Questions in which polynomials (single or several variables) play a key role. It is typically important that this tag is combined with other tags; polynomials appear in very different contexts. Please, use at least one of the top-level tags, such as nt.number-theory, co.combinatorics, ...

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1
vote
2answers
192 views

Ideals generated by two elements in the polynomial ring of two variables over a field

Let $k$ be a field. For example, $k=\mathbb{Q}$ or $\mathbb{Z}/p$, $p$ prime. Let $k[x,y]$ be the polynomial ring. Let $f,g\in k[x,y]$. Let the ideal $I=(f,g)$ be the ideal of $k[x,y]$ ...
1
vote
1answer
85 views

Given a multivariate polynomial with even degree, can we find its tightest convex polynomial 'envelop'?

To be specific, given a multivariate polynomial function $f: \mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ with even degree $2d$, can we construct a convex polynomial function $g$, such that: $\forall ...
1
vote
0answers
226 views

Total degree of a polynomial

Let $\mathsf{F,G}\in\Bbb R[x_1,\dots,x_n]$ be minimum multivariate polynomials of least total degree $\mathsf{degF}$, $\mathsf{degG}$ such that, given unequal $a,b\in\Bbb R$, $$\mathsf{F(p)}=a, ...
1
vote
0answers
62 views

Bounds on degree from bounds on derivatives

Let $f(x)\in \Bbb R[x]$ and $r(x)\in\Bbb R(x)$. Supposing we have information about the values taken by $f(x)$ and $g(x)$ in certain intervals and also can bound their derivatives in these intervals, ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

local bernstein type inequality for multivariate polynomials

Let's say $p(x_1,...,x_n)$ is an n-variate degree d homogenous polynomial. Assume $U \subset S^{n-1}$ and $ vol(U) > 0 $ is there any Bernstein type inequality saying $$ \max_{x \in U , y \in ...
0
votes
0answers
94 views

Polynomial approximation on affine varieties [migrated]

Let $V,W \subseteq \mathbb{A}^n$ be two affine varieties over an algebraically closed field $k$ of characteristic zero and let $a,b\in k$. Q: Can we find a polynomial $f \in k[X_1,...,X_n]$ such ...
11
votes
1answer
897 views

Does this recursion preserve monotonicity? (was: A nice problem that I am unable to solve)

I have a nice problem which is related to algebra and polynomials or even operator theory. I would be very grateful if any of you could solve it. Here is the problem: Consider the function $f_0(x) ...
3
votes
4answers
302 views

Examples of polynomials $x_1(t), x_2(t)$ such that $(x_1(t))^4 + (x_2(t))^4$ has a double root

Are there examples of polynomials $x_1(t), x_2(t) \in \mathbb{Q}[t]$ of equal degree at least one, with $\gcd(x_1(t), x_2(t)) = 1$, such that the sum $(x_1(t))^4 + (x_2(t))^4$ is divisible by the ...
7
votes
0answers
148 views

When is the Locus of Equi-modular points of two monic polynomials with integer coefficients contained in the unit disk?

If $\lambda_{1}(z)$ and $\lambda_{2}(z)$ are two monic polynomials (relatively prime) with integer coefficients and $$\Gamma=\lbrace z \rm{\ s.t.\ } |\lambda_{1}(z)|=|\lambda_{2}(z)|\rbrace,$$ when is ...
2
votes
2answers
75 views

Integrating a barycentric monomial over a simplex

Are there standard formulas for the integral over a simplex of a monomial in the barycentric coordinates? Can someone supply a reference? I think I have seen such formulas, but I am unable to find ...
3
votes
1answer
200 views

$S_k(x+y)-S_k(x)-S_k(y)$ where $S_k$ is symmetric polynomial

Let $S_k$ be the $k$-th elementary symmetric polynomial of $n$ variables. How can I rewrite $$S_k(x+y)-S_k(x)-S_k(y)$$ by just using $x,y,S_1,S_2,\cdots S_{k-1}$ where $x=(x_1,x_2,\cdots,x_n)$ and ...
14
votes
6answers
2k views

