Questions in which polynomials (single or several variables) play a key role. It is typically important that this tag is combined with other tags; polynomials appear in very different contexts. Please, use at least one of the top-level tags, such as nt.number-theory, co.combinatorics, ...

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7
votes
3answers
161 views

Polynomial expressions of roots of unity with integer norm

Say a nonconstant polynomial $p(z)$ is $k$-magical if it satisfies the following properties: $p$ is of the form $$p(z) = a_{k-1} z^{k-1} + a_{k-2} z^{k-2} + \cdots + a_1 z + 1$$ where each $a_i \in ...
-1
votes
0answers
42 views

Complementary polynomials

Denote $S=\{0,1\}^n$. $\mathsf{MLP}_{d,n}=\{p\in\Bbb R[x_1,\dots,x_n]:p\mathsf{\mbox{ is mutilinear with total degree}}(p)=d\}$. Is there an $n\geq d^2+1$ such that there exists distinct polynomials ...
2
votes
0answers
250 views

Enumerating certain types of permutation polynomials

Given a prime power $q$, I would like to enumerate (preferably up to isomorphism*) all the permutation polynomials $f(x)$ on $K = GF(q^3)$ satisfying the following conditions: $f(ax) = af(x)$ for ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

finding the formula to a given table of values [on hold]

I created a spreadsheet that i filled with values i got from a game. The values may be rounded, but they were calculated, so there has to be a formula behind. ...
13
votes
3answers
2k views

How did Ramanujan discover this identity?

Let $$\small F_n=(a+b+c)^n+(b+c+d)^n-(c+d+a)^n-(d+a+b)^n+(a-d)^n-(b-c)^n$$ and $ad=bc$, then $$64*F_6*F_{10}=45*F_8^2$$ This fascinating identity is due to Ramanujan and can be found in ...
0
votes
0answers
113 views

How to find critical points of the following polynomial?

I am trying to find critical points of the following equation in $\mathbb{R}^n$: $$F(x)=d-\sum_i a_{i}x_i^2+H(x).$$ Here, $a_{i}$ are positive real numbers, and $H(x)$ is a $\mathbf{harmonic}$ ...
2
votes
1answer
104 views

Determine whether a system of polynomials with real coefficients has a real solution?

Today my students asked me the following problem: Define polynomials $P_j$ with real coefficients $$P_{j}=\sum_{i_{1},\cdots,i_{s}}a^{(j)}_{i_{1}\cdots i_{s}}X^{i_{1}}_{1}\cdots X^{i_{s}}_{s}, ...
1
vote
1answer
87 views

question about a particular Polynomial ring

Let K be a field, let $T = K[X_1, X_2,...]$ be a polynomial ring, let $R=K[X_1^{2}, X_1X_2,..,X_i X_j,..]$, and let $L = Frac(R)$ = field of fractions of R. How can we prove that $R =T \cap L$ ?
1
vote
0answers
46 views

Lower bound on difference between polynomials at moderate distance

Fix $r > 0$ and $k, n \in \mathbb{N}$. Also consider a function $f: \mathbb{R}^{d} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$. Let $x_{1},\ldots, x_{n+1}$ be points chosen uniformly from $[-r,r]^{d}$. For $1 \leq i ...
0
votes
2answers
172 views

A specific polynomial triplet question

Notation $P_k[n]=\{$multilinear polynomials in $\Bbb R[x_1,x_2,\dots,x_{n-1},x_n]$ of total degree exactly $k\}$. $k=1$ is just linear polynomials. QUESTION Is there a triplet $(p,f,g)\in ...
5
votes
1answer
134 views

Orthogonal polynomial under linear transformation

Let $M_n(x) = x^n$ be the standard monomials. The binomial formula allows one to expand $M_n(ax+b)$ as a linear combination of $M_k(x)$, for $k \leq n$, giving $$ M_n(ax+b) = (ax+b)^n = \sum_{k=0}^n ...
4
votes
1answer
349 views

q-th powers and roots of polynomials

Let $p,q,r$ be integers with $r\ge2$; let $f$ be a polynomial of the form $f(X) = g((X+1)^r)$, which is not a $q$-th power. Let $\omega$ be a $p$-th root of unity. Prove or disprove that the ...
3
votes
0answers
110 views

How many roots can $P(x):=\sum_s(x-s)^{(p-1)/2}$ have in ${\mathbb F}_p$?

