gödel's real achievement?

When I first heard of the existence of Gödel's theorem, I was amazed not just at the theorem but at the fact that the question could be made precise enough to answer: how on earth, even in ...

**36**

votes

**7**answers

7k views

### Reductio ad absurdum or the contrapositive?

From time to time, when I write proofs, I'll begin with a claim and then prove the contradiction. However, when I look over the proof afterwards, it appears that my proof was essentially a proof of ...

**34**

votes

**15**answers

6k views

### Strong induction without a base case

Strong induction proves a sequence of statements $P(0)$, $P(1)$, $\ldots$ by proving the implication
"If $P(m)$ is true for all nonnegative integers $m$ less than $n$, then $P(n)$ is true."
for ...

**33**

votes

**13**answers

3k views

### Examples of statements that provably can't be proved using a promising looking method

Motivation: In Razborov and Rudichs article "Natural proofs" they define a class of proofs they call "natural proofs" and show that under certain assumptions you can't prove that $P\neq NP$ using a ...

**26**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Feit-Thompson Theorem: The Odd Order Paper

For reference, the Feit-Thompson Theorem states that every finite group of odd order is necessarily solvable. Equivalently, the theorem states that there exist no non-abelian finite simple groups of ...

**25**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### Why can't proofs have infinitely many steps?

I recently saw the proof of the finite axiom of choice from the ZF axioms. The basic idea of the proof is as follows (I'll cover the case where we're choosing from three sets, but the general idea is ...

**24**

votes

**15**answers

4k views

### What's a magical theorem in logic?

Some theorems are magical: their hypotheses are easy to meet, and when invoked (as lemmas) in the midst of an otherwise routine proof, they deliver the desired conclusion more or less ...

**23**

votes

**2**answers

491 views

### Why is there no connection between fast-growing functions and complex analysis

I found myself wondering the other day whether the fast-growing functions from natural to naturals that are studied by people like proof theorists are the restriction to the naturals of analytic ...

**22**

votes

**0**answers

848 views

### Godel on recursion-theoretic hierarchies

At the end of his excellent article, "The Emergence of Descriptive Set Theory" (http://math.bu.edu/people/aki/2.pdf), Kanamori writes:
"Another mathematical eternal return: Toward the end of his ...

**21**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Community experiences writing Lamport's structured proofs

About two years ago, I came across this paper by Lamport
http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/lamport/pubs/lamport-how-to-write.pdf
on writing proofs hierarchically. It changed how I wrote ...

**18**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### Writing “Semi-Formal” Proofs

I am very interested in proofs. I have taken an undergraduate course
called "Logic and Set Theory" which I found very interesting, but ultimately
unsatisfying. My biggest disappointment has to do ...

**18**

votes

**11**answers

2k views

### Are there any good nonconstructive “existential metatheorems”?

Are there any good examples of theorems in reasonably expressive theories (like Peano arithmetic) for which it is substantially easier to prove (in a metatheory) that a proof exists than it is ...

**18**

votes

**8**answers

3k views

### Proofs of Gödel's theorem

I am interested in different contexts in which Gödel's incompleteness theorems arise. Besides traditional Gödelian proof via arithmetization and formalization of liar paradox it may also be obtained ...

**17**

votes

**2**answers

848 views

### Deep theorems and long proofs

I ran across this discussion by Daniel Shanks,
"Is the quadratic reciprocity law a deep theorem?."
Solved and Unsolved Problems in Number Theory. Vol. 297. AMS, 2001. p.64ff.
which made me ...

**15**

votes

**5**answers

3k views

### How do proof verifiers work?

I'm currently trying to understand the concepts and theory behind some of the common proof verifiers out there, but am not quite sure on the exact nature and construction of the sort of systems/proof ...

