0
votes
0answers
77 views

Upper bound for $r_{0}(n)$ through probabilities

Assume Goldbach's conjecture. Then for every integer $n>1$ there exists a non negative integer $r$ such that both $n-r$ and $n+r$ are primes. For a given $N$, let's denote by $r_{0}(N)$ the ...
7
votes
2answers
271 views

Sets whose elements are mutually “weakly” coprime?

Fix $n$ and $k$. I want a set $S\subseteq\{1,\ldots,n\}$ with the property that for every $x\in S$, $$\mathrm{gcd}\bigg(x,\prod_{y\in S\setminus\{x\}}y\bigg)<\frac{x}{k}.$$ How small should a ...
2
votes
0answers
130 views

Odds of projections of a point not on the hyperplane

Let $\mathcal{L}=\{\Bbb x\in\Bbb R^n:x_1+x_2+\dots+x_n=0\}$ be a specific hyperplane. Let a projection of $c\in\Bbb R^n$ be $p(c)=[p_1,p_2,\dots,p_n]$ where $p_i\neq c_i\implies p_i=0$. Let ...
2
votes
0answers
128 views

Fractional Derivatives [closed]

How far these Theories of "Fractional Derivatives" be rigorized ? I have few books and references on Fractional Differential Equations etc (mainly they stress on Applied Mathematics parts and similar ...
10
votes
3answers
587 views

Probability of coprime polynomials

Given positive integer $N$, we choose $m_1, m_2, n_1, n_2$ independently and with equal probabilities from $\{0,1,\ldots,N\}$, and let $f_1 = x^{m_1} + (1+x)^{n_1}$ and $f_2 = x^{m_2} + (1+x)^{n_2}$ ...
2
votes
2answers
222 views

what's the best way to characterise the distribution of prime elements in simple perfect squared squares

DEFINITIONS: A squared rectangle is a rectangle dissected into a finite number, two or more, of squares, called the elements of the dissection. If no two of these squares have the same size the ...
1
vote
0answers
140 views

Bunimovich stadium bouncing ball

http://terrytao.wordpress.com/2008/07/07/hassells-proof-of-scarring-for-the-bunimovich-stadium/ I cannot relate how the eigenfunctions normalizaed correspond to the probabality distribution of the ...
4
votes
2answers
591 views

Uniformly distributed sequence in $\mathbb{R}$

We say that a sequence $(x_n)_{n=1}^\infty \subseteq \mathbb{R}$ is "uniformly distributed in $[a,b]$", with $a < b$, if $(x_n)_{n=1}^\infty \cap [a,b] \neq \varnothing$ and $$\lim_{N \to \infty} ...
7
votes
2answers
599 views

Is there an algebraically normal function from $\mathbb{Z}^{n}$ to $\{ 0 , 1\}$?

Definition: Let $h$ be a polynomial in $n$ variables, then : $\gamma(h,r,R):=\{ v \in \mathbb{Z}^{n} : \vert h(v) \vert \leq r, \Vert v \Vert < R \}$ Let $\omega : \mathbb{Z}^{n} \to \{ 0 , ...
0
votes
0answers
177 views

Period of decimal for $1/n$, odd part of $n+1$, and primes.

Let $n$ be a nature number is relatively prime to 10,such the period of the decimal expansion of $1/n$ is $n-1$ or a divisor of $n-1$, and let $c$ be the "cycle length of $n$" (defined below). If ...
2
votes
0answers
311 views

Matula-Goebel ordering of rooted trees intrinsic?

I was somewhat recently introduced to the Matula-Goebel bijection between rooted trees and natural numbers. (nicely illustrated here http://keithbriggs.info/matula.html) Looking through them, I ...
2
votes
0answers
149 views

Expected period of quadratic generator

I am interested in the mean period of a quadratic congruential generator. Let $X_{n+1} = \sum_{i=0}^2 a_i X_n^i \bmod m$ where the $a_i \in \mathbb{Z_m}$ are chosen uniformly at random and $m$ is a ...
6
votes
2answers
863 views

Probability that randomly chosen integers from a restricted set of natural numbers are coprime

We know that the probability $P(k)$ of $k$ randomly chosen integers $(k \ge 2)$ from the set of natural number are coprime is $$ P(k) = \frac{1}{\zeta(k)}. $$ I am looking at a special case of ...
1
vote
1answer
371 views

Probability of all combinations of k numbers among n being coprime

A simple argument shows that if we choose $n$ positive integers at random, the probability of their greatest common divisor being 1 is $1/ \zeta (n)$ (in the sense that if we choose the numbers among ...
2
votes
0answers
110 views

Are numbers $h_{r,s} = \sum_{k} P(r;s;k) \frac{1}{n^{2k}} \bigg(1-\frac{1}{n}\bigg)^{n-2k}$ irrational?

