Questions in which polynomials (single or several variables) play a key role. It is typically important that this tag is combined with other tags; polynomials appear in very different contexts. Please, use at least one of the top-level tags, such as nt.number-theory, co.combinatorics, ...

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13
votes
3answers
1k views

Periodic orbits and polynomials

There are two simple and classic enumerations that still I'm puzzled about. Let's start with a simple counting problem from a well-known dynamical system. fact 1 Consider the "tent map" ...
7
votes
2answers
304 views

Link between the hairy ball theorem and the fundamental theorem of algebra

I read in the book "Concepts of modern mathematics" by Ian Stewart that it was possible to proof the fundamental theorem of algebra using the hairy ball theorem (complete reference to the page is in ...
4
votes
1answer
160 views

Polynomial roots in the ring extension

Let $R$ be a ring with identity (not necessarily commutative) and $R[x]$ be a ring of polynomials over $R$. We say that a ring $S$ is an extension of $R$ if there is a subring $\tilde{R}$ in $S$ ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Lowest upper bound of resultant [on hold]

Given two polynomials $f(x)=X^N+1$ and $g(x)= \sum_{i=0}^{N-1} s_i x^i$, where $s_i$'s are $\eta$-bit integers, let $res=resultant(f(x),g(x))$. What is the upper bound of $\log_2 res$?. Below my ...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

Is the restriction of a graded automorphism of a polynomial ring to a polynomial subring linearizeable?

Let $k$ be a field and let $A=k[x_1,\dots,x_n]$ be a polynomial algebra over $k$, and let $B\subset A$ be a graded subalgebra that is itself a polynomial ring, i.e. $B=k[f_1,\dots,f_m]$ for some ...
3
votes
1answer
79 views

Sections of a linear system splitting as a product of degree one polynomials

Let $X\subset\mathbb{P}^n$ be a hypersurface of degree $d$ and with multiplicities $m_1,...,m_k$ at $p_1,...,p_k\in\mathbb{P}^n$ general points. Let $S\subseteq |\mathcal{O}_{\mathbb{P}^n}(d)|$ be ...
3
votes
0answers
96 views

When a ring is a polynomial ring?

In the paper (2.11) the authors show that if $k^*$ is a separable algebraic extension of $k$ and $x_1,x_2, \ldots, x_n$ are indeterminates over $k^*$ and a normal one dimensional ring $A$ with $k ...
1
vote
0answers
57 views

Multimodal property of polynomial logistic distribution

Let $P(x)$ be a polynomial (of an odd degree $n$) strictly increasing on $(-\infty, +\infty).$ Then $F(x)=\displaystyle \frac{1}{1+\exp\{-P(x)\}}$ is a distribution function of a polynomial logistic ...
-6
votes
0answers
35 views

Algebra question [closed]

An investor started out with a certain amount of money. He invested a quarter of the amount in portfolio A and the rest in portfolio B. At the end of the investment period, portfolio A had a gain of ...
5
votes
0answers
66 views

Result of Larsen and Lunts on rationality of power series with coefficients in a free abelian group

Let $G$ be a free abelian group (not necessarily finitely-generated) and $F$ be the fraction field of the group ring of $G$. Let $\Theta$ be the set of power series in $F[[t]]$ such that each nonzero ...
1
vote
1answer
88 views

Why polynomial $\psi^\top(t) A^{-1} \psi(t)$ attains maximum on $[-1, 1]$ at $t = \pm 1$, where $\psi_k(t) = t^k$?