For a prime $p$ and a set $S\subset{\mathbb F}_p$ of size $n:=|S|\approx \sqrt p$, what is the largest possible number of roots that the polynomial $$ P(x) := \sum_{s\in S} ...
4
votes
1answer
213 views

Products of cyclotomic polynomials

Is $\Phi_5(z) \Phi_6(z) = 1 + z^2 + z^3 + z^4 + z^6$ the only product of cyclotomic polynomials that has nonnegative coefficients and satisfies $p(\zeta)=0$, $p(\zeta^2)=2$, $p(\zeta^3)=3$, and ...
11
votes
0answers
297 views

Do the coefficients of these irreducible polynomials always become periodic?

Fix $n\in\mathbb N$ and a starting polynomial (or seed) $p_n=a_0+a_1x+\dots+a_nx^n$ with $a_k\in\mathbb Z\ \forall k$ and $a_0a_n\ne0$. Define $p_{n+1},p_{n+2},\dots$ recursively by $p_r = ...
6
votes
3answers
407 views

Polynomial threading through a monotone corridor

I have a need to find a polynomial of minimal degree that connects two points and stays within a given "corridor," by which I mean an $x$-monotone polygon. Here is an example:       ...
1
vote
1answer
174 views

The Largest Root of Associated Laguerre Polynomial

The Laguerre polynomial $L_n(x)$ is the solution to the Laguerre differential equation \begin{equation*} x\,y'' + (1 - x)\,y' + n\,y = 0. \end{equation*} The associated Laguerre polynomial ...
-1
votes
0answers
112 views

Modified resultants

Resultant $R(f, g)$ of polynomials $f(x) = a_0x^n + ... + a_n$ and $g(x) = b_0x^m + ... + b_m$ with $a_0b_0\neq0$ is defined as $$R(f, g) = a^m_0b^n_0\prod_{i,j}(α_i − β_j)$$ where $α_i,β_j$ satisfy ...
11
votes
0answers
278 views

Evaluating products of cyclotomic polynomials at roots of unity

Are there general non-trivial conditions on $p(\cdot)$ and $n$, where $p(\cdot)$ is a product of cyclotomic polynomials and $n$ is a positive integer, such that all the coefficients of $p(\cdot)$ are ...
4
votes
0answers
91 views

Notions of positivity for q-polynomials

What are some existing notions of positivity (or nonnegativity) for $\mathbf{R}[q]$ such that all $q$-integers $[n]_q = 1+q+...+q^{n-1}$ are positive, as well as all polynomials that can be expressed ...
3
votes
2answers
274 views

irreducible polynomials on the polynomial sequence

I suspect this problem is very famous and it must be studied very well. But I searched in Google and I did not find good reference. I will appreciate any answer and reference for any contribution ...
2
votes
2answers
317 views

Polynomials of low degree that clone polynomials of higher degree

Let $f(x_1,\dots,x_{16})=(x_1+x_2+x_3+x_4)(x_5+x_6+x_7+x_8)(x_9+x_{10}+x_{11}+x_{12})(x_{13}+x_{14}+x_{15}+x_{16})\in\Bbb R[x]$. Let $\mathcal{Z}$ be the zero set of $f$ in ...
5
votes
1answer
223 views

Polynomiality of functions over residue rings

Suppose $\mathbb{Z}/m \mathbb{Z}$ is a residue ring for some $m \in \mathbb{N}$. If $m=p$ is a prime number then every function $f:\mathbb{Z}/p \mathbb{Z} \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}/p \mathbb{Z}$ is a ...
5
votes
1answer
162 views

Which criteria for “uniformly splitting” polynomials?

