**244**

votes

**15**answers

34k views

### Why do roots of polynomials tend to have absolute value close to 1?

While playing around with Mathematica I noticed that most polynomials with real coefficients seem to have most complex zeroes very near the unit circle. For instance, if we plot all the roots of a ...

**34**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### A question on maps from $\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$ to itself

Let $p\geq 3$ be a prime number, and let $u:\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}\to \mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$ be a map such that, for all $l\in \mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$,$l\neq 0$, the map $k\mapsto u(k+l)-u(k)$ is a ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Riemann zeta function at positive integers and an Appell sequence of polynomials related to fractional calculus

I was exploring some raising and lowering operators related to an infinitesimal generator for fractional integro-derivatives and found an Appell sequence of polynomials, i.e., an infinite sequence of ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

292 views

### Can one estimate the distribution of eigenvalues of a matrix by its Cauchy/Stieltje transform?

Given a real symmetric $n$ dimensional matrix $A$, with eigenvalues $\lambda_i$ I am defining its Cauchy transform as the function, $f_A(z) = \sum_i \frac{1}{z-\lambda_i}\,$
Is there any information ...

**36**

votes

**9**answers

9k views

### Irreducibility of polynomials in two variables

Let $k$ be a field. I am interested in sufficient criteria for $f \in k[x,y]$ to be irreducible. An example is Theorem A of this paper.
Does anyone know of similar results in the same vein? How about ...

**62**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### Roots of truncations of e^x - 1

During a talk I was at today, the speaker mentioned that if you truncate the Taylor series for $e^x - 1$, you'll get lots of roots with nonzero real part, even though the full Taylor series only has ...

**43**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### How to recognise that the polynomial method might work

A couple of days ago I was at a nice seminar given by Christian Reiher, during which he told us about a short proof of the following special case of a theorem of Olson.
Theorem. Let ...

**14**

votes

**5**answers

9k views

### Criteria to determine whether a real-coefficient polynomial has real root?

Given a polynomial equation $x^n+a_{n-1}x^{n-1}+\cdots+a_1x+a_0=0$, where $n$ is even and all the coefficients $a_i$ are real, what is the best way to determine whether it has a real root or not?
I ...

**21**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Distribution of roots of complex polynomials

I generated random quadratic and cubic polynomials with coefficients in $\mathbb{C}$
uniformly distributed in the unit disk $|z| \le 1$. The distribution of the roots of 10000
of these polynomials are ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Cycling through the Zeta Garden: Zeta functions for graphs, cycle index polynomials, and determinants

Zeta functions abound in mathematics. Audrey Terras describes in Zeta Functions and Chaos three zeta functions--the zeta fct. of a projective non-singular algebraic variety; the Artin-Mazur zeta ...

**23**

votes

**1**answer

465 views

### Hilbert's Theorem on $L_2$ norm of polynomials in $\mathbb{Z}[X]$ - Explicit construction and a converse?

Consider the set of polynomials with real coefficients as a vector space with the following inner-product: $\langle f, g \rangle = \int_{a}^{b} f(x)g(x) dx$.
Hilbert showed, in a paper from 1894, ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

768 views

### About irreducible trinomials

This question was inspired by this one. For every $n>m>0$ consider the polynomial $p_{m,n}=x^n-x^m-1$.
For which $m,n$ is $p_{m,n}$ irreducible over $\mathbb Q$?
In particular, if $m$ is ...

**1**

vote

**4**answers

1k views

### A proof for a statement about polynomial automorphism

I already got a proof for the fact that if a polynomial map is surjective then it is also injective. However, I used the invariant dimension of a ring and I want a simpler proof. Bravo for any try. ...

**7**

votes

**7**answers

973 views

### Old question of Serre on discriminants of a sequence of polynomials

Let $P_n(t)$ be polynomials with integer coefficients with $d_n = \deg(P_n(t))$ going to infinity when $n$ goes to infinity
and with nonzero discriminants $disc(P_n(t)) \neq 0$.
Question: Is
$$
...

**5**

votes

**6**answers

560 views

### Getting a bound on the coefficients of the factor polynomial

Suppose $f(x):=a_0+a_1x+\cdots+a_nx^n$ is a polynomial in $\mathbb{Z}[x]$ and $|a_i|\leq M$ for each $i=0,\ldots ,n.$ Now suppose $g(x)$ is a factor of $f(x)$ in $\mathbb{Z}[x]$, then is it possible ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

570 views

### Why are all these families of polynomials finally log-concave?

This started when I was examining certain families of unimodal polynomials, i.e. $\sum_{k=0}^n a_kx^k$ where $a_0\le a_1\le\cdots \le a_k\ge\cdots \ge a_n$.
(Notation: in the following, the $a_k$ ...