Problem. Let $\psi(t) = (1, t, t^2, \ldots, t^{p-1})^\top$ - a polynomial basis. Suppose there is a matrix $$ A = \int_{-1}^1 \psi(t) \psi^\top(t) dt, \ \text{i.e. } \ A_{ij} = [2 \, | \, i+j] ...
5
votes
2answers
161 views

Mahler measure of a totally positive, expanding algebraic integer

Consider a degree-$d$ algebraic integer $\alpha$ all of whose conjugates (including itself) are real numbers greater than 1. Its Mahler measure $M(\alpha)$ is simply equal to the norm $N(\alpha)$. ...
6
votes
1answer
338 views

Injectivity of a multivariate homogeneous polynomial mapping

Consider the mapping $$ \Psi: \mathbb R^2 \to \mathbb R^5, \\ \Psi(x) = \begin{pmatrix} x_1 \\ x_2 \\ x_1^2 \\ x_1 x_2 \\ x_2^2 \end{pmatrix}.$$ Which are the matrices $A \in \mathbb R^{m \times 5}$ ...
1
vote
3answers
710 views

Detecting if a polynomial is a Pfaffian

Given an explicit polynomial, is there any kind of trick/algorithm to check whether it is a pfaffian of a matrix with linear entries? The pfaffian can be defined as $\sqrt{{\rm det}(A) } $ when $A$ ...
8
votes
1answer
570 views

Sort-of Converse of Kolmogorov Zero-One Theorem

Let $(\Omega, \mathscr F, \mathbb P)$ be a probability space. The Kolmogorov Zero-One Theorem states that Suppose we have independent random variables $X_1, X_2, ...$. Then $\forall \ A \in ...
5
votes
4answers
378 views

How do the roots of a polynomial change when another polynomial is added?

I need to obtain an analytical solution to an equation of the following form: $$ (x-a)(x-b)(x-c)=d(x-e)(x-f), $$ where $a$, $b$, $c$, $d$, $e$, and $f$ are known numbers and $x$ is the variable. Of ...
3
votes
0answers
114 views

Average nastiness of a Newton polytope

Given a Newton polytope $P$ inside the $d$-scaled simplex ( i.e $\alpha \in P \implies | \alpha |=d $ ), then we define the following quantity: $$ P(x)= \left( \sum_{\alpha \in P} ...
12
votes
2answers
942 views

About irreducible trinomials

This question was inspired by this one. For every $n>m>0$ consider the polynomial $p_{m,n}=x^n-x^m-1$. For which $m,n$ is $p_{m,n}$ irreducible over $\mathbb Q$? In particular, if $m$ is ...
3
votes
0answers
153 views

Determinant of a certain Vandermonde matrix

Is there a closed form expression for the determinant of the $n\times n$ Vandermonde-type matrix $$A = \left(\begin{array}{} 1&g_1 & x_1&g_1 x_1 & x_1^2&g_1 x_1^2 & \cdots ...
3
votes
1answer
115 views

How to embed $S^2\mathbb{C}^2$ into $S^2S^3\mathbb{C}^2$ and get the ideal of the twisted cubic?

Let $X:=x^3$, $Y:=x^2y$, $Z:=xy^2$ and $W:=y^3$ be the 4 independent generators of $S^3\mathbb{C}^2$, and observe that the kernel of the natural epimorphism (total symmetrisation) $$ ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Why $f_1,f_2,f_3$ don't have a common factor? [migrated]

Let $p(x,y)$ and $q(x,y)$ are polynomials in $x,y\in \mathbb{R}$. ($p,q\ne0$) $p$ and $q$ are coprime to each other ,($\frac{{\partial p}}{{\partial x}}=p_x$,$\frac{{\partial p}}{{\partial y}}=p_y$) ...
4
votes
1answer
177 views

minimal polynomial for a graph

I wonder if there is any result relating the degree $d$ of the minimal polynomial of a directed finite graph to any of its topological features - such as its diameter, or any other similar 'natural' ...
1
vote
0answers
108 views

Values of Bernoulli polynomials at roots of unity

I am wondering if there are any nice results on the values of Bernoulli polynomials at roots of unity, besides those at 1 or -1.
-2
votes
0answers
37 views

Is it true that; $\frac{{\partial f}}{{\partial x}}$ and $\frac{{\partial f}}{{\partial y}}$ don't have a common factor? [migrated]

