**26**

votes

**0**answers

549 views

### Finding a path through real rooted polynomials

This is a lemma I wanted in order to solve Patrizio Neff's conjecture. It turned out to be the wrong way to think about it, but I am still curious if it is true.
Let $z^n+a_{n-1} z^{n-1} + \cdots + ...

**19**

votes

**0**answers

333 views

### Zero curves of Tutte Polynomials?

There is an extensive theory of the real and complex roots of the chromatic polynomial of a graph, a substantial fraction of this being due to the connections between the chromatic polynomial and a ...

**18**

votes

**0**answers

431 views

### Polynomials with roots in convex position

Let $\mathcal P_n$ denote the set of all monic polynomials of degree $n$ with real or complex coefficients such that $P\in\mathcal P_n$ if for all $k\in\lbrace 0,1,\dots,n-2\rbrace$ the $n-k$ roots of ...

**17**

votes

**0**answers

520 views

### What is the best probabilistic estimate from below for a random polynomial on an arc?

I'm currently involved in a small (but quite time consuming) project where we are trying to get some decent bound for the number $N(P)$ of real zeroes of a random polynomial $P(x)=\sum_{k=0}^n\xi_k x^...

**13**

votes

**0**answers

400 views

### Solving polynomial systems with homotopy. Where is the bottleneck?

I have a polynomial system with $n+k$ unknowns ($n+k$ can be greater than 8), that is known to have a limited number of isolated solutions.
I want to solve this system numerically, but if I plug it ...

**13**

votes

**0**answers

434 views

### Catalan objects associated to a univariate polynomial

Given a monic degree $n$ polynomial $f(z)$ with no double roots, and a phase $0\leq \theta < \pi$, there are natural constructions which associate to this data:
a noncrossing matching on $2n$ ...

**13**

votes

**0**answers

706 views

### Polynomials with presumably positive coefficients

After seeing that some positivity problems get their solutions on MO,
I am quite enthusiastic of posing my (and not only) problem of positive flavour.
In order to state it, I have to introduce the ...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

200 views

### Is $F_{f, c, \ell}$ a $G$-harmonic polynomial?

Let $G \subset \text{GL}_n(\mathbb{C})$ be a finite subgroup. The group $G$ acts naturally on $\mathbb{C}^1[\mathbb{C}^n]$ the space of degree $1$ homogeneous polynomials in $x_1, \dots, x_n$, i..e, ...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

307 views

### Aligned roots of irreducible polynomials

It is well known from this famous question that the roots of a random polynomial tend to be close to the unit circle. So I was wondering in a somewhat converse sense: for an irreducible polynomial, is ...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

500 views

### Why is a matrix pencil called a pencil?

I'm trying to understand the historical context behind the word pencil in matrix pencils, or pencil of curves so on.
I am aware that even Gantmacher 1959 has this terminology however I don't know ...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

350 views

### Descartes rule of signs for a noncommutative polynomial in matrix variables

Recently, while studying certain notions of "averaging" a set of input matrices, I obtained a nonlinear polynomial in matrix variables. A simple example is
\begin{equation*}
\mathcal{G}(X) := X^n - \...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

299 views

### Are the zeros of Tutte polynomials dense in $\mathbb C^2$?

For the chromatic polynomials of graphs we have two nice theorems which describe the behavior of their zeros: Thomassen proved that the set of real zeros of all chromatic polynomials is the union of $\...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

119 views

### GPS calculations under $L^p$ norms

GPS calculations require finding a sphere externally tangent to
four given spheres, an
Apollonian problem
in $\mathbb{R}^3$.
The center of that fifth sphere is one of the $16$ possible solutions to
...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

325 views

### Evaluating products of cyclotomic polynomials at roots of unity

Are there general non-trivial conditions on $p(\cdot)$ and $n$, where $p(\cdot)$ is a product of cyclotomic polynomials and $n$ is a positive integer, such that all the coefficients of $p(\cdot)$ are ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

