**6**

votes

**1**answer

185 views

### Can a product of conjugates be a Pisot number again?

Let $p(X) \in \mathbb{Z}[X]$ be an irreducible polynomial, and let $\alpha_1 \dots, \alpha_n$ be its roots in $\mathbb{C}$. Suppose that $\alpha_1$ is a Pisot number, that is, $\alpha_1 \in \mathbb{R},...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

247 views

### A generalization of Chebyshev polynomials

What is the monic polynomial $p(x)$ of degree $n$ which minimizes $\max_{x \in [-1,1]} |p(x)|$? The answer is the Chebyshev polynomial, and its largest value on $[-1,1]$ is $1/2^{n-1}$.
Now suppose ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

194 views

### Trace of a Product of Finitely Many Matrices with Cosine Entry

Can someone help me prove the following identity?
$$
\mathop{\mathrm{Tr}}\left(\prod_{j=0}^{n-1}\begin{pmatrix}
2\cos\frac{2j\pi}{n} & -m \\
1 & 0
\end{pmatrix}\right)=
\begin{cases}
2 & ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

145 views

### An identity satisfied by “Differentiation”

I asked this question in MSE but I did not received any answer. So I repeat it here:
Assume that $C$ is a coalgebra with comultiplication $\Delta:C \to C\otimes C$. The higher order ...

**54**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Why does $d^n \exp(-x-x^{-1})/(dx)^n$ only have $n$ positive real zeroes?

Set $f(x) = \exp(-x-x^{-1})$. An easy induction shows that
$$\frac{d^n}{(dx)^n} f(x) = \phi_n(x^{-1}) f(x)$$
for $\phi_n$ a polynomial of degree $2n$. Clearly, the roots of $\phi_n(x^{-1})$ are the ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

66 views

### degree of associative algebra

Let $A$ be a finite dimensional associative algebra with unity over a field $F$. The degree of the algebra is the degree of its generic minimum polynomial (see Nathan Jacobson, Generic norm of an ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

187 views

### Criteria for irreducibility using the location of complex roots

I would like to see criteria for the irreducibility of a polynomial over $\mathbb{Z}$ based (mainly) on the location of the roots of the polynomial in the complex plane. An example of such a criterion ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

383 views

### Finding the inertia group

Set $h(x) = x^5+x^4+x^3+x^2+x-1$, let $L$ be the splitting field of $h$ over $\mathbb{Q}$, and let $p$ be a prime of $L$ lying over $2$.
What is the isomorphism class of the inertia group $I_p$, ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

422 views

### Unexpectedly prime rich cubic polynomial

We got a cubic polynomial which is unexpectedly prime rich.
Let $f(x)=29160 x^3 + 30132 x^2 + 8046 x + 643$ and
$\pi_f(n)$ the number of primes values of $f(x)$ for $x \in [1,n]$.
Let $F(n)=\frac{\...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

162 views

### Expressing every algebraic number using roots of trinomials?

This question is a continuation of Is every polynomial a factor of a trinomial?
We say that $T(X) \in \mathbb{Q}[X]$ is a trinomial if there exist $A,B,C \in \mathbb{Q}$ such that $T(X) = AX^n + BX^m ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

414 views

### Is every polynomial a factor of a trinomial?

We say that $T(X) \in \mathbb{Q}[X]$ is a trinomial if there exist $A,B,C \in \mathbb{Q}$ such that $T(X) = AX^n + BX^m + C$ for some $n \geq m \in \mathbb{N}$.
Is it true that for each ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

123 views

### Polynomial identities for congruent numbers and Bunyakovsky's conjecture

Bunyakovsky's conjecture states that polynomial with integer coefficients
takes infinitely many prime values unless there are obvious reasons not
to.
It appears to imply something about polynomial ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

29 views

### Error bounds for approximation with dyadic sums of polynomials

Are there any bounds known for approximating a genuine multidimensional polynomial function with a sum one-dimensional polynomials over the independent variables?
In the 2-dimensional case the ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

197 views

### On shifted symmetric power sums

The functions $p^*_k(x)=\sum_{i=1}^N ((x_i-i)^k-(-i)^k)$ are analogues of power sum symmetric functions, called shifted symmetric by Okounkov and Olshanski. Define $p^*_{(k_1,k_2,...)}=p^*_{k_1}p^*_{...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

599 views

### Explicit Chebotarev and Langlands - irreducibility of X^5-X-1 mod primes

Is there an explicit infinite set of primes, modulo which $X^5 - X - 1$ is irreducible?
Since our polynomial's Galois group over $\mathbb{Q}$ is $S_5$, Chebotarev's density theorem implies that ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

230 views

### Polynomial with the smallest area

Let $P_n(t) = p_0 + p_1 t + \cdots + p_n t^n$ be a polynomial (with real coefficients) of degree $n$ in the variable $t$. I am interested in the quantity $$\Phi_n = \min_{\sum_{i=1}^n p_i^2 = 1} \...

