The probability-distributions tag has no usage guidance.

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### Interpolating a polynomial when we permute part of $y_i$'s

Let $\vec{x}=[x_1,...,x_n]$ be elements of field $\mathbb{Z}_p$, where $p$ is a large prime. $x_i \neq x_j$, $x_i \in \mathbb{Z}_p$. Note $x_i$ values are NOT picked uniformly random and they are ...

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51 views

### Interpolating a Polynomial Given Multiplier of each $y_i$

It would be great even if you answer only one of the below questions.
We have polynomial $P(x)=(x-\beta)\cdot g(x)$, where degree of $P(x)$ is fixed n-1, $\beta$ chosen uniformly at random from the ...

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74 views

### Orthogonal polynomials with respect to the lognormal distribution

I am currently doing some inspection on the orthogonal polynomials with respect to the lognormal distribution. Does anyone already work on that or know some cool references?
All the best,
Pierre-O.

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35 views

### Quotient of cumulative binomial distribution functions

Given to integers $n < m \in \mathbb{N}_0$ and a probability $p$, I'm struggling to calculate (or at least get an upper bound for) the quotient
$$Q = \frac{F(n+1;m,p)}{F(n;m,p)}$$
where $F$ denotes ...

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**1**answer

60 views

### when does elementwise-log preserve positive-semidefiniteness?

Let $Z$ be a positive semidefinite matrix with nonnegative entries, and define $X=\log(1+Z)$, where the $\log$ is taken entrywise, i.e., $X_{ij}=\log(1+Z_{ij})$. Are there some simple sufficient ...

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30 views

### Validating a probability density distribution forecast model for a Markov process

Let's say we have a Markov process $X_t$, and we come up with a forecast model that takes some information from outside world and says: "value $X_{t+1}$ has probability density distribution $P_t(x)$". ...

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40 views

### $\exists \mathcal{A},\mathcal{B}:X\sim \mathcal{A}\Rightarrow \frac{p}{\sqrt{q+rX}}\sim \mathcal{B}$?

Does there exist a parametric distribution $\mathcal{A}$, such that:
$X\sim \mathcal{A}\Rightarrow\frac{p}{\sqrt{q+rX}}\sim \mathcal{B}$ for some parametric distribution $\mathcal{B}$
Where ...

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46 views

### What is a two-sided geometric distribution?

I found in some articles (such as this) references to two-sided geometric distribution. But I went through texts of probability and did not find anything called "two-sided geometric distribution". ...

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39 views

### A canonical example of the non-existence of predictive probability distribution

Section 3 of Fortini et al. (2000) states that
Given $(X^\infty, \mathcal X^\infty,P)$, a predictive probability distribution of $x_n$ given $(x_1, \dots, x_{n-1})$ with respect to $P$ need not ...

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77 views

### Probability of substring given string production probabilities

I originally posted this question on the Math StackExchange, but have not received answers there and thought it might be more appropriate to post it here.
Let $\Sigma$ be an alphabet and let $y = x_1 ...

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63 views

### Dimension reduction for low-order moments of Rademacher-weighted sums of vectors

Let $x_1,\dots,x_n$ be vectors in a Euclidean space $H$. Let $\varepsilon_1,\dots,\varepsilon_n$ be independent Rademacher random variables (r.v.'s), so that $P(\varepsilon_i=\pm1)=1/2$ for all $i$.
...

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43 views

### expected value of cosine wirh Gaussian phase

Is there a solution to the expected value/variance for a Gaussian with random phase:
$$\cos(\omega_0 t + \phi), \qquad \phi \sim \cal{N}(0,\sigma^2) $$
?
For $t=0$, the solution is for example ...

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22 views

### PDF of points at the intersection of a sphere and hyperboloid in n dimensions

I'm studying a statistical mechanics problem and I have two conserved quantities:
$$ E = \sum_{k=0}^{M} \left[ a_1^2(k) + a_2^2(k) + b_1^2(k) + b_2^2(k)\right] $$
$$ H = \sum_{k=0}^{M} 2 k \left[ ...

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119 views

### Is there an $\infty$ version of the Wasserstein distance between two distributions?

If I have two probability distributions $\mu$ and $\nu$ defined on $X$ and $Y$ respectively, then the $p$-th Wasserstein distance between the two of them is defined as $$W_p(\mu,\nu) = ...

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**1**answer

81 views

### Maximal entropy distribution with given conditionals

It is well known that of all the joint distributions $p(x,y)$ with fixed marginals $p(x),p(y)$, the one with the highest entropy is:
$$
p(x,y)=p(x)p(y).
$$
Suppose instead that we have conditionals. ...

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**1**answer

151 views

### Distribution of infinity-norm over the unit sphere

I need to compute probabilities of the form
$P( \Vert X \Vert_\infty < r ),$
where $X$ is a random variable of dimension $n$, drawn with a uniform distribution on the unit sphere ...