Let $f(x,y) = ({x^2} + {y^2})p{(x,y)^2} - q{(x,y)^2}$ and where $p(x, y)$ and $q(x, y)$ are real polynomials. Is it true that; $\frac{{\partial f}}{{\partial x}}$ and $\frac{{\partial f}}{{\partial ...
11
votes
2answers
375 views

regular polygon question

Let $a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_n$ be distinct points on the complex plane $\mathbb{C}$ and $L$ be a circle in $\mathbb{C}$ such that $$f(z):=\sum_{i=1}^n|z-a_i|^{2n-2}$$ is constant on $L.$ Could somebody ...
3
votes
1answer
187 views

system of complex equations

I am working on a system of complex equations The question is the following: Let $a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_N\in \mathbb{C}$ such that $$\sum_{j=1}^N \sum_{q=0}^{N-1-k} {N-1 \choose q} {N-1 \choose k+q} ...
4
votes
0answers
97 views

Christoffel-Darboux type identity

The classical Christoffel-Darboux identity for Hermite polynomials reads $$\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{H_k(x)H_k(y)}{2^k k!}=\frac{1}{2^{n+1} n!}\frac{H_{n+1}(x)H_n(y)-H_n(x)H_{n+1}(y)}{x-y}.$$ I am ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Comparing product of positive affine functions over integers

Problem Let $f_i: \mathbb Z^n \mapsto \mathbb Z$ and $g_i: \mathbb Z^n \mapsto \mathbb Z$ affine functions and $\mathcal D \subseteq \mathbb Z^n$ a set on which they are all positive. Let $P$ and $Q$ ...
5
votes
2answers
153 views

$L^{\infty}$ polynomial approximation

In short: For a given smooth or continuous function, how can we obtain the best $L^{\infty }$ approximating polynomial? Jackson (1911) proved that there is a best approximating polynomial in the ...
19
votes
1answer
635 views

Why can the general quintic be transformed to $w^5-5\beta w^3+10\beta^2w-\beta^2 = 0$?

The quintic can be transformed to the one-parameter Brioschi quintic, $$w^5-10\alpha w^3+45\alpha^2w-\alpha^2 = 0\tag1$$ This form is well-known for its connection to the symmetries of the ...
3
votes
1answer
127 views

Non-zero coefficients of primitive polynomials

Let $R$ be the finite field with $q$ elements, and let $m,n\in \mathbb{N}$ be positive integers $\geq 2$. I want to prove that there exists a primitive polynomial $$F(x) = ...
8
votes
0answers
535 views

Does anyone know this sequence of polynomials?

A referee on a paper of mine showed me the following recurrence for polynomials $P_{n,k}\in\mathbb Q[q,q^{-1}]$ for $n\geq 0$ and $0\leq k\leq n/2$. \begin{align} P_{0,0}&=1\\ \text{for $n\geq ...
3
votes
0answers
95 views

An operator derived from the divided difference operator $\partial_{w_0}$

Some main definitions and basic facts of divided differences: In the symmetric group $S_n$, let $s_i$ denote the adjacent transposition $(i,i+1),i\in \{1,2,\cdots,n-1\}.$ Since $S_n$ is generated by ...
-1
votes
0answers
102 views

One of the coefficients of $P(x)$ has absolute value $\geq |\alpha(\alpha-1)|$

Let $P \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ be a polynomial with non-negative coefficients and degree $k$. Let $\alpha \leq -2$ be an integer such that: $P(\alpha) \equiv 0 (mod (\alpha^{k+1} -1))$ and ...
3
votes
1answer
195 views

Polars of algebraic curves and surfaces

I asked this on Math.StackExchange, but received no response, so trying here ... A paper I'm reading says the following ... With homogeneous coordinates $\mathbf{x} = [x,y,z,w]$, let ...
2
votes
0answers
58 views

Carlitz factorials and Euler-like series

Let $q$ be a power of a prime $p$. For every $i\in\mathbb N$, one denotes $D_i=\prod_{\substack{h\in\mathbb F_q[T]\text{ monic}\\\deg h=i}}\limits h$. For $n\in\mathbb N$, write ...
18
votes
5answers
2k views

Given a polynomial f, can there be more than one constant c such that every root of f(x)-c is repeated?

