# Tagged Questions

Questions in which polynomials (single or several variables) play a key role. It is typically important that this tag is combined with other tags; polynomials appear in very different contexts. Please, use at least one of the top-level tags, such as nt.number-theory, co.combinatorics, ac.commutative-...

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### Solving polynomial systems with homotopy. Where is the bottleneck?

I have a polynomial system with $n+k$ unknowns ($n+k$ can be greater than 8), that is known to have a limited number of isolated solutions. I want to solve this system numerically, but if I plug it ...
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### Catalan objects associated to a univariate polynomial

Given a monic degree $n$ polynomial $f(z)$ with no double roots, and a phase $0\leq \theta < \pi$, there are natural constructions which associate to this data: a noncrossing matching on $2n$ ...
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### Polynomials with presumably positive coefficients

After seeing that some positivity problems get their solutions on MO, I am quite enthusiastic of posing my (and not only) problem of positive flavour. In order to state it, I have to introduce the ...
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### Is $F_{f, c, \ell}$ a $G$-harmonic polynomial?

Let $G \subset \text{GL}_n(\mathbb{C})$ be a finite subgroup. The group $G$ acts naturally on $\mathbb{C}^1[\mathbb{C}^n]$ the space of degree $1$ homogeneous polynomials in $x_1, \dots, x_n$, i..e, ...
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### Aligned roots of irreducible polynomials

It is well known from this famous question that the roots of a random polynomial tend to be close to the unit circle. So I was wondering in a somewhat converse sense: for an irreducible polynomial, is ...
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### Why is a matrix pencil called a pencil?

I'm trying to understand the historical context behind the word pencil in matrix pencils, or pencil of curves so on. I am aware that even Gantmacher 1959 has this terminology however I don't know ...
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### Descartes rule of signs for a noncommutative polynomial in matrix variables

Recently, while studying certain notions of "averaging" a set of input matrices, I obtained a nonlinear polynomial in matrix variables. A simple example is \begin{equation*} \mathcal{G}(X) := X^n - \...
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### Is OEIS A007018 really a subsequence of squarefree numbers?

A comment in A007018 a(n) = a(n-1)^2 + a(n-1), a(0)=1 claims Subsequence of squarefree numbers (A005117). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Nov 15 2004 Is it really so? As far as I know, it is open problem ...
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### Integrability property of polynomials in several variables

This might be very trivial, or not. Let $p\colon\mathbb{R}^n\to \mathbb{R}$ be a polynomial of even degree, at most $n-2$. Assume that $p(x)\leq 0$ for any $x\in\mathbb{R}^n$. Assume that there ...
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### Does anyone know this sequence of polynomials?

A referee on a paper of mine showed me the following recurrence for polynomials $P_{n,k}\in\mathbb Q[q,q^{-1}]$ for $n\geq 0$ and $0\leq k\leq n/2$. \begin{align} P_{0,0}&=1\\ \text{for $n\geq 1$}...
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### What is the relation between hypocycloids and ideals in polynomial rings as alluded to in Arnold's text on teaching mathematics?

While browsing through this site, I came upon the text of Arnold: "On teaching mathematics". http://pauli.uni-muenster.de/~munsteg/arnold.html containing the phrase ... it can be said that a ...
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### Symmetric Polynomials generating squares

For some n>4, can one find two symmetric polynomials $S_1$ and $S_2$ in $\mathbb{Q}[x_1,...,x_n]$ such that $S_1+x_1S_2$ is a square in $\mathbb{Q}[x_1,...,x_n]$? I have such a construction for the ...
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### Has anyone seen these binary trees (Catalan-type related to the Gegenbauer polynomials and Motzkin paths)?

The OEIS entry A121448 enumerates binary trees with $n$ edges and $k$ vertices with outdegree 1. Has anyone seen these trees? The o.g.f. for this entry, $G(x,t)$, is essentially a discriminant ...
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### Does $\varphi: \mathbb{P}^{n} \to \mathbb{P}^{n}$ have periodic points missing the critical hypersurface?

I am trying to prove that if $\varphi: \mathbb{P}^{n} \to \mathbb{P}^{n}$ is an algebraic morphism of degree $d > 1$ (by which I mean $\varphi^{*}(\mathcal{O}(1)) = \mathcal{O}(d)$, so the ...
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### Theorems proved using combinatorial nullstellensatz that have no other known proof

Alon's (or Alon and Tarsi's?) combinatorial nullstellensatz is a powerful algebraic tool with many applications in combinatorics and number theory. See this, this, this and this mathoverflow question. ...
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### Is there a Ladner's Theorem" for the PH-vs-PSPACE scenario?

Like a statement of the kind, If the Polynomial Hierarchy (PH) $\neq$ PSPACE then there exists $L \in PSPACE \backslash PH$ which is not PSPACE-complete"? Or is there something else that states ...
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### Factors of the polynomial $X^n-a$

I am interested in the polynomial $X^n-a$ in $\mathbb{Q}[X]$, for some $a\in \mathbb{Q}^*$, and would like to know the irreducible factors of it. Is there something in the literature which gives a ...
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### Getting a bound via polynomial equations

When studying the existence problem of power residue deference sets, I came across the following system of polynomial equations over $\mathbb{C}$, \begin{cases} &\sum\limits_{j=0}^{m-1}x_jx_{2k-j}=...
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### When is the Locus of Equi-modular points of two monic polynomials with integer coefficients contained in the unit disk?

If $\lambda_{1}(z)$ and $\lambda_{2}(z)$ are two monic polynomials (relatively prime) with integer coefficients and $$\Gamma=\lbrace z \rm{\ s.t.\ } |\lambda_{1}(z)|=|\lambda_{2}(z)|\rbrace,$$ when is ...
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### Density of polynomials in $C^k(\overline\Omega)$

Let $\Omega$ be an open and bounded subset of $\mathbb{R}^2$ and let $C^k(\Omega)$, $1\leq k<\infty$, be the space of functions $f$ with continuous derivatives of order $\leq k$ in $\Omega$, ...
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### About the properities of sum of powers of items in a polynomial

Given a polynomial $f_1=a_1x+a_2x^2+\cdots+a_{p-1}x^{p-1}\in\mathbb{Z}[x]/(x^{p}-1)$, with prime $p$, we may generate the other $p-1$ polynomials: \begin{eqnarray*} f_2&=&a_1^2x^2+\cdots+a_{p-...
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### Recursions which define polynomials?

Let $k$ be a positive integer and let $$h(n,k,q)=\frac{1-(1+q^{k})q^{2k(n-1)+1}+q^{2}}{1-q^{2n-1}}h(n-1,k,q)-\frac{(1-q^{k(2n-3)})(1-q^{2k(n-1)})q^2}{(1-q^{2n-1})(1-q^{2n-3})}h(n-2,k,q)$$ with ...
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### Criteria for irreducibility using the location of complex roots

I would like to see criteria for the irreducibility of a polynomial over $\mathbb{Z}$ based (mainly) on the location of the roots of the polynomial in the complex plane. An example of such a criterion ...
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### Find a polynomial not in any ideal generated by polynomials of total degree $o(n)$

Is there an explicit nontrivial (= not a constant) polynomial $p \in \mathbb{C}[x_1, \ldots, x_n]$ such that, for any ideal $I \not= \mathbb{C}[x_1, \ldots, x_n]$ generated by $f_1, f_2, \ldots, f_m$ ...