**9**

votes

**3**answers

492 views

### Product of a Finite Number of Matrices Related to Roots of Unity

Does anyone have an idea how to prove the following identity?
$$
\mathop{\mathrm{Tr}}\left(\prod_{j=0}^{n-1}\begin{pmatrix}
x^{-2j} & -x^{2j+1} \\
1 & 0
\end{pmatrix}\right)=
\begin{cases}
...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

119 views

### Polynomial interpolation of binary word signal

Let consider a binary word $x_1 \ldots x_n$ (finite sequence of elements of $\{0,1\}$.
I want to construct a polynomial $P$ that interpolates the points $(i, x_i)$ for $i \in \{1\ldots n\}$ , such ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

264 views

### Solutions to system of polynomial equations over finite fields

If $P_1$, $P_2$, ..., $P_m$ are $n$-variate homogeneous polynomials of degree d over a finite field $F_q$, where $q$ is much larger than $d$, but much smaller than $n$, then do we know good lower ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

276 views

### When do partial derivatives $p_x$, $p_y$ of a polynomial over $\mathbb{C}$ not have any common factor?

When do partial derivatives $p_x$, $p_y$ of a polynomial over $\mathbb{C}$ not have any common factor? Is there a general approach for any number of variables, aka when is the variety defined by the ...

**9**

votes

**3**answers

490 views

### Polynomials vanishing modulo some integer $n$

It is well-known that a polynomial $q \in \mathbb Z[t]$ vanishes modulo $p$ only if it lies in the ideal $J_p$ generated by $p$ and $t^p-t$. This means that either the degree is large (at least $p$) ...

**5**

votes

**4**answers

407 views

### Deceptive linear algebra problem

Does anyone recognize this problem? There are $2p$ equations and $2p$ unknowns, and it feels like a classic, but I've never encountered it before:
Given $d_1, d_2, \ldots d_p$, find $a_1, a_2, \ldots ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

234 views

### When does composing polynomials reduce the degree?

Let $\mathbb{F}$ be the field of size 2. For a function $f : \mathbb{F}^n \to \mathbb{F}$, let $d(f)$ be the smallest integer such that there exists a degree-$d(f)$, $n$-variate, multilinear ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

138 views

### Polynomials with Unique Critical Value

My question is extremely simple to state: I am looking for a characterization of multivariate complex polynomials $f$ such that $f(Sing(f))=\{0\}$. My motivation is that I recently read somewhere that ...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

329 views

### Generalized Characteristic Polynomial with Unimodular Roots

Let us define a diagonal matrix $\mathbf{D}(z) = diag(z^{m_1}, \dots, z^{m_N})$ with $z\in\mathbb{C}$ and positive integers $m_1, \dots, m_N$.
The generalized characteristic polynomial of a matrix $\...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

497 views

### When is the image of an integral polynomial contained in the image of another?

Suppose $f$ and $g$ are polynomials with integral coefficients and $f(\mathbb Z)\subset g(\mathbb Z)$. Is there any relation between $f$ and $g$?
For instance, this happens if $f=g\circ h$ for some ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

498 views

### What is the rate of convergence? [closed]

How quickly does the series defined by $$x_0 = 0, \ x_{n+1} = \frac{x_n^2+1}{2}$$ converge to $1$?

**12**

votes

**2**answers

560 views

### Number of nonzero terms in polynomial expansion (lower bounds)

Let $f(x) = a_1x^{z_1} + a_2x^{z_2} + \cdots + a_kx^{z_k}$ be a polynomial with coefficients $(a_1, \ldots, a_k) \in \mathbb{F}_q^*$ and $z_i$ are distinct positive integers. If I need to compute the ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

113 views

### Determing signs of Taylor coefficients in entire functions

This is a continuation of Determining when combinatorial sums are zero
Suppose $f(x)$ is an entire function approximated by polynomials with only negative real zeros. Suppose further that $\{f^{(k)}(...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

223 views

### Growth of the size of iterated polynomials

I have been working independently on a project but now I am stuck and need to seek an expert's wisdom for a part of it. I am basically looking for theorems related to growth of the size of polynomials....

**7**

votes

**2**answers

657 views

### Upper density of the set of $n$'s such that $p(n)$ is prime, where $p$ is polynomial

The starting point for this question is the following (false) statement
$\forall n\in \mathbb{N} (n^2 + n + 41 \text{ is prime}).$
Given a polynomial function $p:\mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{N}...

**5**

votes

**3**answers

165 views

### Do the bounded isophase lines of a complex polynomial $f$ through the zeroes of $f’$ define a spanning tree?

Let $f: \mathbb{C} \to \mathbb{C}$ be a polynomial and let $\arg(f(z))$ be the phase of $f(z) = | f(z)| \exp(\mathrm{i} \arg(f(z)))$. The zeroes of $f'(z)$ are saddle points of $\arg(f(z))$, i.e. ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

489 views

### Infinitely many irreducible polynomials of the form f(X^2) + X mod 3?

Are there infinitely many polynomials $f \in \mathbb{F}_3[X]$ for which $f(X^2) + X$ is irreducible?

