Questions in which polynomials (single or several variables) play a key role. It is typically important that this tag is combined with other tags; polynomials appear in very different contexts. Please, use at least one of the top-level tags, such as nt.number-theory, co.combinatorics, ...

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3
votes
0answers
49 views

numerical stability of root identification via Newton-Raphson iteration of Stieltjes residue sums

I have asked several questions on math.SE in order to compute numerically the poles of high-degree Padé approximations for $e^{-x}$, because a computation directly from the polynomial ...
0
votes
0answers
68 views

On a (possible?) equivalence of Bunyakovsky conjecture

Dirichlet's Theorem on primes in arithmetical progressions is equivalent to the following statement: for all integer numbers $a,b$, where $\gcd(a,b)=1$, there exists at least one prime of the form ...
2
votes
0answers
117 views

Zeros of polynomials modulo non-prime

Suppose I have a set S and I want to find a polynomial p such that $p(s) = 0 \mod n$ if $s \in S$, and that it is non-zero modulo n otherwise. In the literature such an S is sometimes called a root ...
4
votes
0answers
82 views

symmetric systems of polynomial equations

Suppose I have a polynomial $p(x_1,...,x_N)$ in $N$ complex variables, and I wish to solve $p(x_{\pi(1)},...,x_{\pi(N)})=0$ for all permutations $\pi \in S_N$. Clearly this is overdetermined for ...
2
votes
1answer
92 views

Pointwise convergence of polynomials to a function on a compact set K that is 1 on some disc D and zero outside D

Motivation of my question: Let $A$ be a bounded selfadjoint operator with spectral measure $E$ and $x$ a vector. Then it is easily seen that the closed linear span of all $A^nx$ ($n\in\mathbb N$) ...
3
votes
0answers
277 views

A relation between a ring with its polynomial ring

Let $\{f_i(x)\}_{i\in I}$ be a subset of $R[x]$ where $R[x]$ is the polynomial ring of $R$(a commutative ring with identity). If the ring $R/\langle f_i^2(n)-f_i(n)\rangle_{i\in I, n\in A}$, for every ...
0
votes
2answers
97 views

Number of polynomial terms for certain degree and certain number of variables

I would like to calculate the maximum number of polynomial terms given a certain number of variables and a certain degree. eg. given that the number of variables is 2 and the degree is 3, the maximum ...
5
votes
2answers
98 views

(Re)construction of a polygon from all inter-vertex distances

For a $n$-polygon in $\mathbb{R}^3$ the set of distances between all pairs of vertices is given. (How) is it possible to reconstruct the geometric structure of the polygone? Symbolically: For a set ...
0
votes
2answers
487 views

What is wrong with this counterexample to the Weak Bunyakovsky's conjecture and reformulation of Bunyakovsky's conjecture?

From HYPOTHESIS H AND AN IMPOSSIBILITY THEOREM OF RAM MURTY. On p. 13 BUNYAKOVSKY’S CONJECTURE ( WEAK FORM ). Let $f$ be a polynomial with integer coefficients and positive leading coefficients ...
4
votes
0answers
158 views

Plane real curves such that their intersections with lines are hyperbolic

Let $R$ be an (irreducible) plane real algebraic curve (without isolated points). Consider Zarissky closure of $R$ in ${\mathbb C}P^1$ (as real variety). Suppose that $\lambda\in R ...
10
votes
0answers
189 views

Precise relationship between “finite” Fourier analysis and Galois theory in solving the cubic?

Suppose we want to solve$$x^3 - ax^2 + bx - c = 0.$$We know a priori that this can be factored as $(x - r_0)(x - r_1)(x - r_2)$; by Vieta's formulas, we know$$a = r_0 + r_1 + r_2,\quad b = r_0r_1 + ...
20
votes
1answer
882 views

Why can the general quintic be transformed to $v^5-5\beta v^3+10\beta^2v-\beta^2 = 0$?

The quintic can be transformed to the one-parameter Brioschi quintic, $$u^5-10\alpha u^3+45\alpha^2u-\alpha^2 = 0\tag1$$ This form is well-known for its connection to the symmetries of the ...
12
votes
1answer
1k views

Is Lehmer's polynomial solvable?

