**10**

votes

**1**answer

257 views

### Proof-Theoretic Ordinal of ZFC or Consistent ZFC Extensions?

Let the proof theoretic ordinal $\alpha$ of a theory $T$ be the least recursive ordinal such that $T$ does not prove that $\alpha$ is well-founded. This ordinal is intended to quantify in some sense ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

219 views

### What metatheory proves $\mathsf{ACA}_0$ conservative over PA?

Simpson's book shows $\mathsf{ACA}_0$ is conservative over $\mathsf{PA}$ in the natural way by model theory using definable subsets. Of course, $\mathsf{ACA}_0$ being conservative over PA is ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

201 views

### Can the Burgess-Hazen analysis of Predicative Arithmetic be extended to Transfinite Types?

Around page 300 of his book "Mathematical Thought and its Objects", Charles Parsons discusses the work of Edward Nelson, who believes that mathematical induction is impredicative, because it can be ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Clarification of Gödel's second incompleteness theorem

I am sorry for the following question, because the actual answer to this question is in the beautiful works of Feferman and Jeroslow, but, unfortunately, I havn't any time to go into that specific ...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

513 views

### Consistency of Analysis (second order arithmetic)

Is there a proof of the consistency of Analysis (second order arithmetic), which is similar to Gentzen's proof of the consistency of arithmetic?
Update:
Which (different) methods can be used to ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

460 views

### Feferman's extensional and intensional applications of the method of arithmetization

At the very beginning of Feferman's Arithmetization of metamathematics in a general setting it can be read:
The method of arithmetization, as developed by Gödel[10], exploits the possibility of ...

**10**

votes

**3**answers

712 views

### Reducing ACA₀ proof to First Order PA

According to the Wikipedia ACA0 is a conservative extension of First Order logic + PA.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_Mathematics
First of all I have a few questions about the proof:
a - What ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

191 views

### What is the role of the (formalized) omega rule in Ramified Analysis?

In the 1960's, Feferman and Schutte did groundbreaking proof-theoretic work to find out the strength of predicative systems of second-order arithmetic. They used the ramified theory of types, a ...

**22**

votes

**15**answers

4k views

### What's a magical theorem in logic?

Some theorems are magical: their hypotheses are easy to meet, and when invoked (as lemmas) in the midst of an otherwise routine proof, they deliver the desired conclusion more or less ...

**17**

votes

**2**answers

760 views

### Deep theorems and long proofs

I ran across this discussion by Daniel Shanks,
"Is the quadratic reciprocity law a deep theorem?."
Solved and Unsolved Problems in Number Theory. Vol. 297. AMS, 2001. p.64ff.
which made me ...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Most general formulation of Gödel's incompleteness theorems

Modern statements of Gödel's incompleteness theorems are usually in terms of first-order predicate logic. However, I've often read the claim that they extend to arbitrary formal systems that can prove ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Independence of PA implies independence of PA union all true $\Pi_1$ statements

Prove that if a statement is independent of Peano Arithmetic (PA), then it's also independent of PA$_1$, where PA$_1$ is the union of the set of axioms in PA and the set of all true $\Pi_1$ ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

504 views

### Goodstein's theorem without transfinite induction

Goodstein's theorem is an example of a theorem that is not provable from first order arithmetic. All proofs of the theorem seem to deploy transfinite induction and I've wondered if one could prove the ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

337 views

### Did Gödel prove that the Ramified Theory of Types collapses at $\omega_1$?

Second-Order Arithmetic is considered impredicative, because the comprehension scheme allows formulas with bound second-order variables that range over all sets of natural numbers, including the set ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

259 views

### Embedding of consistent subset in first order logic (finitely many variables)

I am looking at FOL with no equality, no constant, no function symbol and the unique binary predicate $\in$ with variables in arbitrary sets $V$ or $W$. Specifically we define ${\bf P}(V)$ as the free ...