325 views

### Do the coefficients of these irreducible polynomials always become periodic?

Fix $n\in\mathbb N$ and a starting polynomial (or seed) $p_n=a_0+a_1x+\dots+a_nx^n$ with $a_k\in\mathbb Z\ \forall k$ and $a_0a_n\ne0$.
Define $p_{n+1},p_{n+2},\dots$ recursively by $p_r = p_{r-1}+...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

610 views

### Is OEIS A007018 really a subsequence of squarefree numbers?

A comment in A007018 a(n) = a(n-1)^2 + a(n-1), a(0)=1 claims
Subsequence of squarefree numbers (A005117). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Nov 15 2004
Is it really so?
As far as I know, it is open problem ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

215 views

### Integrability property of polynomials in several variables

This might be very trivial, or not.
Let $p\colon\mathbb{R}^n\to \mathbb{R}$ be a polynomial of even degree, at most $n-2$. Assume that $p(x)\leq 0$ for any $x\in\mathbb{R}^n$. Assume that there ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

193 views

### Precise relationship between “finite” Fourier analysis and Galois theory in solving the cubic?

Suppose we want to solve$$x^3 - ax^2 + bx - c = 0.$$We know a priori that this can be factored as $(x - r_0)(x - r_1)(x - r_2)$; by Vieta's formulas, we know$$a = r_0 + r_1 + r_2,\quad b = r_0r_1 + ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

294 views

### Reciprocal polynomials with roots off the unit circle

A polynomial is called reciprocal if its coefficients read forwards are the same as those read backward - there is an obvious translation of reciprocal polynomials into cosine polynomials (since a ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

250 views

### Positivity of polynomial sequences via generating series

In this question I address
the problem of proving the nonnegativity of a numerical sequence
$a_0,a_1,a_2,\dots$ via generating series technique. In the notation
$A(x)=\sum_{n=0}^\infty a_nx^n\ge0$ ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

834 views

### Dissecting trapezoids into triangles of equal area

[Lightly edited for copy and proper formatting of mathematics. -- Pete L. Clark]
The Background: Let $T$ be a trapezoid. Sherman Stein, using valuation theory, showed that if $T$ is dissectible into ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

97 views

### Factorisation in $\mathbb{N}[X]$?

Do we know an efficient algorithm to factorise in $\mathbb{N}[X]$ ?
One way to do factorisation in $\mathbb{N}[X]$ is to use an algorithm to factorise in $\mathbb{Z}[X]$ and to combine some factor to ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

185 views

### Weyl Groups as Galois groups

I am looking for explicit examples (for all positive integers $n \ge 5$) of degree $2n$ even polynomials $f(x)=h(x^2)$ over the field $\mathbb{Q}$ of rational numbers such that the Galois groups of $...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

197 views

### On shifted symmetric power sums

The functions $p^*_k(x)=\sum_{i=1}^N ((x_i-i)^k-(-i)^k)$ are analogues of power sum symmetric functions, called shifted symmetric by Okounkov and Olshanski. Define $p^*_{(k_1,k_2,...)}=p^*_{k_1}p^*_{...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

114 views

### Order of zeros for sparse polynomials mod $p$

It is a fairly well known fact that sparse polynomials $f(x)$ cannot have large order zeros other than at $x=0$. If $f(x)=a_1x^{r_1}+\cdots+a_kx^{r_k}$ then at $c
\neq 0$, $f$ has a zero of order at ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

534 views

### How prove this polynomial inequality from a book

Question:
Let $$f(X)=(X-x_{1})(X-x_{2})\cdots (X-x_{n})$$ be an irreducible polynomial over the field of rational numbers,with integer coefficients and real zeros.
Prove that
$$\prod_{1\le ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

539 views

### Does anyone know this sequence of polynomials?

A referee on a paper of mine showed me the following recurrence for polynomials $P_{n,k}\in\mathbb Q[q,q^{-1}]$ for $n\geq 0$ and $0\leq k\leq n/2$.
\begin{align}
P_{0,0}&=1\\
\text{for $n\geq 1$}...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

687 views

### What is the relation between hypocycloids and ideals in polynomial rings as alluded to in Arnold's text on teaching mathematics?

