Questions in which polynomials (single or several variables) play a key role. It is typically important that this tag is combined with other tags; polynomials appear in very different contexts. Please, use at least one of the top-level tags, such as nt.number-theory, co.combinatorics, ...

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4
votes
1answer
357 views

Algebraic closure of a polynomial ring

What could be conditions on $k\in\mathbb{C}[x,y,z]$ that would ensure that any polynomial $f\in\mathbb{C}[x,y,z]$ that is algebraically dependent of $k$ is indeed a polynomial in $k$, ie ...
1
vote
2answers
185 views

Resultant of system with 3 polynomials and 3 variables

Let us say I have a system of 3 polynomials, f1(x,y,z), f2(x,y,z), f3(x,y,z). How to find the resultant of these 3 polynomials? What I mean is: is there any special method to do this? Does the ...
0
votes
1answer
173 views

Existence of nontrivial roots of a homogeneous polynomial over a finite field in extension fields

Consider a homogeneous polynomial, f, of total degree n in n variables, with coefficients in a prime order finite field, GF(p). Are there any general rules regarding the existence of nontrivial roots ...
2
votes
1answer
245 views

Multivariate polynomial approximation of smooth functions

Let $f$ be a function defined on $[-1,1]^d$. Assume that all partial derivatives of $f$ up to order $r$ are continuous; and the $\infty$-norm of these partial derivatives are uniformly upper bounded ...
1
vote
1answer
234 views

How to show an ideal is Zero-dimensional [closed]

I have the following past exam paper question, a similar sort of question seems to come up every year.. And i'm completely lost with it... Let $J$ denote the ideal in $\mathbb{Q}[x,y,z]$ generated by ...
0
votes
1answer
189 views

Zeros of compositions of polynomials and derivatives

Suppose we have polynomials $f$ and $g$ over a field $F$ and for some $a\in F$ we know $(x-a)^m$ divides $f\circ g$, i.e. $f\circ g$ has a zero of order $m$ at $a$. Then we have that $(x-a)^{m-n}$ ...
1
vote
0answers
273 views

When integer polynomials take integer values, does their GCD also take integer values?

Suppose you have two polynomials $P$ and $Q$ with integer coefficients. Let their GCD (more specifically, the smallest integer multiple of the GCD in $\mathbb Q$ such that all the coefficients are ...
2
votes
1answer
240 views

Why can an infinite-order polynomial be written as the ratio of two finite-order polynomials?

I am studying GARCH processes in Time Series Analysis by Hamilton. Something that has regularly been used in the book is the assumption that an infinite-order polynomial can be written as the ratio ...
3
votes
3answers
612 views

A basis of the symmetric power consisting of powers

I have asked this question on math.se, but did not get an answer - I was quite surprised because I thought that lots of people must have though about this before: Let $V$ be a complex vector space ...
6
votes
3answers
413 views

What is the correspondence between combinatorial problems and the location of the zeroes of polynomials called?

(From MSE) In the wikipedia article on the Italian-born American mathematician and philosopher Gian-Carlo Rota, it is stated that the one combinatorial idea he would like to be remembered for ...
0
votes
1answer
113 views

Ideal membership (concerning polynomial invariants of orthogonal groups)

Let $\mathbb F _q$ be finite field of odd characteristic and consider the polynomials $$ \xi_i = x_1^{q^i+1} - x_2^{q^i+1} + x_3^{q^i+1} - x_4^{q^i+1} \in \mathbb F_q[x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4].$$ I'm ...
1
vote
0answers
742 views

Prime ideals in polynomial rings over integers

Im trying to find a characterization of the prime ideals in the polynomial ring $R = \mathbb Z[X,Y]$ in two variables over the integers. Actually I need to find the maximal ideals in quotient rings ...
4
votes
0answers
259 views

$a^5+b^5=c^5+d^5$ and polynomial identities

No nontrivial integer solutions to $$ a^5+b^5=c^5+d^5 \qquad (1)$$ are known. (1) has infinitely many solutions in an extension of $\mathbb{Z}$ (root of $9-15x+37x^2 $ ) resulting from genus 0 curve ...
2
votes
1answer
356 views

Is there an algorithm to decide if an ideal contains monomials?