The degree 10 polynomial $$\displaystyle x^{10} + x^9 - x^7 - x^6 - x^5 - x^4 - x^3 + x + 1$$ given by D.H. Lehmer in 1933 has the property that its largest real root, $\beta = 1.176280 \cdots$ is ...
2
votes
2answers
375 views

Polynomials which always assume perfect power values

Let $f(x)$ be a non-constant polynomial with integer coefficients. It is a well-known result that if $f(n)$ is a square for all integers $n$, then $f$ must in fact be the square of a polynomial (see, ...
2
votes
0answers
119 views

Integral representation of the complex homogeneous polynomial $z_1\cdots z_n$

Consider the transform (see e.g., (5.1) in this paper): \begin{equation*} \Lambda_\mu(q)(z) := \int_{\Delta_n} ...
6
votes
2answers
265 views

non commutative polynomial which is zero for all matrix evaluation

I want to work on $K$ an algebraic closed (commutative) field of characteristic zero (even if it seems to be more general). We can define the free K-algebra of polynomials in non commutative ...
1
vote
0answers
108 views

Algebraic independence criterion

Is there any criterion for checking algebraic independence of a set of polynomials in $n$ variables in terms of the leading monomials with respect to some monomial order ? The Jacobian criterion is ...
24
votes
4answers
841 views

Deep/precise relationship between two approaches to FLT for polynomials, $n = 3$

David Speyer commented the following here. I saw Brian Conrad give an excellent one hour talk to undergraduates where he proved that there do not exist nonconstant, relatively prime, polynomials ...
8
votes
0answers
149 views

$k[x_1, \dots, x_n]$ is free iff $\mathbb{C}[x_1, \dots, x_n]^G \otimes \text{Harm}(\mathbb{R}^n, G) \to k[x_1, \dots, x_n]$ isomorphism?

For any subgroup $G \subset \text{GL}_n(\mathbb{R})$ the set $\mathbb{C}[x_1, \dots, x_n]^G$, of $G$-invariant polynomials, is a graded subalgebra of $\mathbb{C}[x_1, \dots, x_n]$, resp. the set ...
3
votes
0answers
52 views

$G$-harmonic polynomials, dimension of $\text{Harm}(\mathbb{R}^n, S_n)$? [closed]

Definition. Let $\text{Harm}(\mathbb{R}^n, G)$ be the space of $G$-harmonic polynomials on $\mathbb{R}^n$. My question is, what is the dimension of $\text{Harm}(\mathbb{R}^n, S_n)$?
2
votes
0answers
75 views

$\mathbb{C}[x_1, \dots, x_n]$ is a free $\mathbb{C}[x_1, \dots, x_n]^{S_n}$-module with certain generators [duplicate]

Let the symmetric group $S_n$ act on $\mathbb{R}^n$ by permutation of coordinates. This makes $S_n$ a subgroup of $\text{GL}_n(\mathbb{R}$ and the algebra $\mathbb{C}[x_1, \dots, x_n]^{S_n}$ is the ...
12
votes
2answers
565 views

No nonconstant coprime polynomials $a(t)$, $b(t)$, $c(t) \in \mathbb{C}[t]$ where $a(t)^3 + b(t)^3 = c(t)^3$

See David Speyer's answer here. I saw Brian Conrad give an excellent one hour talk to undergraduates where he proved that there do not exist nonconstant, relatively prime, polynomials $a(t)$, ...
1
vote
1answer
136 views

Connection between the Chebyshev polynomials and the Faber polynomials

From a comment on this question: @draks, there is a connection between the Chebyshev polynomials and the Faber polynomials (a.k.a. Shur polynomials), which 'invert" the cyclic partition ...
2
votes
0answers
53 views

How to approximate higher-degree multivariate polynomial in space of lower-degree multivariate polynomials with some constraints?

