Questions in which polynomials (single or several variables) play a key role. It is typically important that this tag is combined with other tags; polynomials appear in very different contexts. Please, use at least one of the top-level tags, such as nt.number-theory, co.combinatorics, ...

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5
votes
1answer
268 views

Is an ideal generated by multilinear, irreducible, homogeneous polynomials of different degrees always radical?

I asked this question on math.se and someone even put a bounty on it, yet there was no answer. Hence, I am asking here. Assume $\Bbbk$ to be a field of characteristic zero. Definition. A ...
4
votes
3answers
308 views

Set of primes dividing polynomials and composition

For a non-constant polynomial $A \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$, let $\mathcal{P}(A)$ denote the set of prime numbers $p$ which divide $A(n)$ for some integer $n$. If $\mathcal{P}(A) \subseteq \mathcal{P}(B)$ for ...
4
votes
0answers
98 views

Is the normalised Kauffman bracket more powerful than the Kauffman bracket?

The Kauffman bracket polynomial for a knot diagram $D$ is a Laurent polynomial $\langle D \rangle \in \mathbb{Z}[A, A^{-1}]$. Although it is invariant under Reidemeister moves of type II and III, ...
3
votes
0answers
131 views

Basis of multivariate polynomials with a specified set of roots

I'm studying certain polynomials of 2 complex variables, say x and y. These polynomials have roots at the non-negative integers, that is both $x$ and $y$ have to be $x,y \in \mathbb{N}$ ...
2
votes
4answers
922 views

Solving a System of Quadratic Equations

I have many polynomial equations in many variables which I want to jointly minimize (in a mean square sense, but you could pick a different reasonable measure which favors anything where all ...
2
votes
1answer
118 views

Irreducibility of trinomials over number fields

I wonder if the following is known or, not very difficult to see: Let $K$ be a number field and $\alpha \in K$ be nonzero. Does there necessarily exist a positive integer $n > 1$ such that the ...
14
votes
4answers
653 views

Distribution of roots of complex polynomials

I generated random quadratic and cubic polynomials with coefficients in $\mathbb{C}$ uniformly distributed in the unit disk $|z| \le 1$. The distribution of the roots of 10000 of these polynomials are ...
4
votes
1answer
296 views

On composition of polynomials

Given two irreducible polynomials $f_{u}(x),f_{r}(x) \in \Bbb Q[x]$, can one find two polynomials or rational functions $h_{u}(x),h_{r}(x) \in \Bbb Q[x]$ or $\Bbb Q(x)$ respectively such ...
7
votes
3answers
355 views

How few terms may appear in a polynomial with given (cyclotomic) roots and nonnegative coefficients?

Given $W \subset \mathbb C$, let $S_W$ be the set of polynomials in $\mathbb R[x]$ that vanish on $W$ and have only nonnegative coefficients. Warm-up question: It's clear that if $W$ contains a ...
1
vote
1answer
297 views

Is there a quick way to find all roots of a real polynomial with multiple variables?

If I am asked to find the roots of a polynomial of one variable, I will use a computer to estimate the eigenvalues of its companion matrix. Now suppose I'm given a real polynomial of multiple ...
1
vote
0answers
153 views

Every antisymmetric (alternating) polynomial is divisible by Vandermonde product

I am looking for a proof of the statement: Every antisymmetric (alternating) polynomial is divisible by Vandermonde product, yielding a symmetric polynomial in the result. The statement is really ...
3
votes
1answer
140 views

Irreducibility of trinomials

I wonder if the following is known or, not very difficult to see: Let $K$ be a number field and $A, B \in \mathcal{O}_K$ be nonzero integers of $K$. Does there necessarily exist a positive integer $n ...
1
vote
1answer
144 views

If $F(a_1,\ldots,a_k)=0$ whenever $a_1,\ldots,a_k$ are integers such that $f(x)=x^k-a_1x^{k-1}-\cdots-a_k$ is irreducible, then $F\equiv0$

I'm trying to understand a proof of the following theorem (from section II of Hall's paper An Isomorphism Between Linear Recurring Sequences and Algebraic Rings): If $F(a_1, \ldots, a_k)$ is a ...
0
votes
1answer
156 views