Let $I\subset k[x_1,\dots,x_n]$ be an ideal in a polynomial ring in commuting variables. Is there a procedure to decide if $I$ contains a monomial and possibly to find one? Gröbner bases come to ...
26
votes
1answer
773 views

How many polynomial Morse functions on the sphere?

Let $f$ be a homogeneous polynomial of degree $d$ in $n$ variables. Restricted to the unit sphere $S^{n-1}$, it might or might not be a Morse function. If $f$ is a Morse function of degree $1$, you ...
3
votes
1answer
385 views

Why are all these families of polynomials finally log-concave?

This started when I was examining certain families of unimodal polynomials, i.e. $\sum_{k=0}^n a_kx^k$ where $a_0\le a_1\le\cdots \le a_k\ge\cdots \ge a_n$. (Notation: in the following, the $a_k$ ...
19
votes
1answer
937 views

Have we ever proved any non-solvable case of reciprocity without the Langlands program ?

The reciprocity of the title is the following not completely well-posed problem: Fix $P(X)$ a monic irreducible polynomial of degree $n$, with coefficients in $\mathbb Z$. "Describe" (in some sense) ...
2
votes
0answers
39 views

Put positive polynomial in finite intersection of half-spaces

This is a cross-posting of a MSE question (which did not attract any attention there so far). Denote by $V={\mathcal P}_{n,d}$ the space of polynomials in $n$ variables with degree at most $d$, ...
0
votes
0answers
90 views

Two Different Representations of Multivariate Bernstein Polynomials

In the literature the multivariate Bernstein polynomial of a function $f:[0,1]^m\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ is often defined as the following: $$B_{f,n}(x_1,\dots,x_m)=\sum_{\mathbf{k}\in ...
1
vote
0answers
230 views

Algebraic Independence of Polynomials in n Variables with Real Coefficients

I am considering the problem of determining the algebraic independence of $n$ polynomials in $m$ variables with real coefficients, where $m \geq n$. The variables will be denoted by $a_{1}, a_{2}, ... ...
7
votes
1answer
273 views

Is the evaluation of polynomial functors appropriately continuous?

I'd like a nice proof of the following fact. Let $C$ and $D$ be categories, and let $\mathbf{Cat}/(C\times D)$ be the usual (1-categorical) slice category whose objects are triples $(X,F\colon X\to ...
1
vote
0answers
129 views

Polynomials satisfying a three-term recurrence

Let ${p_n}(x) = x{p_{n - 1}}(x) - {a_{n - 2}}{p_{n - 2}}(x)$ for some numbers ${a_n}$ with initial values ${p_{ - 1}}(x) = 0$ and ${p_0}(x) = 1.$ By Favard’s theorem about orthogonal polynomials ...
7
votes
0answers
220 views

When adding a constant makes a multivariate polynomial reducible?

Given a multivariate polynomial $f(x_1,\dots,x_n)$ with integer coefficients, how to find an integer $m$ (if it exists) such that $f(x_1,\dots,x_n) + m$ factors into polynomials of smaller degrees? ...
9
votes
2answers
594 views

When polynomial f(x^2) can be factored as g(x)·g(-x) ?