Let $P(x)$ be an irreducible monic polynomial of degree $\ge4$ with integer coefficients. We all know that over a finite field $\mathbb F_p$, $P$ will often split, and I am interested in polynomials ...
1
vote
1answer
173 views

Vector fields whose divergence are proper maps

Let $X$ be a polynomial vector field of degree $2$ on $\mathbb{R}^{2}$. Does there exist a nonvanishing smooth function $g$ such that $Div(gX)$ is a proper map?Or at least the zero locus of ...
8
votes
0answers
483 views

How prove this polynomial inequality from a book

Question: Let $$f(X)=(X-x_{1})(X-x_{2})\cdots (X-x_{n})$$ be an irreducible polynomial over the field of rational numbers,with integer coefficients and real zeros. Prove that $$\prod_{1\le ...
5
votes
3answers
421 views

How to prove that two univariate polynomials are always algebraically dependent?

How to prove that two univariate polynomials(over any field) are always algebraically dependent? Also, how to prove the generalization of this question i.e if number of polynomials are more than ...
4
votes
1answer
101 views

Gauss--Lucas type theorem for tracts and higher derivatives of a polynomial

The Gauss--Lucas Theorem states that all zeros of a degree $n$ complex polynomial $p(z)$ are contained in the convex hull of the zeros of $p$. By iteration, this implies that the zeros of ...
7
votes
1answer
557 views

Roots of a polynomial in a finite field related to Fermat's Last Theorem

In my class, we proved the following condition: define the polynomial $P_l(x)$ as $$P_l(x) = \sum_{r=1}^{l-1}{\frac{1}{r}x^{l-1-r}}$$ Then if for all $a \in \mathbb{Z}/l\mathbb{Z}-\{0,1\},$ ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

Finding maximum of a function with unfixed number of variables

Can anybody solve this: For a constant positive integer $n\geq6$ find $k$ and positive integers $a_{1},a_{2},...,a_{k}$ that maximize the expression ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

Bounds on degree from bounds on derivatives

Let $f(x)\in \Bbb R[x]$ and $r(x)\in\Bbb R(x)$. Supposing we have information about the values taken by $f(x)$ and $g(x)$ in certain intervals and also can bound their derivatives in these intervals, ...
0
votes
0answers
60 views

Upper bound on number of cells created by varieties of co-dimension 1

Say I have polynomials $p_1,p_2,\dots,p_m$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$ (ie. over $n$ variables), each of degree $d$. Is there an upper bound on the number of "regions" created by the surfaces $p_i = 0$? Let's ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

Comparing least degrees of certain polynomials

Let $\Bbb K$ be an infinite or a finite field with $\mathsf{char\mbox{ }}\Bbb K\neq 2$ and let $M\subsetneq\Bbb K[x_1,\dots,x_n]$ be the set of multilinear polynomials. Fix $S\subsetneq\{0,1\}^n$ and ...
4
votes
0answers
87 views

Perturbing the constant term of a polynomial and implications to stability

Let $p(s)\in\mathbb{R}[s]$ be s.t. $p(0)=0$; $p(s)$ has at least one root in the right half complex plane $\{s\in\mathbb{C}\,:\,\Re\mathrm{e}(s)>0 \}$. Then for every ...
5
votes
1answer
159 views

Starshapeness of polynomial tracts with respect to the (entire collection of) critical points contained in the tract

I recently found out (Piranian, "The Shape of Level Curves") that a polynomial tract (ie a connected component of a set of the form $G=\{z:|p(z)|<\epsilon\}$ for some $\epsilon>0$) need not be ...
0
votes
0answers
90 views

Dimensions of two spaces

Let $R=\Bbb K[x_1,\dots,x_n]/I$ and $Z=\mathsf Z(I)$ where $\Bbb K$ is any field with $char(\Bbb K)\neq 2$. Is there a way to describe space of $f_1,f_2\in R$ that satisfies $$f_1+f_2\neq 0,\mbox{ ...
9
votes
1answer
230 views

Variance of the roots of a complex polynomial

Let $P\in\mathbb{C}[X]$ be a complex polynomial of degree $n\geq 2$ with complex roots $\alpha_1, \alpha_2,\ldots, \alpha_n$. My question is about the existence of a formula for the variance of the ...
21
votes
1answer
383 views

Hilbert's Theorem on $L_2$ norm of polynomials in $\mathbb{Z}[X]$ - Explicit construction and a converse?