**14**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Characterizing visual proofs

``Proofs without words'' is a popular column in the Mathematics magazine.
Question: What would be a nice way to characterize which assertions have such visual proofs? What definitions would one ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

650 views

### Does Taranovsky's system of ordinal notations make sense?

Dmytro Taranovsky has a Web page on which he claims to define a system of ordinal notations strong enough to provide an ordinal analysis of full second-order arithmetic. I think (perhaps unjustly) ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

563 views

### Goodstein's theorem without transfinite induction

Goodstein's theorem is an example of a theorem that is not provable from first order arithmetic. All proofs of the theorem seem to deploy transfinite induction and I've wondered if one could prove the ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

435 views

### Can ZFC prove it cannot derive an inconsistency in $n$ steps?

Let $Con(\mathtt{ZFC}, n)$ denote the statement "$\mathtt{ZFC}$ cannot prove the contradiction within $n$ steps (or better within $n$ symbols) within a given proof system (say a natural deduction to ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Clarification of Gödel's second incompleteness theorem

I am sorry for the following question, because the actual answer to this question is in the beautiful works of Feferman and Jeroslow, but, unfortunately, I havn't any time to go into that specific ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Proof theoretic ordinal

In Ordinal Analysis, Proof-theoretic Ordinal of a theory is thought as measure of a consistency strength and computational power.
Is it always the case? I. e. are there some general results about ...

**12**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

**12**

votes

**1**answer

605 views

### Time in Girard's Geometry of Interaction

Jean-Yves Girard writes at the end of his paper
"Towards a Geometry of Interaction", page 105, that we have three intuitions about the nature of time:
time is logic modulo the order of rules,
time ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

276 views

### What metatheory proves $\mathsf{ACA}_0$ conservative over PA?

Simpson's book shows $\mathsf{ACA}_0$ is conservative over $\mathsf{PA}$ in the natural way by model theory using definable subsets. Of course, $\mathsf{ACA}_0$ being conservative over PA is ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

755 views

### Von Neumann's consistency proof

In the paper Zur Hilbertschen Beweistheorie, John Von Neumann has proposed a consistency proof for
a fragment of first-order arithmetic (the fragment without induction and with
the successor axioms ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

700 views

### Reverse mathematics of Hilbert's Theorem 90

What is known, and what is published, on the reverse mathematics of the nest of results called Hilbert's Theorem 90?

**12**

votes

**1**answer

209 views

### Nontrivial upper bounds on proof-theoretic ordinals of strong theories: do we have any?

Motivated by Consistency of Analysis (second order arithmetic) and Proof-Theoretic Ordinal of ZFC or Consistent ZFC Extensions?, I have the following question:
Are there any examples of strong ...

**11**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Are there non-diagonal proofs for Cantor's continuum and Godel's incompletness theorems?

There is a formal definition for the notion of a formal proof.
Question 1. Is there any formal definition for the notion of a diagonal formal proof?
Consider the following theorems both proved by ...

**11**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Does formalizing math require search and creativity, or is it near-mechanical?

I remember reading somewhere that it takes about a week to convert a page of math into something a proof-assistant like Isabelle or HOL Light would accept.
Is this type of conversion something that ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

489 views

### Proof-Theoretic Ordinal of ZFC or Consistent ZFC Extensions?

Let the proof theoretic ordinal $\alpha$ of a theory $T$ be the least recursive ordinal such that $T$ does not prove that $\alpha$ is well-founded. This ordinal is intended to quantify in some sense ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

369 views

### Is it possible for a theorem to be constructive only in a non-constructive metatheory?

There are several theorems in category-theoretic logic which say something like, "any proposition in X logic that is provable in topos logic assuming (the law of excluded middle and) the axiom of ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

397 views

### Does any lower bound on proofs of FLT improve Shepherdson 1965?

In 1965 Shepherdson proved that FLT is independent of the fragment of PA that uses only open induction and signature $0,S,+\times$. Indeed $2x+1\neq 2y$ is independent of that fragment. Schmerl ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

277 views

### How to measure the strength of Zermelo over bounded Zermelo?

Bounded Zermelo is Zermelo set theory with only bounded separation. It has the same strength as simple type theory or MacLane set theory or ETCS. It is a finitely axiomatized fragment of Zermelo, so ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Consequences of technically proving anything in Coq (on at least Linux) exploiting a bug? [closed]

Technically, it is possible to prove anything in Coq proof assistant [1] (on at least Linux) due to a programming feature (or bug). This seems tractable when validating large proofs. Human analysis ...