The question Let $f$ be a nonconstant polynomial over $\mathbb{C}$. Let's say that a point $c \in \mathbb{C}$ is unusual for $f$ if every root $x$ of $f(x) - c$ is repeated. Can $f$ have more than ...
3
votes
1answer
63 views

Prime ideal ramified in extension if and only if certain polynomial divides another one?

Let $k$ be a field of characteristic $ \neq 2$, and let $f \in k[T]$ be a polynomial of degree $\ge 1$ which is square free. Let $K$ be the quadratic extension $k(T)(\sqrt{f})$ of $k(T)$. I know that ...
6
votes
4answers
420 views

The coefficient of a specific monomial of the following polynomial

Let the real polynomial $$f_{a,b,c}(x_1,x_2,x_3)=(x_1-x_2)^{2a+1}(x_2-x_3)^{2b+1}(x_3-x_1)^{2c+1},$$ where $a,b,c$ are nonnegative integers. Let $m_{a,b,c}$ be the coefficient of the monomial ...
3
votes
0answers
239 views

Why is solving polynomial systems NP hard?

Solving polynomial systems is known to be a NP hard problem; however it is not completely clear to me where this complexity comes from. My interest is in the case of systems of multivariate ...
1
vote
0answers
52 views

Uniform limit of m-homogeneous polynomials over compact subsets of a Banach Space

I am trying to solve problem 1.2.A from Mujica's book "Complex Analysis in Banach Spaces". We denote by $\mathcal{P}_a(^mE;F)$ the space of all $m-$homogeneous polynomials from $E$ into $F$, i.e, the ...
13
votes
0answers
391 views

Solving polynomial systems with homotopy. Where is the bottleneck?

I have a polynomial system with $n+k$ unknowns ($n+k$ can be greater than 8), that is known to have a limited number of isolated solutions. I want to solve this system numerically, but if I plug it ...
11
votes
3answers
515 views

How many isolated roots can a polynomial in $z$ and $\overline{z}$ have?

This is probably well-known by I can't find it now online. My guess is that if the degree is $n$ then it's $2n$ but it's just a hunch. EDIT: This is an edited version. Before I asked about roots ...
3
votes
0answers
72 views

Sign of bivariate polynomial evaluated over two algebraic numbers

I would like to compute the sign of a bivariate polynomial $f$ evaluated over two algebraic numbers $a$, $b$. The numbers are in "isolating interval representation" meaning that each one is defined by ...
2
votes
3answers
180 views

Isolating roots of polynomial system

I would like to isolate the regions which contain the roots of a system of two bivariate cubic polynomials. I thought I would project the solutions onto $x$ and $y$ axis by means of resultant ...
9
votes
0answers
181 views

Weyl Groups as Galois groups

I am looking for explicit examples (for all positive integers $n \ge 5$) of degree $2n$ even polynomials $f(x)=h(x^2)$ over the field $\mathbb{Q}$ of rational numbers such that the Galois groups of ...
0
votes
0answers
55 views

Extremum of the cyclic sum of polynomial ratios (same degree)

I've noticed a few times (probably nothing new) that cyclic sums (assuming $x, y, z > 0$) like: $\frac{x^2+y^2}{yz} + \frac{y^2+z^2}{zx} + \frac{z^2+x^2}{xy}$, where in each of the 3 ratios, all ...
0
votes
0answers
61 views

A representation problem on graphs

Given adjacency matrix $A\in\{0,1\}^{n\times n}$ of a graph denote $A(y,z)$ to be matrix where $0$ is replaced by $z$ and $1$ by $1-z$ on the non-diagonals (replace diagonals by $y$). Denote the ...
0
votes
0answers
65 views

A question about divided differences

I want to ask a question about divided differences. Let $n\equiv0,1 \pmod 4$ is a positive integer. We know that for any polynomial $f\in \mathbb{Z}[x_1,x_2,\cdots,x_n]$, ...
3
votes
0answers
65 views

Reducible polynomial compositions

Let $f(x)$ be a polynomial of degree $n\geq 2$ with integer coefficients. Then there always exists a polynomial $g(x)$ such that $f\circ g(x)$ is reducible. Namely, let $g(x)=f(x)+x$; then $f\circ ...