**11**

votes

**4**answers

597 views

### Finite interpolation by a nondecreasing polynomial

Let $x_1 < x_2 < \ldots < x_n$ and $y_1 < y_2 < \ldots < y_n$ be two sequences
of $n$ real numbers. It is well known that there are polynomials that "interpolate"
in that ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

966 views

### When does a rational function have infinitely many integer values for integer inputs?

Consider rational functions $F(x)=P(x)/Q(x)$ with $P(x),Q(x) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$. I'd like to know when I can expect $F(k) \in \mathbb{Z}$ for infinitely many positive integers $k$. Of course this ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

324 views

### When is a cubic polynomial a cube? [closed]

I've been researching cubes and I'm trying to solve this Diophantine equation over the integers.
$$ax^3 + bx^2 + cx + d = y^3$$where a, b, c, d are parameters for a given $n$. For example, for $n = ...

**64**

votes

**11**answers

3k views

### Can a non-surjective polynomial map from an infinite field to itself miss only finitely many points?

Is there an infinite field $k$ together with a polynomial $f \in k[x]$ such that the associated map $f \colon k \to k$ is not surjective but misses only finitely many elements in $k$ (i.e. only ...

**41**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### Degree of sum of algebraic numbers

This is an elementary question (coming from an undergraduate student) about algebraic numbers, to which I don't have a complete answer.
Let $a$ and $b$ be algebraic numbers, with respective degrees ...

**27**

votes

**12**answers

4k views

### What Are Some Naturally-Occurring High-Degree Polynomials?

To construct J. H. Conway's look-and-say sequence, begin by putting down a 1 as the first entry. The other entries are found by saying the previous entry aloud, and writing what you hear.
...

**31**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### Integers not represented by $ 2 x^2 + x y + 3 y^2 + z^3 - z $

EDIT, 9 March 2014: when I asked this in 2010, I did not have the courage of my convictions, and so did not ask for an if and only if proof, as Kevin Buzzard quite properly pointed out. Such problems ...

**25**

votes

**7**answers

2k views

### When is a monic integer polynomial the characteristic polynomial of a non-negative integer matrix?

Suppose $P(x)$ is a monic integer polynomial with roots $r_1, ... r_n$ such that $p_k = r_1^k + ... + r_n^k$ is a non-negative integer for all positive integers $k$. Is $P(x)$ necessarily the ...

**35**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### The sum of squared logarithms conjecture

I am searching for the first proof of (or counterexample to) the following conjecture.
(The sum of squared logarithms conjecture)
For all natural numbers $n$ and positive numbers $x_1,x_2, \ldots , ...

**28**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Zeros of polynomials with real positive coefficients

The following problem arose in collaborative work with Subhro Ghosh:
Question: To any polynomial $P_n(z)=\sum_{i=0}^n a_i z^i =a_n \prod_{i=1}^n(z-z_i)$, attach the empirical measure of zeros
...

**28**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### The resultant and the ideal generated by two polynomials in $\mathbb{Z}[x]$

I was asked the following question by a colleague and was embarrassed not to know the answer.
Let $f(x), g(x) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ with no root in common. Let $I = (f(x),g(x))\cap \mathbb{Z}$, that is, ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Using higher-order Bring radicals to solve arbitrary polynomials

It is well known that there is no general formula for the solution of the quintic. Of course, what this really means is that there is no general formula that only involves addition, subtraction, ...

**10**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Expressing power sum symmetric polynomials in terms of lower degree power sums

Is there an explicit formula expressing the power sum symmetric polynomials
$$p_k(x_1,\ldots,x_N)=\sum\nolimits_{i=1}^N x_i^k = x_1^k+\cdots+x_N^k$$
of degree $k$ in $N < k$ variables entirely ...

**6**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Application of polynomials with non-negative coefficients

Question 1: Are there any deeper applications (in any field of mathematics) of polynomials (with possibly more than one variable) over the real numbers whose coefficients are non-negative? So far I ...

**22**

votes

**6**answers

1k views

### Relations between sums of powers

This question is so naive that it could have been asked before on this site. If so, I'll delete it.
Among beautiful formula, I like a lot this one:
$$\left(\sum_{n=1}^Nn\right)^2=\sum_{n=1}^Nn^3.$$
...

**21**

votes

**0**answers

432 views

### Finding a path through real rooted polynomials

This is a lemma I wanted in order to solve Patrizio Neff's conjecture. It turned out to be the wrong way to think about it, but I am still curious if it is true.
Let $z^n+a_{n-1} z^{n-1} + \cdots + ...

**12**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Truncated Exponential Series Modulo $p$: Deeper meaning for a Putnam Question.

Apparently B6 of the Putnam this year asked:
Suppose $p$ is an odd prime. Prove that for $n\in \{0,1,2...p-1\}$, at least $\frac{p+1}{2}$ of the numbers $\sum^{p-1}_{k=0} k! n^{k}$ are not ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### Conditions for smooth dependence of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a matrix on a set of parameters

Let $A\in\mathcal M_n$ be an $n\times n$ real [symmetric] matrix which depends smoothly on a [finite] set of parameters, $A=A(\xi_1,\ldots,\xi_k)$. We can view it as a smooth function $A:\mathbb ...