**7**

votes

**1**answer

243 views

### Another name for coin-flipping polynomials

In his paper Functions arising by coin flipping (section 4), Johan Wästlund coined the term "coin-flipping polynomial" for polynomials that arise in connection with observing a finite number of coin ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

211 views

### Is an explicit $c$ known to lead to a noncomputable Julia set?

Braverman & Yampolsky have shown that there exist noncomputable Julia sets,
i.e., there exist $c \in \mathbb{C}$ such that the Julia set of $f(z) = c + z^2$
is not computable.
"A set is computable,...

**18**

votes

**1**answer

553 views

### Minimum value of $|p(1)|^2+|p(2)|^2 +…+ |p(n+3)|^2$ over all monic polynomials $p$

Let $n$ be a positive integer. Determine the smallest possible value of $|p(1)|^2+|p(2)|^2 +...+ |p(n+3)|^2$ over all monic polynomials $p$ of degree $n$.
This question was proposed (problem A.611)
...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

99 views

### Rank of a particular matrix

Denote $P_{2n}$ to be collection of homogeneous total degree $2$ real polynomials in exactly $2n$ variables such that coefficient of every monomial is either $1$ or $-1$.
Split variable set into ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

51 views

### Algebraic independence in normed spaces

A set of $n$ points in $\mathbb{R}^2$ is algebraically independent over $\mathbb{Q}$ if there is no polynomial dependency among the $2n$ coordinates.
A result (Lemma 3.3) from "Globally linked pairs ...

**-2**

votes

**1**answer

71 views

### Question on real polynomial in projective space [closed]

Hi all I was given this question and desperately in need of help as it is part of my graduate studiess I know it is true but my instructor told me to find the right way to do it and I am really ...

**-1**

votes

**2**answers

340 views

### What conditions imply that a function over $\mathbb{Z}$ is a polynomial? [closed]

How would one prove that a function is a polynomial? I can't seem to find anything about this on the internet. I would like to know if there are any unique properties that only polynomials can satisfy....

**1**

vote

**1**answer

88 views

### Convergence of sequence of polynomials defined by boundary conditions

I'm sorry if my question sounds trivial, but analysis is not my field.
Consider the interval $[a,b]\subset \mathbb{R}$. On $[a,b]$, for every $n\in\mathbb{N}$, $n\ge 3$, I define the polynomials $P_n:...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

84 views

### The significance of the Parvaresh-Vardy curve

Even though this seems like a computer science question, it is purely mathematical and concerns polynomials and curves over finite fields.
Consider the Parvaresh-Vardy list decoder.
As I understand ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

175 views

### Motzkin polynomials and enumeration of chord diagrams

On page 12 of the paper Enumeration of chord diagrams on many intervals and their non-orientable analogs" by Alexeev, Andersen, Penner, and Zograf is a list of polynomials which are a refinement of ...

**4**

votes

**3**answers

138 views

### counting complex roots which are root of unity times a real number

Let $p(x)$ be a monic polynomial over the integers. I want to count the number of roots which have the form $\zeta \cdot r$ where $\zeta$ is a root of unity and $r$ is a real number.
To count the ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

92 views

### How to realize any non-crossing matching as $\mathrm{Re}[p(z)]=0$

Asymptotically any polynomial is $p(z) = z^n + O(z^{n-1})$. Therefore $\mathrm{Re}[p(z)]= r^n \cos(2\pi i \theta)$ which vanishes at $\theta = \frac{(k+ \frac{1}{2})\pi}{n}$. Those $2n$ line ...

**42**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### How to prove this polynomial always has integer values at all integers?

Let $m$ be any positive integer.
$$
P_m(x)=\sum_{i=0}^{m}\sum_{j=0}^{m}{x+j\choose j}{x-1\choose j}{j\choose i}{m\choose i}{i\choose m-j}\frac{3}{(2i-1)(2j+1)(2m-2i-1)}.
$$
Question: $P_m(x)$ always ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

126 views

### Best polygonal approximation to a polynomial $\pm$ c

Let a planar region $R$ be defined
by the vertical range bounded by
a polynomial $f(x) \pm c$ with $c>0$ a constant,
and with $x$ varying between the smallest and largest
roots of $f(x)$.
For ...

**11**

votes

**3**answers

802 views

### About the prime divisors of values of polynomials

Let $P(x)$ be a polynomial having integer coefficients (and degree $\geq 3$), and let $p_1<p_2<\dots$ be the prime divisors occurring in the set of values $\{P(n):\ n\in\mathbb{Z}\}$.
Is it ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

282 views

### When is $f(x^d)$ irreducible?

Let $f(x)$ be an irreducible polynomial of degree $n$ over a finite field $\mathbb F_p$. What can we say about $f(x^d)$? When is it irreducible ?

**10**

votes

**2**answers

485 views

### The space of polynomials with all real roots

The question stems from an attempt to answer a question of David Speyer. Let $R \subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$ be the space of coefficients of all polynomials of degree $n$ whose all roots are real, i.e.
$R ...