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61 views

### Conditional probability of dependent random variables

Let $ X \sim f_X(x), Y \sim f_Y(y) $ are two dependent random variables and their corresponding PDFs. I want to find a probability $$ P(Y\ge 0 | X+Y\ge 0) .$$ If these variables were independent I'd ...

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134 views

### Extrapolation between longest increasing and longest alternating subsequences

The question
When should we expect Tracy-Widom?
motivated me to post the following question, in which I have been
interested for a while. Let $f(n)$ be a function from the positive
integers to ...

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396 views

### A probability distribution in n dimensional space which its projection on any line is a uniform distribution?

Does there exist, for any natural $n$, a probability distribution in $\mathbb{R}^n$ whose projection on any line is a uniform distribution?

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75 views

### Why is this distribution exponential?

Take the interval $[0, 1]$.
Now sample 10000 points in this interval randomly according to the uniform distribution.
The fact is that the distribution of the distances between adjacent points on ...

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### Terminology for research on distributions of inner products

Consider a set of vectors $M$ from an inner product space $V$. The ordered set of inner products of all pairs of elements in $M$ uniquely characterizes $M$ up to isomorphism.
Suppose now that $V$ is ...

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580 views

### Semicircle law universality elsewhere

Wigner's semicircle distribution is:
$$f(x)=\frac{1}{2 \pi}\sqrt{4-x^2}, \ \ -2\leq x\leq 2.$$
Under reasonable conditions, the rescaled eigenvalue density of random symmetric matrices $M_n$ follows ...

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### Specifying Skellam parameters by given probabilities

The problem sounds quite easy and I still think it is. I somehow have the feeling that I just went too far and just miss the easiest solution now. The numerical solution I came up with is just not ...

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### Probability distribution of a Discrete Time Markov Chain between specified start/end states and times?

You've got a DTMC $X(t)$, with state space $0\leq x \leq M$, and transition matrix $Q$. It has absorbing states $0$ and $M$ and otherwise can transition freely (no entries in $Q$ are $0$ other than ...

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129 views

### Are all mixtures of these unimodal functions unimodal?

Let us say that a function $F\colon(0,\infty)\to\mathbb{R}$ is increasing-decreasing if, for some $c\in[0,\infty]$, $F$ is non-decreasing on $(0,c]$ and non-increasing on $[c,\infty)$. Is it true that ...

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72 views

### A question concerning distribution of $\mathbf{Y}/\|\mathbf{Y}\|_2$ where $\mathbf{Y}\sim \mathcal{N}(\boldsymbol{\mu},\mathbf{I})$

I know that when $\mathbf{Y}\sim\mathcal{N}(\mathbf{0},\mathbf{I})$, $\mathbf{Y}/\|\mathbf{Y}\|_2$ is distributed uniformly on the unit sphere. But to my surprise, I failed to find a simple closed ...

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66 views

### Probabilities in a directed graph

Given a directed graph of "n" vertices, having on average "m" out-edges each, what is the probability that an arbitrarily chosen vertex will belong to a unique circuit?
Also, how does that ...

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70 views

### Distribution of dot product of two unit random vectors

Consider $\mathbf{u}, \mathbf{v}\in \mathcal{C}^M$ to be two independent unit norm random vectors on the $M-1$ dimensional complex sphere $\mathcal{S}^{M-1}$. In addition, $\mathbf{u}$ follows an ...

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114 views

### Finitely additive measure over integers [duplicate]

We know that, with Axiom of Choice (AC), it can be shown that there exists a finitely additive uniform distribution defined for all subsets of the integers (see, e.g., Hrbacek and Jech 1999, Ch. 11).
...

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39 views

### Lower bound for the probability that a certain component of a Gaussian vector dominates all others

Let $X\sim\cal N(\mu,\Sigma)$ be an $n$-dimensional Gaussian vector. I would like to estimate $$P(X_1>\max_{k=2,\dots,n}X_k).$$
While no closed form solution exists (see e.g. MO question on ...

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56 views

### Finding the distribution of a random variable numerically with sample data? [closed]

Just a thought that I had recently. Suppose given discrete data points for a random variable, could one numerically generate the probability function values at these discrete values? I tried looking ...

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171 views

### Is regularity closed under products?

Let $G \colon [0,1] \to [0,1]$ be a differentiable cumulative distribution function (monotonically non-decreasing function with $G(0) = 0$ and $G(1) = 1$). We say that $G$ is regular if $$ x - ...

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186 views

### How do I Calculate :$\int_{0}^{1}x^{k}\psi(x)dx$ where $k\geq 3$ is an integer?

How do I Calculate, if possible, in terms of well-known constants the integral :
$\int_{0}^{1}x^{k}\psi(x)dx$ , where $k\geq 3$ is an integer ?
note: $\psi(x)$ is digamma function.
Any help would ...

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278 views

### Suggestions for dealing with the “timed” balls-into-bins model

Definitions: Let $T$ (for "time") be a random variable $T \sim \text{Exp}(\lambda)$ and $\Delta t$ is a realization (or called an observed value) of $T$. Let $D$ (for "delay") be a random variable $D ...