While browsing through this site, I came upon the text of Arnold: "On teaching mathematics".
http://pauli.uni-muenster.de/~munsteg/arnold.html
containing the phrase
... it can be said that a ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

234 views

### Symmetric Polynomials generating squares

For some n>4, can one find two symmetric polynomials $S_1$ and $S_2$ in $\mathbb{Q}[x_1,...,x_n]$ such that
$S_1+x_1S_2$ is a square in $\mathbb{Q}[x_1,...,x_n]$?
I have such a construction for the ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

135 views

### Has anyone seen these binary trees (Catalan-type related to the Gegenbauer polynomials and Motzkin paths)?

The OEIS entry A121448 enumerates binary trees with $n$ edges and $k$ vertices with outdegree 1.
Has anyone seen these trees?
The o.g.f. for this entry, $G(x,t)$, is essentially a discriminant ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

127 views

### Does $\varphi: \mathbb{P}^{n} \to \mathbb{P}^{n}$ have periodic points missing the critical hypersurface?

I am trying to prove that if $\varphi: \mathbb{P}^{n} \to \mathbb{P}^{n}$ is an algebraic morphism of degree $d > 1$ (by which I mean $\varphi^{*}(\mathcal{O}(1)) = \mathcal{O}(d)$, so the ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

227 views

### Theorems proved using combinatorial nullstellensatz that have no other known proof

Alon's (or Alon and Tarsi's?) combinatorial nullstellensatz is a powerful algebraic tool with many applications in combinatorics and number theory. See this, this, this and this mathoverflow question. ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

101 views

### Is there a ``Ladner's Theorem" for the PH-vs-PSPACE scenario?

Like a statement of the kind, ``If the Polynomial Hierarchy (PH) $\neq$ PSPACE then there exists $L \in PSPACE \backslash PH$ which is not PSPACE-complete"?
Or is there something else that states ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

241 views

### Factors of the polynomial $X^n-a$

I am interested in the polynomial $X^n-a$ in $\mathbb{Q}[X]$, for some $a\in \mathbb{Q}^*$, and would like to know the irreducible factors of it. Is there something in the literature which gives a ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

474 views

### Getting a bound via polynomial equations

When studying the existence problem of power residue deference sets, I came across the following system of polynomial equations over $\mathbb{C}$,
\begin{cases}
&\sum\limits_{j=0}^{m-1}x_jx_{2k-j}=...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

157 views

### When is the Locus of Equi-modular points of two monic polynomials with integer coefficients contained in the unit disk?

If $\lambda_{1}(z)$ and $\lambda_{2}(z)$ are two monic polynomials (relatively prime) with integer coefficients and $$\Gamma=\lbrace z \rm{\ s.t.\ } |\lambda_{1}(z)|=|\lambda_{2}(z)|\rbrace,$$ when is ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

190 views

### Density of polynomials in $C^k(\overline\Omega)$

Let $\Omega$ be an open and bounded subset of $\mathbb{R}^2$ and let $C^k(\Omega)$, $1\leq k<\infty$, be the space of functions $f$ with continuous derivatives of order $\leq k$ in $\Omega$, ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

108 views

### About the properities of sum of powers of items in a polynomial

Given a polynomial $f_1=a_1x+a_2x^2+\cdots+a_{p-1}x^{p-1}\in\mathbb{Z}[x]/(x^{p}-1)$, with prime $p$, we may generate the other $p-1$ polynomials:
\begin{eqnarray*}
f_2&=&a_1^2x^2+\cdots+a_{p-...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