Proofs of the Chevalley-Warning Theorem

A well known proof of the Chevally-Warning Theorem is the one listed on wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chevalley%E2%80%93Warning_theorem Are there any other proofs of this, or ...
1
vote
0answers
249 views
+100

Generalization of proposition of Granville related to abc conjecture

Related to this question. For polynomial $f$, let $rad(f)$ denote the radical of $f$, the product of irreducible factors. Suppose that $G(x,y) \in \mathbb{C}[x,y]$ is homogeneous without any ...
3
votes
0answers
161 views

How to handle a polynomial whose roots exhibit obvious symmetry

I've got a sequence of polynomials, and for each of them the roots obviously follow a definite pattern. Here are the roots of the 34th one All others have their roots arranged in a similar ...
3
votes
2answers
218 views

Proof that image of a polynomial map is a cone

Consider the nonlinear mapping $\phi: \mathbb R^{2 \times 2} \to \mathbb R^3$ given by $X \mapsto \begin{pmatrix} x_{11} x_{21} \\ x_{11} x_{22} + x_{21} x_{12} \\ x_{12}x_{22} \end{pmatrix}$. I ...
1
vote
1answer
109 views

Zeros of Polynomial with decreasing coefficients [closed]

If $n_1<n_2<n_3\cdots<n_m$ are positive integers. Does the polynomial $a_0+a_1z^{n_1}+a_2z^{n_2}+\cdots+a_mz^{n_m}$ satisfying $$ 0<a_0\leq a_1\leq \cdots\leq a_m $$ has all its zeros ...
8
votes
1answer
222 views

Orthogonal polynomial under linear transformation

Let $M_n(x) = x^n$ be the standard monomials. The binomial formula allows one to expand $M_n(ax+b)$ as a linear combination of $M_k(x)$, for $k \leq n$, giving $$ M_n(ax+b) = (ax+b)^n = \sum_{k=0}^n ...
26
votes
5answers
2k views

The resultant and the ideal generated by two polynomials in $\mathbb{Z}[x]$

I was asked the following question by a colleague and was embarrassed not to know the answer. Let $f(x), g(x) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ with no root in common. Let $I = (f(x),g(x))\cap \mathbb{Z}$, that is, ...
6
votes
2answers
547 views

Counterexample to Proposition of Granville related to abc conjecture

Looks like there is counterexample to Proposition related to abc conjecture. Confusion is likely. From RATIONAL AND INTEGRAL POINTS ON QUADRATIC TWISTS OF A GIVEN HYPERELLIPTIC CURVE, Andrew ...
3
votes
0answers
89 views

Small polynomial roots modulo prime powers

Let $f(x) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ have no rational roots, $n>1,q=p^n$ for prime $p$. Let $r$ be the smallest root of $f(x)=0$ modulo $q$. Smallest mean smallest absolute value when lifted to the ...
4
votes
2answers
260 views

Find all possible rational values of a parametric quartic such that it is reducible

Description: Given the following parametric quartic polynomial $y^4 - 28 z y^3 - 14 (656 - 328 z + 83 z^2) y^2 + 
4 z (-20464 + 10232 z + 3409 z^2) y + 
91 (62208 - 62208 z + 41504 z^2 - 12976 z^3 ...
3
votes
4answers
575 views

homogeneous polynomials over a finite field

Let $P(x_1, \ldots , x_n)$ be a homogeneous polynomials over a finite field with $q$ elements. Is there any way to count all the roots of $P$?
0
votes
0answers
66 views

Polynomial generated with primitive element modulo p

This question is equivalent to the question "Normal basis in cyclotomic number fields" that I asked recently. I am posing this question because maybe in this format somebody can have an answer: Let ...
1
vote
2answers
149 views

Algorithm for fast factorization of polynomial over $\mathbb Z$ or over $\mathbb F_p$

I want to fast decompose polynomial over ring of integers (original polynomial has integer coefficients and all of factors have integer coefficients) and also over ring of integers modulo prime ...
2
votes
2answers
74 views

Moment problem for discrete distributions

Let $x_1, \dots, x_N \in \mathbb R$ and consider the discrete distribution $\mu := \frac{1}{N} \sum_{i=1}^N \delta_{x_i}$, where $\delta_x$ denotes the Dirac measure, i.e. for any measurable set $B ...
4
votes
1answer
149 views