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### Writing a function as a sum of functions of bounded diameter

This problem is distilled from one arising in a study of complex random variables, but I've removed as much baggage as I can without (I hope) making it trivial.
Fix $D>0$. A function $f:\mathbb ...

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### Is there an equivalent form for Wishart to a power times a normal?

Lin described two equivalent characterizations of the multivariate t-distribution, viz.
As a normal vector divided by an independent chi. That is, $t = Z / \sqrt{\chi^2/v}$, where $Z$ is ...

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53 views

### How can two random variables are continuous infers that their jointly random variable is continuous [closed]

We assume that $\forall a,b$ suchthat $a^2+b^2>0$, $aX+bY$ is continuous random variable.
But we don't assume that $X$ and $Y$ are independent.
My question is the following:
Is it true that the ...

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**1**answer

142 views

### What is the distribution of the maximum nearest-neighbor distance of a point cloud sampled from a solid body like?

Let $\mathcal{B} \subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$ be an $n$-dimensional solid body. Assume that we sample $N$ points, say $S = \{ x_1, ..., x_N \}$, from $\mathcal{B}$ uniformly at random. Consider the ...

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### expectation involving normal pdf and Rayleigh distribution

I need to calculate following definite integral
\begin{equation*}
\frac{1}{2\pi }\int_0^\infty \frac{x^2 e^{-x^2/\sigma^2 } }{\sigma} \frac{e^{-\frac{\lambda}{{ax^2+b}}}}{\sqrt{ax^2+b}} ~~dx.
...

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53 views

### Compute the smoothing of functions

Given a function $g:R^d\rightarrow R$, which is not necessarily continuous, I want to compute the "smoothing" of $g$, i.e.,
$G(\vec{y})=\int_{R^n} g(\vec{x}) f_{\vec{y}, \sigma}(\vec{x}) d\vec{x} $
...

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298 views

### Expectation of Mahalanobis norm

Let $(g_i)_{i=1,...,d}$ sampled i.i.d. from a standard Gaussian, and $(\lambda_i)_{i=1,...,d}$ non-random s.t. $\max_i(\lambda_i)=1$ and $\lambda_i>0, \forall i$.
I am looking for the expectation ...

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226 views

### A moment problem

Suppose $X, Y$ are two positive random variables such that $\mathbb{E}[X^\alpha] = \mathbb{E}[Y^\alpha]$ for all $\alpha \in (0, 1/2)$.
It is also known that the first moment exists for each of them, ...

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### Implication of MGF inequality

Let X and Y be two random variables. Denote by $F_X(x)$ and $F_Y(y)$ their CDFs and by $M_X(t)$ and $M_Y(t)$ their MGFs.
It is known that X and Y have the same CDF iff they have the same MGF.
My ...

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### Elementary function relative to erf

The modified Bessel function of the 1st kind $I_0$ is defined by
$$
I_0(z)=\frac1\pi\int_0^{2\pi}e^{z\cos\theta}\,d\theta
$$
and arises, among other places, in the probability density function of a ...

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104 views

### Variant of Skorokhod's theorem

Consider the following situation:
$S, T$ are standard Borel spaces (say $S = [0,1]^k$, $T = [0,1]$ if it is helpful).
There is a a random variable $\zeta: \Omega \to S$.
$f_n(\zeta) \to^d \eta$, ...

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35 views

### logconcave distribution $f(t)$ leads to concave moments $\mu(x)$. logconvex distribution $f(t)$ leads to convex moments $\nu(x)$?

Let
$$\mu_x=\frac{1}{\Gamma(x+1)}\int_0^{\infty}u^x f(u) du \tag{1}$$
Suppose that $f(u)>0$ when $u>0$ and $f(u)\to 0$ fast enough when $u\to\infty$ so that $\mu_x,-1<x<\infty$ ...

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186 views

### About expectation norms on graphs

Let $S \subseteq V$ of a $d-$regular graph $G$ such that $\mu = \frac{\vert S \vert }{\vert V \vert } $. Let $A$ be the adjacency matrix of the graph. Then define the quantity $\phi(S)= ...

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123 views

### Finding joint probability from double marginals

Consider three probability distributions in the form $p_1(y,z),p_2(x,z),p_3(x,y)$.
When does a global joint probability $p(x,y,z)$ (possibly not unique) exist?
The first compatibility condition to ...

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170 views

### Probable direction of deviations from the expected value in binomial and hypergeometric cases

Suppose I have an urn with N marbles, with frequencies p and q for red and black marbles, and with p > 0,5. I take a sample of r marbles.
It sounds intuitive to say that deviations from the mean ...

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92 views

### A differential inequality and a special value

Let $G \colon [0,1] \to [0,1]$ be a monotonically decreasing function with $G(0) = 1$ and $G(1) = 0$. Suppose that $G$ is differentiable infinitely many times, and that: $$G(x)G''(X) \leq ...