I asked this question on MSE and Mike Spivey gave an insightful answer. I decided to put it here nevertheless in case someone else gets interested. If this violates rules on MO, please let me know, ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

What is a random number? (poll experiment) [closed]

Imagine the following experiment: you wait say at a subway exit, and ask everyone passing "please tell me a number" (positive integer, of course). You do this day after day, until you reach say 1M ...
29
votes
4answers
2k views

Geometric / physical / probabilistic interpretations of Riemann zeta(n>1)?

What are some physical, geometric, or probabilistic interpretations of the values of the Riemann zeta function at the positive integers greater than one? I've found some examples: 1) In MO-Q111339 ...
2
votes
3answers
782 views

The probability that a random number N has at least M factors

That is, how to calculate it given the size of N(that is, logN) and assuming that logN is much greater than M. Its an approximation. There is no exact formula. I do know that according to the prime ...
2
votes
0answers
164 views

Small geometric progression modulo N

An problem related to integer factorization using the General Number Field Sieve is the following: Let $N$ be a composite. Must there exist a 5-term geometric progression $\lbrace ...
8
votes
2answers
612 views

Random pseudoprimes vs. primes

(Edit. What I called "pseudoprimes" are known as "Cramér random primes" in the literature, of which I was unaware.) Say that a set $S$ of natural numbers is a set of pseudoprimes if they are (a) ...
1
vote
1answer
333 views

Probability that p and q are both prime provided q-p=2r

Hello, I would like to know whether there is a way, thanks to the prime number theorem, to give some kind of an equivalent of the probability that two positive integers $p$ and $q$ less than a given ...
1
vote
0answers
195 views

Calculating or estimating a combinatorial multivariate sum

Dear all, I'm currently looking at a problem in which the following combinatorial product emerges: $c(m_1,\dots,m_\lambda;n_1,\dots,n_\lambda)=\frac{m_1 ...
2
votes
0answers
188 views

Generator density in $\mathbb{Z}^*_p$

Hello, Consider the multiplicative group $(\mathbb{Z}/p)^*$ for a given prime $p$. We know that the number of generators in this group is $\phi(p-1)$ --- the Euleur totient function. The question is, ...
3
votes
1answer
295 views

accumulation points within Pisot numbers

Recall that Pisot numbers are algebraic integers greater than $1$, whose other Galois conjugates have modulus $<1$. The set of Pisot numbers is usually denoted $S$. It is known that $S$ is ...
2
votes
0answers
123 views

finding rank-3 tensors compatible with a rank-2 tensor projection

I am interested in the following problem: Consider a rank-3 symmetric tensor $\boldsymbol{\sigma}$ with $\sigma_{ijk}$ where $\sigma_{ijk}$ can be 0 or 1, and the symmetry is with respect to any ...
3
votes
2answers
390 views

using distribution of primes to generate random bits?

In his popular science book The Music of the Primes, Marcus du Sautoy tries to link the truth of the Riemann Hypothesis to the "randomness" of the primes. To do this, he invokes the idea of a "fair ...
1
vote
0answers
280 views

What is the mean-value of a particular exponential sum related to the non-trivial zeros of Riemann's zeta function?

This question arose from an earlier one and the MO user's useful answers there: What are the values of the derivative of Riemann's zeta function at the known non-trivial zeros? (which is not a ...
0
votes
1answer
292 views

Lower bounds for partial sums of multiplicative functions

The motivation for this enquiry is to understand something about the impact of multiplicativity for $f:\mathbb{N}\rightarrow\mathbb{C}$ on the conditional convergence of Dirichlet series ...
1
vote
0answers
214 views

A probabilistic approach of (a weaker form of) Goldbach's conjecture

Hello, this message follows on from About Goldbach's conjecture and aims at modelling the quantity $N_{2}(n)$ by a random variable. Let $n$ be a fixed natural number and let's define for every ...
21
votes
2answers
868 views

Drawing natural numbers without replacement.

Suppose we start with an initial probability distribution on $\mathbb{N}$ that gives positive probability to each $n$. Let's call this random variable $X_1$ so we have $P(X_1=n)=p_{1,n}>0$ for all ...
6
votes
0answers
519 views

Is there a probabilistic interpretation of Dedekind zeta functions?

Reading the interesting paper Honest Bernoulli excursions by Smith and Diaconis motivated the question whether probabilistic interpretations for general Dedekind zeta functions are known. In the ...
12
votes
4answers
980 views

What results would follow from or imply “randomness” of the primes?

This question on random versions of deterministic problems reminded me that many conditional results in number theory hold if the primes are in some sense random, and it is common knowledge that the ...
5
votes
2answers
402 views

Intrinsically measurable subsets of amenable semigroups.