**20**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Freeness of a Z[x]-module

Definition: Call a mapping $f: \mathbb{Z} \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}$
a generalized polynomial if for any distinct integers $m$ and $n$
we have $(m - n)|(f(m)-f(n))$.
It is easy to check that polynomial ...

**17**

votes

**2**answers

543 views

### Stability of real polynomials with positive coefficients

Say that a polynomial in an indeterminate $x$ with real coefficients of degree $d$ has positive coefficients if each of the coefficients of $x^d,\ldots,x^1,x^0$ is (strictly) positive.
For $f$ a ...

**12**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### What's an example of a transcendental power series?

Let $k$ be a field. What is an explicit power series $f \in k[[t]]$ that is transcendental over $k[t]$?
I am looking for elementary example (so there should be a proof of transcendence that does ...

**11**

votes

**3**answers

834 views

### Probability of coprime polynomials

Given positive integer $N$, we choose $m_1, m_2, n_1, n_2$ independently and with equal probabilities from $\{0,1,\ldots,N\}$, and let
$f_1 = x^{m_1} + (1+x)^{n_1}$ and $f_2 = x^{m_2} + (1+x)^{n_2}$ ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

673 views

### The closures in $C^0(\mathbb{R}, \mathbb{R})$ of the set of integer valued polynomials, resp, of polynomials with integer coefficients

This is a follow up of an interesting recent question on the topic. The answer given there by fedia shows that the matter is rich and complicated, and I can't resist to submit here a further question.
...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

369 views

### “Consecutive” irreducible polynomials

If $P\in {\mathbb Z}[X]$ is a polynomial of degree $2$, then
it is easy to see that for any integer $m$, at least one of the polynomials
$P-(m+1),P-(m+2),P-(m+3),P-(m+4)$ is irreducible in ${\mathbb ...

**3**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Minimizing the modulus of a polynomial around a circle

I'm probably missing something elementary here, but I guess the only way to be sure is to ask here.
Now, I have encountered a situation where given an nth-degree polynomial $p_n(z)$ with complex ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Giant Rat of Sumatra singularity

I would be grateful for explanations of the issues raised in any
of these three questions, or pointers to the relevant literature
(now updated with answers):
How did a particular singularity come ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

653 views

### Can roots of any polynomial be expressed using Eulerian function?

I encountered an interesting function which is called "Eulerian" by the Wolfram's MathWorld:
$$\phi(q)=\prod_{k=1}^{\infty} (1-q^{k})$$
It is interesting because it is claimed that roots of any ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

613 views

### Counterexample to Proposition of Granville related to abc conjecture

Looks like there is counterexample to Proposition related to
abc conjecture. Confusion is likely.
From RATIONAL AND INTEGRAL POINTS ON QUADRATIC TWISTS OF A GIVEN HYPERELLIPTIC CURVE, Andrew ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Maximal ideals in a polynomial ring over the real numbers.

Let $\mathbf{R}$ be the field of real numbers. What are the generators of the maximal ideals of the polynomial ring $\mathbf{R}[x_1, ... , x_n]$? If instead of $\mathbf{R}$ one considers the field ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

448 views

### Is there an integer a such that f(X)+a is irreducible in Z[X]?

Let $f\in\mathbb{Z}[X]$ be an irreducible polynomial. Is there an integer $a\neq 0$ such that $f(X)+a$ is also irreducible in $\mathbb{Z}[X]$?
Can this be also extended to $\mathbb{Q}[X]$?

**2**

votes

**0**answers

268 views

### Enumerating certain types of permutation polynomials

Given a prime power $q$, I would like to enumerate (preferably up to isomorphism*) all the permutation polynomials $f(x)$ on $K = GF(q^3)$ satisfying the following conditions:
$f(ax) = af(x)$ for ...

**28**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Are surjectivity and injectivity of polynomial functions from $\mathbb{Q}^n$ to $\mathbb{Q}$ algorithmically decidable?

Is there an algorithm which, given a polynomial $f \in \mathbb{Q}[x_1, \dots, x_n]$,
decides whether the mapping $f: \mathbb{Q}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{Q}$ is surjective,
respectively, injective? --
And ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

299 views

### Evaluating products of cyclotomic polynomials at roots of unity

Are there general non-trivial conditions on $p(\cdot)$ and $n$, where $p(\cdot)$ is a product of cyclotomic polynomials and $n$ is a positive integer, such that all the coefficients of $p(\cdot)$ are ...

**10**

votes

**3**answers

459 views

### Effective algorithm to test positivity

Let $f(x_1,\ldots, x_n)$ be a real polynomial in several variables. Is there an effective algorithm to test whether $f$ is positive (or nonnegative) on the whole of ${\mathbb{R}}^n$?