In relation to my question Expression for the sum of square roots of zeros of a polynomial How to characterize polynomials $f(x)$ with rational coefficients such that $f(x^2)=g(x)\cdot g(-x)$ where ...
1
vote
2answers
190 views

Transformation of a bivariate polynomial into a homogeneous one

For a given a bivariate polynomial $P(x,y)$ with rational coefficients: Q1. How compute such (invertible) substitutions of its variables that would transform the polynomial into a homogeneous one? In ...
6
votes
2answers
433 views

Expression for the sum of square roots of zeros of a polynomial

Let $f(x)$ be a polynomial of degree $n$ with rational coefficients whose zeroes are nonnegative real numbers: $x_1, \dots, x_n\geq 0$. General question. Does there exist a simple expression for the ...
1
vote
1answer
230 views

Homogenous polynomials as sum or differences of squares and symmetric polynomials

I seem to recall that a general homogenous real polynomial $P$ of even degree in $n$ variables, $n\geq 3,$ cannot always be expressed as $P(x_1,\dotsc,x_n)=\sum_j a_j Q_j^2(x_1,\dotsc,x_n)$ where $a_j ...
8
votes
1answer
499 views

Polynomial with all zeros on a circle and many real coefficients

On a circle (or a line) $\Omega$ in the complex plane that is not symmetric w.r.t. the real axis, choose $n\ge5$ distinct points $z_1,...,z_n$ and consider the polynomial ...
1
vote
2answers
215 views

Reducing system of polynomials with symbolic factors

Getting nowhere with maple using its triangularize and groebner decompositions for even moderate size systems with any symbolic factors. Any suggestions on how better to approach this would be ...
11
votes
0answers
156 views

Hilbert's Theorem on $L_2$ norm of polynomials in $\mathbb{Z}[X]$ - Explicit construction and a converse?

Consider the set of polynomials with real coefficients as a vector space with the following inner-product: $\langle f, g \rangle = \int_{a}^{b} f(x)g(x) dx$. Hilbert showed, in a paper from 1893, ...
4
votes
1answer
343 views

Inequality on Trigonometric polynomials

My question comes from trying to understand a technical step in this paper by Bourgain. Let $R,L$ be positive integers and let $f(x)=\sum_{|n|\leq RL}a_ne^{2\pi inx}$ be a trigonometric polynomial. ...
5
votes
1answer
224 views

A “known” Pythagorean identity in algebra?

Some will recognize this as similar to a question I asked before, but I want to ask it without the trigonometry. Let $e_k$ be the $k$th-degree elementary symmetric polynomial in $x_1,x_2,x_3,\ldots$. ...
0
votes
2answers
469 views

On reducible polynomials with positive coefficients, $1$ as constant coefficient and certain bounds on coefficients

Given $a \in \mathbb{Z}$ with $a > 1$. Let $g(x) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ be a polynomial with $g(a)=\pm 1$. Let $h(x) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ be a polynomial with $h(a)= p$, a prime. Let $g(x)$ and $h(x)$ ...
2
votes
3answers
502 views

Decomposing irreducible polynomials with a prescribed condition - Existence

Let $f(x)$ be an irreducible polynomial in $\mathbb{Z}[x]$ or $\mathbb{F}_{q}[x]$ with $deg(f(x)) \ge 2$ (assume constant coefficient is $1$). Let $a \in \mathbb{Z}$ or $\mathbb{F}_{q}$. Let $f(a)$ ...
6
votes
0answers
355 views

How many values a polynomial map misses?

Let $F$ be a field. For a uni-variate polynomial $f(x)$ over $F$,let $M_f(F)$ denote the number of values that $f$ misses, that is, the cardinality of the subset $F - f(F)$ in $F$. Assume that $f$ is ...
2
votes
3answers
2k views

Intersection of Cones in Three Space

In several branches of applied mathematics the problem arises to describe the intersection of two cones in three space. I have searched and found a few references that discuss the problem for cones ...
3
votes
1answer
128 views

Decision problem wrt Pairs of Polynomials with Integer Coefficients

Given two arbitrary polynomials $G(x)$ and $H(y)$, with integer coefficents, are there any circumstances in which it is possible to decide whether or not $G(x) = H(y)$ has solutions with $x, y \in ...
0
votes
1answer
93 views

Probability of summing products of irreducible polynomials in a finite field to zero