Represent matrix immanants using Schur functions

For each irreducible character $\chi^\lambda$ of the symmetric group $S_n$, the immanant of an $n\times n$ square matrix $A$ is defined as \begin{equation*} d_\lambda(A) := \sum_{\sigma \in S_n} ...
6
votes
1answer
303 views

Find a polynomial not in any ideal generated by polynomials of total degree $o(n)$

Is there an explicit nontrivial (= not a constant) polynomial $p \in \mathbb{C}[x_1, \ldots, x_n]$ such that, for any ideal $I \not= \mathbb{C}[x_1, \ldots, x_n]$ generated by $f_1, f_2, \ldots, f_m$ ...
2
votes
1answer
197 views

If a polynomial $p(z)$ omits a value, then $p(z)-\dfrac{(1-e^{i\psi})}{n}zp^{\prime}(z)$ also omits that value

Suppose that a polynomial $p(z)$ of degree $n$ does not assume the value $w$ for $|z|<1$, that is $p(z)\neq w$ for $|z|<1.$ Show that $p(z)-\dfrac{(1-e^{i\psi})}{n}zp^{\prime}(z)\neq w$ for ...
2
votes
1answer
106 views

Prove or disprove an inequality concerning zeros of a polynomial

If a polynomial $p(z)$ of degree $n$ with zeros $z_1,z_2,\cdots,z_n$ assumes maximum at $w$ on $|z|=1.$ Prove or disprove that the Harmonic mean of $|z_k-w|,$ $k=1,2,\cdots,n$ is greater or equal to ...
5
votes
0answers
71 views

Real Zeros - tail estimate

Given a random polynomial with Gaussian coefficients, the Kac-Rice formula tells us what the expected number of real zeros is (for more on this, see the excellent paper of Edelman and Kostlan in the ...
0
votes
0answers
98 views

About distinct eigenvalues of a graph

if a graph with adjacency matrix $A$ and Laplacian $L$ has $k$ distinct eigenvalues then does this fact naturally help define or prove existence of a polynomial $p$ of degree $k-1$ such that ...
8
votes
2answers
239 views

Root criterion for polynomial over number fields

It's well known that if $\alpha $ is a rational root to an integer coefficient polynomial, then its denominator divides the leading coefficient and its numerator divides the constant term. I'm asking ...
0
votes
0answers
44 views

Determinant of a Vandermonde matrix of roots of monic polynomial with integer coefficients [migrated]

Let $p(x)=\sum_{i=1}^n a_ix^i$ with $a_i$ an integer for all $i$ and $a_n=1$ such that $p(x)$ has only real roots, and let $\lambda_1,\ldots,\lambda_n$ be the $n$ roots of this polynomial. Then the ...
3
votes
1answer
118 views

Uniqueness of the maximum derivative of a rational function

This may seem like an elementary question, but bear with me; you'll find that it is actually quite hard. Consider the function $$f(x)=\frac{a_nx^n}{\sum_{i=0}^n a_ix^i}$$ with all $a_i\geq 0$ and ...
2
votes
1answer
50 views

Reference for multivariate orthogonal polynomials

I want to learn about multivariate orthogonal polynomials. Is there a good textbook/survey that you could suggest? I need to see common examples like Jack's polynomials etc .. and also general ...
1
vote
1answer
137 views

polynomials with similar maxima-minima

Assume $p$ and $q$ are n-variate degree d, homogeneous polynomials. Define $ |p|_{\infty}= \max_{x \in S^{n-1}} |p(x)|$ $D(p)=\{ x \in S^{n-1} : p(x)= |p|_{\infty} \}$ $E(p)=\{x \in S^{n-1} : p(x)= ...
0
votes
0answers
38 views

t-linked extension

Let $A\subseteq B$ be an extension of commutative integral domains. the extension is t-linked if it satisfies the following property: If P is a finitely generated ideal of A such that $P^{-1}=A$ than ...
0
votes
1answer
210 views

Find all possible rational values of the parameter of a parametric cubic such that it is reducible