This question is related to the one in http://mathoverflow.net/questions/65322/the-structure-of-certain-maximal-sets-of-means-into-amenable-semigroups. I open a different topic because they can be ...
3
votes
1answer
627 views

Special case of Duffin-Schaeffer conjecture

The Duffin-Schaeffer conjecture is an old conjecture in metric number theory which has withstood attempts to solve it for about 70 years. The statement can be found here: ...
0
votes
3answers
234 views

How can we pave the multiplicative semigroup $(\mathbb N,\cdot)$?

Let $(S,\cdot)$ be a semigroup and $W\subseteq S$ be a subset. Let me call $W$ "tile" if the following property is satisfied: there exist $s_1,...s_k\in S$ such that the sets $s_i\cdot W$ are pairwise ...
3
votes
1answer
618 views

Self Avoiding Walk Enumerations

Let $c(n)$ be the number of Self avoiding walks (SAW) of length $n$ on an infinite lattice $L$. Are there any known non-geometric interpretations of $c(n)$?. For example, is there a number theoretic ...
18
votes
3answers
765 views

Can Gauss sums derandomize any heuristic arguments?

I've always been fascinated by the fact that the classical Gauss sum has absolute value $\sqrt p$, which is exactly what we would expect if we were to interpret the Gauss sum as a random walk. In ...
51
votes
3answers
2k views

Perron number distribution

A Perron number is a real algebraic integer $\lambda$ that is larger than the absolute value of any of its Galois conjugates. The Perron-Frobenius theorem says that any non-negative integer matrix $M$ ...
0
votes
1answer
746 views

Generalizations of a product formula for the gamma function

Hello and Happy holidays. I am interested in generalizations of the following product formula for the gamma function $\Gamma(z)= \int_{0}^{\infty} t^{z-1}e^{-t}dt$ when $n \geq 2$: \begin{align} ...
0
votes
0answers
273 views

Estimating a multinomial sum

I have the following sum \begin{equation} \sum_{r_1=q+1}^{\tau}\dots\sum_{r_\lambda=q+1}^{\tau}{\tau\choose r_1,\dots,r_\lambda,\tau-r_1-\dots -r_\lambda} (\Lambda-\lambda)^{\tau-r_1-\dots-r_\lambda} ...
20
votes
2answers
1k views

Is there any sense in which Dirichlet density is “optimal?”

A philosopher asked me an interesting math question today! We know that there are sets S of integers which don't have a "natural" or "naive" density -- that is, the quantity (1/n)|S intersect [1..n]| ...
2
votes
7answers
1k views

How to tell if two random polynomials are identical

Let t be a positive real number. Let P(x) and Q(x) be two random polynomials with integer coefficients. If P(t) = Q(t), then what is the probability that P(x) is not identical to Q(x)? Will it make a ...
7
votes
3answers
479 views

Random linear recurrence relations

Problem I am interested in the random recurrence relation of the form $x_{n+1}=\alpha x_n \pm \beta x_{n-1}$ where $\alpha$, $\beta$ are known constants and the $\pm$ sign is chosen with equal ...
27
votes
3answers
2k views

Perron-Frobenius “inverse eigenvalue problem”

The Perron-Frobenius theorem says that the largest eigenvalue of a positive real matrix (all entries positive) is real. Moreover, that eigenvalue has a positive eigenvector, and it is the only ...
1
vote
0answers
186 views

What is the limiting distribution of local minima of n mod i, for i up to $\sqrt{n}$, as $n \rightarrow \infty$?

The sequence n mod i Consider the sequence n mod i for i=1...$\sqrt{n}$. If we draw the sequence as an xy-plot, we get a dense triangle (since n mod i < i). More precisely, the limiting density of ...
1
vote
2answers
657 views

Sum of digits iterated

Original version. I believe that it is an elementary question, already discussed somewhere. But I just have no idea of how to start it properly. Take a positive integer $n=n_1$ and compute its sum of ...
6
votes
1answer
453 views

distribution of degree of minimum polynomial for eigenvalues of random matrix with elements in finite field

This is an attempt to extend the current full fledged random matrix theory to fields of positive characteristics. So here is a possible setup for the problem: Let $A_{n,p}$ be an $n \times n$ matrix ...
7
votes
3answers
3k views

Is there any finitely-long sequence of digits which is not found in the digits of pi? [closed]

I know it's likely that, given a finite sequence of digits, one can find that sequence in the digits of pi, but is there a proof that this is possible for all finite sequences? Or is it just very ...
14
votes
1answer
492 views

What's the probability that k + n^2 is squarefree, for fixed k?

While playing around with this question (when is the sum of two squares squarefree?), from some experimental computations (and bolstered by the fact that the density of squarefree positive integers is ...
8
votes
2answers
576 views

Notions of “independent” and “uncorrelated” for subsets of the natural numbers

In probability/statistics, there is a notion of two things being "independent", which would basically mean that any information we can get about one thing has no effect on our (probabilistic) ...