**10**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### Bourbaki's epsilon-calculus notation

Bourbaki used a very very strange notation for the epsilon-calculus consisting of $\tau$s and $\blacksquare$. In fact, that box should not be filled in, but for some reason, I can't produce a \Box.
...

**10**

votes

**4**answers

879 views

### How fast can the base-bumping function in Goodstein's theorem grow?

In the usual presentation of Goodstein's theorem, the base is bumped up by the "add 1" function. Does the theorem still hold when we replace this function by a fast-growing one (e.g. Ackermann or busy ...

**10**

votes

**6**answers

23k views

### Difference between a 'calculus' and an 'algebra'

What is really the conceptual difference between a calculus and an algebra.
Eg. Is SKI combinator calculus really a calculus?
A friend claims that free variables are fundamental for a calculus, and ...

**10**

votes

**3**answers

741 views

### Reducing ACA₀ proof to First Order PA

According to the Wikipedia ACA0 is a conservative extension of First Order logic + PA.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_Mathematics
First of all I have a few questions about the proof:
a - What ...

**10**

votes

**6**answers

1k views

### Non-constructive proofs vs. efficient algorithms

My question concerns what is meant by "nonconstructive", and whether it has ever been defined in terms of computational complexity.
The wikipedia article on constructive proof begins, "a constructive ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

278 views

### Reverse mathematics of meromorphic functions on Riemann surfaces

Various sources touch briefly on the reverse mathematics of measure theory and complex analysis. But I have found none on the uniformization theorem for Riemann surfaces or the existence of ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

476 views

### Left-bracketed Ackermann function also not primitive recursive?

The original Ackermann function $\varphi\colon \mathbb{N}\times\mathbb{N}\times\mathbb{N}_0\to \mathbb{N}$ as defined in [1] was invented to prove that there is a function that is recursive but not ...

**9**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### cut elimination

What is the cut rule? I don't mean the rule itself but an explanation of what it means and why are proof theorists always trying to eliminate it? Why is a cut-free system more special than one with ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

417 views

### Reverse mathematics below RCA

I'm sure this is a fairly basic question, but I can't seem to find a solid answer:
My primary question is: Is there a reasonably nice subsystem of second-order arithmetic corresponding essentially to ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

754 views

### Asymptotic density of provable statements in ZFC

This question is in response to one of the questions asked here. The OP wanted to know if the percentage of statements provable from ZFC tended to some value, and if so, what it was. In particular, ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

306 views

### What is the proof-theoretic ordinal of PA + Con(PA), PA + Con(PA + Con(PA)) etc., and why?

I seem to remember having read that the proof-theoretic ordinal (sup of ordinals the theory can prove well-ordered) of $\mathsf{PA} + \mathsf{Con}(\mathsf{PA})$ is the same as that of $\mathsf{PA}$, ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

266 views

### When was Bounded Zermelo set theory first formulated?

Bounded Zermelo set theory, and many variants named for MacLane in some way, are used in equiconsistency proofs for Simple Theory of Types plus infinity, and for the Elementary Theory of the Category ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

249 views

### Cut elimination algorithms

Gentzen's Hauptsatz in first order logic includes an algorithm taking any proof in the sequent calculus with cut rule, and delivering a proof without cut rule (and with the subformula property). So ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

338 views

### “Hard” separation results in reverse mathematics (or similar)

This is a fairly broad question. In particular, I specify 5 questions (Q1, Q2.1, Q2.2, Q3, Q4) which for me all fall under one umbrella. Since this is unreasonably broad, I'm really interested in an ...