Description: Given the following parametric cubic polynomials ${E}^{3} - 15\, {\beta}_{\pm}\, {E}^{2} - 3 \left({71\, {\beta}_{\pm}^{2} + 352\, {\beta}_{\mp}}\right) E + 135\, {\beta}_{\pm} ...
9
votes
5answers
1k views

Two questions about discriminants of polynomials in Q[x]

Suppose $f \in \mathbb{Q}[x]$ is monic, with roots $\alpha_{1},\dots,\alpha_{n}$. Define the discriminant of $f$ to be the number $ \Delta = \Pi_{i<j} (\alpha_{i} - \alpha_{j})^2$. Let $D(f) = ...
4
votes
2answers
245 views

Constructive Proof to Show that Algebraic Numbers are Algebraically Closed

EDIT2: After reading some papers, I think the question can best be rephrased as "How can the minimal polynomial for a polynomial with algebraic coefficients be calculated. I have seen papers and ...
3
votes
1answer
359 views

Sum of two squares and implication of Bunyakovsky conjecture

Bunyakovsky's conjecture states that a polynomial with integer coefficients takes infinitely many prime values at integers, unless this is impossible for trivial reasons. Let $a_1(x), a_2(x), a_3(x), ...
4
votes
1answer
216 views

Permutation polynomials mod $p$ of the form $(x+1)^n-x^n$

Among some permutation polynomials I've been studying, $f(x)=(x+1)^n-x^n$ is one of the polynomials that I cannot grasp. Question : For a given odd prime $p$, how can we find every positive ...
8
votes
2answers
570 views

Sum of consecutive cubes

I'm investigating when the sum of $n$ consecutive cubes equals a cube, i.e., for which $n$ does $$\sum_{i=0}^{n-1} (k+i)^3 = k^3 + (k+1)^3 + \cdots + (k+n-1)^3 = Y^3 $$ have nontrivial solutions ...
3
votes
1answer
151 views

Periodic points in C^2

I came up with a problem which is similar to the following quesitons: Consider a map: $f(x,y)=(y^2-2,xy-2)$. It is seems that the number of periodic points of given period is bounded. I want to ...
2
votes
0answers
194 views

Fixed points of self maps

Given $m$ points on $S^n$, is there an explicit polynomial self $1-1$ map of minimum degree $f:S^n\rightarrow S^n$ that fixes only these $m$ points? Can we say something about symmetry group of $f$ if ...
6
votes
0answers
79 views

Is there a ``Ladner's Theorem" for the PH-vs-PSPACE scenario?

Like a statement of the kind, ``If the Polynomial Hierarchy (PH) $\neq$ PSPACE then there exists $L \in PSPACE \backslash PH$ which is not PSPACE-complete"? Or is there something else that states ...
0
votes
1answer
58 views

On a reciprocal of Ostrowski theorem on Newton polytopes and factorization

$\newcommand\KK{\mathbb{K}}$Let $\KK$ be any field and $f\in\KK[x_1,\dotsc,x_n]$ be a polynomial. Its support $S_f$ is the set $\{(e_1,\dotsc, e_n) : x_1^{e_1}\dotsb x_n^{e_n}$ has a nonzero ...
11
votes
3answers
800 views

Probability of coprime polynomials

Given positive integer $N$, we choose $m_1, m_2, n_1, n_2$ independently and with equal probabilities from $\{0,1,\ldots,N\}$, and let $f_1 = x^{m_1} + (1+x)^{n_1}$ and $f_2 = x^{m_2} + (1+x)^{n_2}$ ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

About convex combinations of real-stable multivariable complex polynomials

Say $f: \mathbb{C}^{n+1} \rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ is a real stable multivariable polynomial on the variables $(z,w_1,w_2,...,w_n)$. (a "real-stable" polynomial is one which has no zeroes in the open ...
1
vote
1answer
75 views

About preserving real-rootedness of multivariable polynomials

Say $f_i(z_1,z_2,..,z_m)$ are polynomials real rooted in the $z$s for a bunch of polynomials indexed by $i$. When can one say that $\sum_{i} p_i f_i(z_1,z_2,..,z_m)$ is also real rooted? If ...