Integral points on genus 0 curves related to polynomial identities

Consider the identity $$(x+1)^5+(y+1)^5 = (2x + 6y) ( -x +y )^4 + f(x,y)$$ where $f(x,y)=-x^5 + 2*x^4*y + 12*x^3*y^2 - 28*x^2*y^3 + 22*x*y^4 - 5*y^5 + 5*x^4 + 5*y^4 + 10*x^3 + 10*y^3 + 10*x^2 + ...
6
votes
3answers
392 views

Idempotent polynomials

Let $R$ be a commutative ring with identity and let $f \in R[x]$. There are well known characterizations for $f$ to be a nilpotent element of $R[x]$ or to have a multiplicative inverse in $R[x]$. Is ...
0
votes
0answers
90 views

Bound on a sum of Laguerre polynomials

I am trying to find an asymptotic behavior, for large real $t$, of the following sum \begin{align} Q(t)=\sum_{0\le n\le t}e^{-(t-n)}\frac{t-n}{1+n}L_n^{(1)}(t-n) \end{align} where $L_n^{(\alpha)}$ is ...
9
votes
3answers
698 views

Why is the gcd so large in an identity related to the $abc$ conjecture?

Consider the identity $$ (x+z)^5+(y-z)^5 = (-3 x + 4 y)^2 (x + y)^3 + (x+y) f(x,y,z) $$ Where $f(x,y,z)=(-8*x^4 + 5*x^3*y + 24*x^2*y^2 - 9*x*y^3 - 15*y^4 + 5*x^3*z - 5*x^2*y*z + 5*x*y^2*z - 5*y^3*z + ...
2
votes
0answers
79 views

Usefulness of polynomial ideals for graphs

Given a graph $G=(V,E)$ on $n$ vertices, one can associate to it the polynomial $f \in k[x_1,\dots,x_n]$ given by $f = \prod_{\{i,j\}\in E}(x_i - x_j)$. Then one can map various graph properties into ...
27
votes
3answers
1k views

Are surjectivity and injectivity of polynomial functions from $\mathbb{Q}^n$ to $\mathbb{Q}$ algorithmically decidable?

Is there an algorithm which, given a polynomial $f \in \mathbb{Q}[x_1, \dots, x_n]$, decides whether the mapping $f: \mathbb{Q}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{Q}$ is surjective, respectively, injective? -- And ...
5
votes
2answers
141 views

Collision polynomials

Consider $P_n(x)$ polynomials defined through the recurrence relations $$P_n(x)=2(1-x)P_{n-1}(x)-(1+x)^2P_{n-2}(x),$$ with $P_0(x)=1$ and $P_1(x)=1-3x$. In fact, the explicit solution of these ...
7
votes
2answers
175 views

Finding a low-degree polynomial vanishing on half the zeroes of a polynomial system

Let $f(x)$ be a real polynomial of degree $2d$ without real roots. Let the complex roots be $z_1$, $\bar{z_1}$, $z_2$, $\bar{z_2}$, ..., $z_d$, $\bar{z_d}$ with $z_i$ in the upper half plane. Let ...
4
votes
0answers
155 views

Pair of two-variable polynomial equations of high order

I have the following pair of equations to be solved for two variables $\rho$ and $D$ resulting from a certain Maximum Likelihood Estimation for a time series $X_n > 0$, $n=0, \ldots, N+1$ with $N ...
2
votes
1answer
96 views

Degree principles for non-symmetric polynomials

A theorem of Timofte says that a symmetric polynomial inequality of degree $d$ holds on $\mathbb{R}^{n}_{+}$ if and only if it holds for all vectors in $\mathbb{R}^{n}_{+}$ with at most $\max\{\lfloor ...
8
votes
1answer
311 views

certain trigonometric homeomorphisms

Are there any simple characterizations of rational functions $f(x,y)$ with real coefficients such that $\theta\mapsto f(\cos\theta,\sin\theta)$ is a homeomorphism from $\mathbb R\bmod 2\pi$ to ...
0
votes
0answers
61 views

derivative of the logarithm of a complete homogeneous polynomials

I have the following complete homogeneous polynomial of degree $r$: $p_(x_1, x_2,...x_n) = \sum_{i_1 + i_2 + ... +i_n = r, i_k\in {0,1,..r}} \phi_{i_1}(x_2)\phi_{i_2}(x_2)...\phi_{i_n}(x_n) $ where ...
4
votes
4answers
517 views