Let $f(x), g(x), h(x)$ be randomly chosen irreducible polynomials over the finite field $GF(2^n)$. What would the probability be for $\sum_{(i,j,k:i,j,k\in\mathbb{N},i+j+k=C)} f^i(x)g^j(x)h^k(x)=0$, ...
1
vote
0answers
338 views

Properties of a rational function of multiple variables

Suppose you are given a multivariable rational function f(x0,x1,x2,x3,..,xn), so the only four operation are +,-,*,/. Assume that all constants and exponents are integers within certain range. I ...
11
votes
0answers
518 views

Is OEIS A007018 really a subsequence of squarefree numbers?

A comment in A007018 a(n) = a(n-1)^2 + a(n-1), a(0)=1 claims Subsequence of squarefree numbers (A005117). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Nov 15 2004 Is it really so? As far as I know, it is open problem ...
0
votes
1answer
161 views

minimal spans of polynomial companions of co-prime polynomials.

Is there an algorithm to determine for given $P,Q$ in $\mathbb Z[x,x^{-1}]$ with $gcd(P,Q)=1$, the value of $min\lbrace Span(A)+Span(B): A,B\in \mathbb Z[x,x^{-1}],\ A\cdot P+B\cdot Q=1\rbrace$, where ...
7
votes
1answer
354 views

Constructive proof of “Projective implies proper”

For every ring $A$, the structural morphism of schemes $\pi_A : {\bf P}^n_{A} \to {\rm Spec}{A}$ is a closed map. The usual proof of this fact is not constructive : given equations of a closed subset ...
1
vote
0answers
346 views

What is $f(x)$ if $f^{-1}(x)=\frac{\ln(x+1)}{\ln x}$? [closed]

I asked this on MSE but no one could get it. http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/257455/inverse-function-of-y-frac-lnx1-ln-x It's been bothering me for a really long time. I think it's equivalent ...
17
votes
0answers
433 views

What is the best probabilistic estimate from below for a random polynomial on an arc?

I'm currently involved in a small (but quite time consuming) project where we are trying to get some decent bound for the number $N(P)$ of real zeroes of a random polynomial $P(x)=\sum_{k=0}^n\xi_k ...
0
votes
1answer
274 views

Polynomial version of the conjecture about Power free-values of polynomials

The conjecture about Power free-values of polynomials is: Let $F(X)$ be a polynomial with integer coefficients and no repeated roots. For any $\epsilon > 0$, there exists a constant ...
1
vote
1answer
282 views

Combinatorics: Product Rules.

I couldn't find a way to figure this out, though it is a somewhat basic question that came up when studying the stationary phase expansion of an integral. The abstract version is the following: I ...
0
votes
1answer
334 views

transform a polynomial into another one upto a constant

I have a polynomial $p(x)=a_Nx^N+a_{N-1}x^{N-1}+\dots+a_0$. I want to convert this into another polynomial of same order, say $b_Ny^N+b_{N-1}y^{N-1}+\dots+b_0$. Is it possible to find a transformation ...
4
votes
5answers
413 views

Spectrum of transition matrix for symmetric random walk

I asked this question previously on math.stackexchange.com, where it had little traction. Consider the symmetric random walk on $\{0,1,…,n\}$ with transition probabilities $P(j→j±1)=1/2$ for $0 ...
3
votes
2answers
223 views

Hausdorff dimension of Julia sets of quadratics not in the Mandelbrot set.

What are the bounds on the possible values of the Hausdorff dimension of the Julia sets of quadratics not in the Mandelbrot set? In particular, assume we have a quadratic $q_c: z \mapsto z^2 + c$ on ...
8
votes
3answers
443 views

Relating a Polynomial equation to the characteristic equation of a Hermitian matrix

This question arose out of mere curiosity. Given a polynomial equation and I happen to know that its roots are real (but not the roots itself). Does it mean it is the characteristic equation of a ...