Consider the set of polynomials with real coefficients as a vector space with the following inner-product: $\langle f, g \rangle = \int_{a}^{b} f(x)g(x) dx$. Hilbert showed, in a paper from 1894, ...
2
votes
0answers
120 views

weak form of Sendov conjecture

Suppose $p$ is a polynomial of degree $n$ and all roots $z_1,\cdots,z_n $ of $p$ are inside the unit disk. Then how to show that every disk of radius $\sqrt{2}$ and centered at $z_k$ for ...
1
vote
0answers
86 views

Properties and name of some polynomials

I have encountered in a problem some polynomials given by $P_k(x) = \prod_{j=0}^{k-2} (kx-j)$. I need to understand if these polynomials are known, and if they have certain special properties, as ...
3
votes
1answer
133 views

Existence of solution for this set of polynomial equations

We are given a number $n$ and a vector $p=(p_1,p_2,\ldots,p_r)$, where $$p_1\geq p_2 \geq \ldots \geq p_r > 0 ; \ \ \ \ \sum_{i\in [r]} p_i \leq 1$$ I'm interested in proving that a solution for ...
0
votes
1answer
88 views

Proving equivalence of two sums involving Krawtchuk polynomials and binomial co-efficients

I seem to have chanced upon a new characterization for Kravchuk polynomials. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kravchuk_polynomials]. To begin with, let us define the function $\omega(n,p)$ as [Assuming ...
2
votes
0answers
93 views

counting irreducible factors

In How hard is it to compute the number of prime factors of a given integer? a question was asked on computing number of prime factors of an integer. Suppose we have a polynomial $f(X)\in \Bbb Z[X]$ ...
5
votes
1answer
364 views

degree of polynomials in nullstellensatz

$(A)$ If $K$ is algebraically closed field, then consider $m$ polynomials $f_i$ for $i=\{1,\dots,m\}$ in $K[x_1,\dots,x_n]$ of degree $d_i$ each with no common root. We know there exists $g_i$ for ...
2
votes
0answers
46 views

Estimating polynomial approximation error in high dimension

Question Let $x \in [-1, 1]^d \subset \mathbb{R}^d$ be a $d$-dimensional variable and assume that -- given $n$ -- I have a way of computing a polynomial $p_n(x)$ of degree $n$ that approximates a ...
1
vote
0answers
71 views

Does this condition imply a polynomial is a product of linear factors

Let $\Lambda$ be a lattice (i.e. $\Lambda \simeq \mathbb{Z}^n$) with a positive subcone $\Lambda^+$. Let $H: \Lambda^+ \rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ be a function such that $\forall\mu \in \Lambda^+$, ...
2
votes
0answers
125 views

bound on degree of certain polynomials

Consider $m$ polynomials $f_i$ for $i=\{1,\dots,m\}$ in $\Bbb R[x_1,\dots,x_n]$ of degree $d_i$ such that $$Z(f_i)\bigcap Z((p))\neq \emptyset$$ for the sphere $p$ passing through $\{0,1\}^n$. What is ...
1
vote
0answers
82 views

Identity of Bernoulli polynomials

consider the Bernoulli polynomials defined by the generating function: $$\left(\prod_{i=1}^m \frac{a_i}{\left( e^{a_i}-1 \right)}\right)e^{xt}=\sum\limits_{n=0}^{\infty}B^{m}_n\left(x\vert ...
0
votes
1answer
77 views

About the maximum degree of multivariate polynomial interpolation

It is well known that in the univariate case, to interpolate $k$ points in $\mathbb{R}$, we need to use a polynomial of degree $k-1$. My question is about multivariate polynomial interpolation in ...
3
votes
1answer
264 views

Sum of two squares and implication of Bunyakovsky conjecture

Bunyakovsky conjecture states that a polynomial with integer coefficients takes infinitely many prime values at integers, unless this is impossible for trivial reasons. Let $a_1(x), a_2(x), a_3(x), ...