The Icosahedron Equation

$$1728 V^5 + F^3 = E^2 \;.$$ Can anyone point me to a concise, modern derivation and explanation of the significance of the icosahedron equation, more modern and concise than Klein's description in ...
1
vote
1answer
87 views

“Symmetric” Polynomial 4-cocycles

It is an old theorem of Heaton's (based on work of Eilenberg and MacLane), that a polynomial 3-cocycle $f(x,y,z)$ which is "symmetric," in the sense that $f(x,y,z)-f(x,z,y)+f(z,x,y)=0$, is always a ...
8
votes
1answer
333 views

Least prime $p$ such that an irreducible polynomial of degree $n$ has no root modulo $p$?

This question is inspired by an old question of Greg Kuperberg, about how small is the first prime $p$ which makes a given monic polynomial $P$ with integral coefficient have a (simple) root modulo ...
30
votes
2answers
1k views

A question on maps from $\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$ to itself

Let $p\geq 3$ be a prime number, and let $u:\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}\to \mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$ be a map such that, for all $l\in \mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$,$l\neq 0$, the map $k\mapsto u(k+l)-u(k)$ is a ...
3
votes
2answers
318 views

Counting polynomials with same coefficient sum and a given value at a point

Call an univariate polynomial $f(x) = \sum_{i=0}^{n}a_{i}x^{i} \in \Bbb{Z}[x]$ symmetric if $a_{i} = a_{n-i}$ and $a_{0} = a_{n} > 0$. For a given $\sum_{i=0}^{n}a_{i}$ and $a_{i} \geq 0$, how ...
2
votes
1answer
177 views

Algorithm for representing a polynomial as a composition of lower degree polynomials

Let $q$ be a large prime and $e$ an integer such that $GCD(e,q-1)=1$. Let $p(x)$ be a polynomial of degree $e^n$ with coefficients in $\mathbb Z_q$ such that there exists a progression of polynomials ...
0
votes
0answers
85 views

Enumerating certain bounded polynomials with partition type property constraints

Let $p(x) = a_{0} + a_{1}x + a_{2}x^{2} + \dots + a_{d}x^{d} + \dots + a_{2d+\alpha}x^{2d+\alpha} \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ where $\alpha \in \{0,1\}$ with the constraints $(1)$ $0 \leq ...
2
votes
1answer
238 views

Is there an irreducible integral polynomial in two variables which is reducible for every value of one of the variables?

Is there a polynomial $f(x,y)$ in two variables, with integer coefficients, such that $f$ is irreducible over the complex numbers (i.e., in $\mathbb{C}[x,y]$), but for every integer $n$, the ...
22
votes
1answer
972 views

Zeros of polynomials with real positive coefficients

The following problem arose in collaborative work with Subhro Ghosh: Question: To any polynomial $P_n(z)=\sum_{i=0}^n a_i z^i =a_n \prod_{i=1}^n(z-z_i)$, attach the empirical measure of zeros ...
1
vote
0answers
48 views

Jack symmetric functions and their inner products

I have some questions regarding Jack polynomials. I use the notation of of I.G. Macdonald's book "Symmetric Functions and Hall polynomials". Let $\Lambda$ be the ring of symmetric functions over ...
1
vote
2answers
141 views

Polynomials giving Lower Degree Elements in an Algebraic Number Field

My earlier related question Lower Degree Elements in an Algebraic Number Field has been given a clean answer for the first part. My present question is below: Take a number field ...
3
votes
0answers
138 views