97 views

### Recursions which define polynomials?

Let $k$ be a positive integer and let
$$h(n,k,q)=\frac{1-(1+q^{k})q^{2k(n-1)+1}+q^{2}}{1-q^{2n-1}}h(n-1,k,q)-\frac{(1-q^{k(2n-3)})(1-q^{2k(n-1)})q^2}{(1-q^{2n-1})(1-q^{2n-3})}h(n-2,k,q)$$
with ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

191 views

### Criteria for irreducibility using the location of complex roots

I would like to see criteria for the irreducibility of a polynomial over $\mathbb{Z}$ based (mainly) on the location of the roots of the polynomial in the complex plane. An example of such a criterion ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

427 views

### Find a polynomial not in any ideal generated by polynomials of total degree $o(n)$

Is there an explicit nontrivial (= not a constant) polynomial $p \in \mathbb{C}[x_1, \ldots, x_n]$ such that, for any ideal $I \not= \mathbb{C}[x_1, \ldots, x_n]$ generated by $f_1, f_2, \ldots, f_m$ ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

181 views

### Find a symmetric polynomial with a projection divisible by a known polynomial

Consider the polynomial $Q$, a homogeneous quartic in seven variables:
$$ Q(R, s_1, s_2, s_3, s_4, d_1, d_2) = \\
(d_1^2-(R+s_1+s_2-s_3-s_4)(R+s_1-s_2+s_3+s_4))\\(d_1^2-(R-s_1-s_2-s_3-s_4)(R-s_1+s_2+...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

66 views

### Bounding volume of cell in complement of zero set

I am given an integer polynomial $f \in \mathbb{Z}[X_1, \ldots, X_n]$ of bounded degree and bounded coefficient size. The polynomial's zero set partitions $\mathbb{R}^n$ into cells. What I am looking ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

92 views

### Irreducibility testing and factoring

It is a result of van Hoeij and Novicin (Algorithmica, 2012) that factoring polynomials of degree $d$ over the integers can be done in $O(d^6 + d^4 \log^2 A)$ time, where $A$ is the coefficient bound. ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

312 views

### Polynomials and divided differences

I would greatly appreciate any hint for proving the following.
Question: Let $f:[0, 1] \to {\bf R}$. Can it be proved that if $[0, 1/(N+m),\dots, (N+m)/(N+m) ; f ]=0$ for all $m=1,2, 3,\dots$, then $...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

403 views

### How many values a polynomial map misses?

Let $F$ be a field. For a uni-variate polynomial $f(x)$ over $F$,let $M_f(F)$ denote the number of values that $f$ misses, that is, the cardinality of the subset $F - f(F)$ in $F$. Assume that $f$ is ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

392 views

### “Consecutive” irreducible polynomials

If $P\in {\mathbb Z}[X]$ is a polynomial of degree $2$, then
it is easy to see that for any integer $m$, at least one of the polynomials
$P-(m+1),P-(m+2),P-(m+3),P-(m+4)$ is irreducible in ${\mathbb Z}...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

217 views

### Involution on sextic polynomials?

The strangeness of $Aut(S_{6})$ suggests the following question:
Let $a_{1}, a_{2}, a_{3}, a_{4}, a_{5}, a_{6}$ be the zeros of a 6th degree polynomial $P$ over a field $F$.
Let $Q(x_{1},x_{2},x_{3},...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

224 views

### Polynomial upper approximation with respect to the Gaussian measure

Let $f = 1_{[a,+\infty)}$ be the indicator function of a half-line. Does there exist a sequence $(P_n)$ of polynomials such that $f(x) \leq P_n(x)$ for every real $x$ and
$$ \lim_{n\to \infty} \int_{\...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

112 views

### When is a given polynomial a square of another polynomial?

I meet a problem in which I hope to show a special polynomial is not a square of another polynomial. More precisely, let's consider the polynomial
$f(x):= 1-x+2bx^n-2bx^{n+1}-b^2x^{2n-1}+2b^2x^{2n}-b^...