For a polynomial $P_{1}(x)$, $x\in {\mathbb R}^n$ with a higher-degree, how to find a lower-degree polynomial $P_{2}(x)$ with determined structure or bounded degree to approximate it with the ...
0
votes
2answers
275 views

Is there a way to find out how many distinct roots a polynomial has? [closed]

Let say we have an arbitrary polynomial over the reals, and we do not know whether it is separable or not. Is there some algorithm to find the number of roots it has in the complex number?
11
votes
1answer
434 views

$\pi e$ and an unfamiliar polynomial

Ever since my exposure to this integral involving $\pi e$, I've conjectured and set about evaluating the possible nature of the following integral $$\int_0^1 x^m \sin(\pi x) x^x (1-x)^{1-x} \ dx, ...
29
votes
2answers
973 views

Polynomial $g:\mathbb R^n \rightarrow\mathbb R^n$ with no critical point may have no root

Version 1 (solved): If $g$ : $\mathbb R^n \rightarrow \mathbb R^n$ is a polynomial, $Dg(x)$ is non-degenerate for every $x$, then there exists $x$, such that $g(x)=0$. Version 2: If $f$ : $\mathbb R^n ...
3
votes
0answers
69 views

Is there a natural covariant of sextic polynomials with the following coefficients?

Let $$\displaystyle f(x) = a_6 x^6 + a_5 x^5 + a_4 x^4 + a_3 x^3 + a_2 x^2 + a_1 x + a_0 $$ be an irreducible sextic polynomial with integer coefficients. Write $\theta_1, \cdots, \theta_6$ for the ...
4
votes
1answer
259 views

Is the Veronese variety “enough” to describe all the $SL(V)$-orbits in $\mathbb{P}(\textrm{Sym}^dV)$?

I apologise in advance if the question will look ridicolous to experienced eyes: in this case a good reference will be enough to clarify my doubts. Let $V$ be a complex vector space of dimension $n$, ...
3
votes
1answer
291 views

If $F(x,y)$ is a polynomial which is not a square, then how often is the specialization $F(x,a)$ a square?

Suppose $F(x,y)$ is a polynomial in two variables over a field $K$, and $F(x,y)$ is not a square. When is $F(x,a)$ a square for $a\in K$? I would guess that Hilbert's Irreducibility Theorem might help ...
6
votes
2answers
386 views

Seeking an explanation for a peculiar factorization

Recently during my work, I encountered the following family of sextic polynomials $$\displaystyle x^6 - 3x^5 + cx^4 + (5 - 2c)x^3 + cx^2 - 3x + 1.$$ By plugging in various values of $c$, I noticed ...
3
votes
2answers
153 views

Rings all of whose torsion modules are cyclic

Let us call a (possibly non-commutative) ring $R$ "very good" if every finitely generated torsion left $R$-module is cyclic. Here is an example of such a ring: Let $k=\mathbb{C}((t))$ and let ...
19
votes
0answers
321 views

Zero curves of Tutte Polynomials?

There is an extensive theory of the real and complex roots of the chromatic polynomial of a graph, a substantial fraction of this being due to the connections between the chromatic polynomial and a ...
6
votes
0answers
106 views

About the properities of sum of powers of items in a polynomial

Given a polynomial $f_1=a_1x+a_2x^2+\cdots+a_{p-1}x^{p-1}\in\mathbb{Z}[x]/(x^{p}-1)$, with prime $p$, we may generate the other $p-1$ polynomials: \begin{eqnarray*} ...
12
votes
0answers
194 views

Is $F_{f, c, \ell}$ a $G$-harmonic polynomial?

Let $G \subset \text{GL}_n(\mathbb{C})$ be a finite subgroup. The group $G$ acts naturally on $\mathbb{C}^1[\mathbb{C}^n]$ the space of degree $1$ homogeneous polynomials in $x_1, \dots, x_n$, i..e, ...
0
votes
0answers
162 views

How to find solutions for four polynomial equations with four unknown variables using Resultant Theory

Can I use resultant theory (or polynomial resultant method) to find solutions for four simultaneous polynomial equations with four unknown variables? So far, I could only find examples which uses two ...
0
votes
0answers
105 views

Quotient modules of polynomial rings by maximal one-sided ideal

Let $R[X]$ be a ring of polynomials over an associative unital ring $R$ which is not necessarily commutative. Let $M$ be a maximal left ideal in $R[X]$. It is easy to see that if the intersection of ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Complexity of finding algebraic dependency of polynomials over the rationals or in a finite field?