Irreducibility of the trinomial over Q

I'm trying to find an algebraic proof of irreducibility of the polynomial $x^n-x-1$ over rational numbers (or integers, which the same). I've read the Selmer's paper "On the irreducibility of certain ...
1
vote
2answers
307 views

Existence of non-trivial solution to non linear polynomial system

I need to find conditions for the existence of non-trivial solutions to a multivariable polynomial system in two cases: The first case: $f1: a_1x^2+a_2xy+a_3y^2+a_4z^2=0$ $f2: ...
18
votes
3answers
936 views

Freeness of a Z[x]-module

Definition: Call a mapping $f: \mathbb{Z} \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}$ a generalized polynomial if for any distinct integers $m$ and $n$ we have $(m - n)|(f(m)-f(n))$. It is easy to check that polynomial ...
1
vote
1answer
105 views

Special values of continuous q - Hermite polynomials

The continuous $q-$Hermite polynomials are defined by $${H_{n + 1}}(x|q) = 2x{H_n}(x|q) +( {q^n}-1){H_{n - 1}}(x|q)$$ with initial values ${H_{ - 1}}(x|q) = 0$ and ${H_0}(x|q) = 1.$ Cf. e.g. ...
2
votes
0answers
153 views

Reducing a System of Polynomial Equations

I am currently writing a program in SAGE which computes Nilpotent Orbit Varieties for an Algebraic Geometry research project and I have reduced my problem to the following: Consider a system of ...
3
votes
1answer
267 views

Bounding Roots of a Polynomial by Coefficients

I'm using Samuelson's result and a chapter from Marden's monograph "The Geometry of Polynomials". These are sophisticated results. Are these independent from the Jury-Cohn test to show that a ...
18
votes
5answers
612 views

Bass' stable range of $\mathbf Z[X]$

Let $n$ be a positive integer and $A$ be a commutative ring. The ring $A$ is said to be of Bass stable range $\mathrm{sr}(A)\leq n$ if for $a, a_1, \dots, a_n \in A$ one has the following implication: ...
7
votes
4answers
467 views

Minimal representation of a polynomial as a linear combination of squares

Given a polynomial of degree $2n$ over $\mathbb{Q}$, how to represent it as a linear combination (with rational coefficients) of squares of polynomials of degree at most $n$ over $\mathbb{Q}$ such ...
6
votes
1answer
400 views

Are roots of transcendental elements transcendental?

This looks extremely easy, but then again it's late at night... Let $k$ be a commutative ring with unity. An element $a$ of a $k$-algebra $A$ is said to be transcendental over $k$ if and only if ...
6
votes
0answers
288 views

Polynomials and divided differences

I would greatly appreciate any hint for proving the following. Question: Let $f:[0, 1] \to {\bf R}$. Can it be proved that if $[0, 1/(N+m),\dots, (N+m)/(N+m) ; f ]=0$ for all $m=1,2, 3,\dots$, then ...
1
vote
1answer
272 views

Help me on proof of an equation.

I wanna prove following equation $ \sum_{i=1}^n \prod_{k=1,k\neq i}^n \prod_{j=1,j\neq k}^{n+1}(x_j - x_k) = -\prod_{i=1}^n \prod_{j=1,j\neq i}^n (x_j - x_i) $ I have verified several numbers such as ...
1
vote
1answer
456 views

common roots of bivariate polynomial equations

Let $f(x,y)=0$ and $g(x,y)=0$ be bivariate polynomial equations where the polynomials have the same degree, say, $N\geq 3$. Furthermore, both of them have the same terms but different coefficients. ...
3
votes
0answers
154 views

identity for number of monomials

Fix a positive integer $d \geq 2$, and let $n,k$ be natural numbers with $k \leq n$. Let $b(n,k)$ denote the number of monomials of degree $kd-(n+1)$ in $n+1$ variables $x_0,\ldots,x_n$ with all ...
3
votes
1answer
270 views

Algebraic closure of a polynomial ring

What could be conditions on $k\in\mathbb{C}[x,y,z]$ that would ensure that any polynomial $f\in\mathbb{C}[x,y,z]$ that is algebraically dependent of $k$ is indeed a polynomial in $k$, ie ...