Let $f_1,\ldots f_m \in K[x_1,\ldots,x_n]$ where $K$ is $\mathbb{Q}$ or a finite field. Q1 What is the complexity of finding all algebraic dependencies between $f_i$? Q2 What is the ...
11
votes
0answers
119 views

GPS calculations under $L^p$ norms

GPS calculations require finding a sphere externally tangent to four given spheres, an Apollonian problem in $\mathbb{R}^3$. The center of that fifth sphere is one of the $16$ possible solutions to ...
15
votes
3answers
778 views

Cyclotomic polynomials: $\Phi_n(p)$ is like $p^{\phi(n)}$ for big enough $p$, right?

Apologies in advance if this turns out to be simple. So far I haven't found a proof or a reference. Although I like $p$ to be a prime, I can ask the following for positive integers $n$ and $p$, ...
3
votes
1answer
110 views

How to deduce the recursive derivative formula of B-spline basis?

Description Let $\vec{U}=\{u_0,u_1,\ldots,u_m\}$ denotes a non-decreasing sequence of real numbers, i.e, $u_i\leq u_{i+1} \quad i=0,1,2\ldots m-1$. and the $i$-th B-spline basis function of ...
2
votes
0answers
58 views

Hermite interpolation

I need a help to my problem, I would be grateful if anyone could help. Let $\epsilon \in [0,1]$ and for an integer $n$ we consider a set of nodes $T_n={t_0,t_1,....t_n}$. We define the function ...
1
vote
2answers
227 views

When is there a closed form for $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{P(n)}{Q(n)}$?

This is a follow up on a previous question of mine. Out of curiosity, I am wondering more generally when a closed form exists for $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{P(n)}{Q(n)}$$ where $P$ and $Q$ are ...
2
votes
2answers
118 views

Invariant polynomials under the action of $H\le\operatorname{GL}_n(\mathbb{F}_p)$

Let $n$ be a positive integer, and $p$ a prime. Any subgroup $H\le \operatorname{GL}_n(\mathbb{F}_p)$ acts on the polynomial ring $\mathbb{F}_p[x_1,\ldots,x_n]$ via $A\cdot x_i=\sum_j a_{ji}x_j$ for ...
1
vote
2answers
150 views

Generic polynomial for alternating group ${A}_{4}$ is not correct

I was validating the percentage of cases where the generic two parameter polynomial for Galois group ${A}_{4}$ is valid. We have \begin{equation*} {f}^{{A}_{4}} \left({x, \alpha, \beta}\right) = ...
4
votes
0answers
162 views

A strange polynomial equality

In my answer to this question, I have obtained that the polynomial $p(x)$ of degree $2n$ with nonnegative values on $[-1,1]$ with $p(\pm1)=1$ has $\int_{-1}^1 p(x)\,dx\geq \frac{4}{(n+1)(n+2)}$, and ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

Showing that a particular area is small

Note: I posted this on math.stackexchange.com earlier (original post here: http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/1471331/showing-that-a-particular-area-is-small), but it received no responses and ...
18
votes
1answer
1k views

Are the following identities well known?

$$ x \cdot y = \frac{1}{2 \cdot 2 !} \left( (x + y)^2 - (x - y)^2 \right) $$ $$ \begin{eqnarray} x \cdot y \cdot z &=& \frac{1}{2^2 \cdot 3 !} ((x + y + z)^3 - (x + y - z)^3 \nonumber \\ ...
17
votes
2answers
408 views

Non-negative polynomials on $[0,1]$ with small integral

Let $P_n$ be the set of degree $n$ polynomials that pass through $(0,1)$ and $(1,1)$ and are non-negative on the interval $[0,1]$ (but may be negative elsewhere). Let $a_n = \min_{p\in P_n} \int_0^1 ...
5
votes
0answers
149 views

Determining N d-points yielding equal sums of Euclidean distances from M s-points

Given M source points (s-points), determine N, the number of destination points (d-points), and their locations (coordinates), such that the sum of the N Euclidean distances from each source point to ...