Questions in which polynomials (single or several variables) play a key role. It is typically important that this tag is combined with other tags; polynomials appear in very different contexts. Please, use at least one of the top-level tags, such as nt.number-theory, co.combinatorics, ac.commutative-...

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4
votes
1answer
180 views

Polynomial roots in the ring extension

Let $R$ be a ring with identity (not necessarily commutative) and $R[x]$ be a ring of polynomials over $R$. We say that a ring $S$ is an extension of $R$ if there is a subring $\tilde{R}$ in $S$ ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

Is the restriction of a graded automorphism of a polynomial ring to a polynomial subring linearizeable?

Let $k$ be a field and let $A=k[x_1,\dots,x_n]$ be a polynomial algebra over $k$, and let $B\subset A$ be a graded subalgebra that is itself a polynomial ring, i.e. $B=k[f_1,\dots,f_m]$ for some ...
3
votes
1answer
93 views

Sections of a linear system splitting as a product of degree one polynomials

Let $X\subset\mathbb{P}^n$ be a hypersurface of degree $d$ and with multiplicities $m_1,...,m_k$ at $p_1,...,p_k\in\mathbb{P}^n$ general points. Let $S\subseteq |\mathcal{O}_{\mathbb{P}^n}(d)|$ be ...
3
votes
0answers
109 views

When a ring is a polynomial ring?

In the paper (2.11) the authors show that if $k^*$ is a separable algebraic extension of $k$ and $x_1,x_2, \ldots, x_n$ are indeterminates over $k^*$ and a normal one dimensional ring $A$ with $k \...
1
vote
0answers
64 views

Multimodal property of polynomial logistic distribution

Let $P(x)$ be a polynomial (of an odd degree $n$) strictly increasing on $(-\infty, +\infty).$ Then $F(x)=\displaystyle \frac{1}{1+\exp\{-P(x)\}}$ is a distribution function of a polynomial logistic ...
5
votes
0answers
82 views

Result of Larsen and Lunts on rationality of power series with coefficients in a free abelian group

Let $G$ be a free abelian group (not necessarily finitely-generated) and $F$ be the fraction field of the group ring of $G$. Let $\Theta$ be the set of power series in $F[[t]]$ such that each nonzero ...
5
votes
2answers
201 views

Mahler measure of a totally positive, expanding algebraic integer

Consider a degree-$d$ algebraic integer $\alpha$ all of whose conjugates (including itself) are real numbers greater than 1. Its Mahler measure $M(\alpha)$ is simply equal to the norm $N(\alpha)$. ...
1
vote
1answer
102 views

Why polynomial $\psi^\top(t) A^{-1} \psi(t)$ attains maximum on $[-1, 1]$ at $t = \pm 1$, where $\psi_k(t) = t^k$?

Problem. Let $\psi(t) = (1, t, t^2, \ldots, t^{p-1})^\top$ - a polynomial basis. Suppose there is a matrix $$ A = \int_{-1}^1 \psi(t) \psi^\top(t) dt, \ \text{i.e. } \ A_{ij} = [2 \, | \, i+j] \...
3
votes
0answers
116 views

Average nastiness of a Newton polytope

Given a Newton polytope $P$ inside the $d$-scaled simplex ( i.e $\alpha \in P \implies | \alpha |=d $ ), then we define the following quantity: $$ P(x)= \left( \sum_{\alpha \in P} \binom{d}{\alpha}...
3
votes
0answers
172 views

Determinant of a certain Vandermonde matrix

Is there a closed form expression for the determinant of the $n\times n$ Vandermonde-type matrix $$A = \left(\begin{array}{} 1&g_1 & x_1&g_1 x_1 & x_1^2&g_1 x_1^2 & \cdots &...
5
votes
4answers
421 views

How do the roots of a polynomial change when another polynomial is added?

I need to obtain an analytical solution to an equation of the following form: $$ (x-a)(x-b)(x-c)=d(x-e)(x-f), $$ where $a$, $b$, $c$, $d$, $e$, and $f$ are known numbers and $x$ is the variable. Of ...
3
votes
1answer
122 views

How to embed $S^2\mathbb{C}^2$ into $S^2S^3\mathbb{C}^2$ and get the ideal of the twisted cubic?

Let $X:=x^3$, $Y:=x^2y$, $Z:=xy^2$ and $W:=y^3$ be the 4 independent generators of $S^3\mathbb{C}^2$, and observe that the kernel of the natural epimorphism (total symmetrisation) $$ p:S^2S^3\mathbb{C}...
2
votes
0answers
113 views

Values of Bernoulli polynomials at roots of unity

I am wondering if there are any nice results on the values of Bernoulli polynomials at roots of unity, besides those at 1 or -1.
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Comparing product of positive affine functions over integers

Problem Let $f_i: \mathbb Z^n \mapsto \mathbb Z$ and $g_i: \mathbb Z^n \mapsto \mathbb Z$ affine functions and $\mathcal D \subseteq \mathbb Z^n$ a set on which they are all positive. Let $P$ and $Q$ ...
4
votes
0answers
106 views

Christoffel-Darboux type identity

The classical Christoffel-Darboux identity for Hermite polynomials reads $$\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{H_k(x)H_k(y)}{2^k k!}=\frac{1}{2^{n+1} n!}\frac{H_{n+1}(x)H_n(y)-H_n(x)H_{n+1}(y)}{x-y}.$$ I am ...
5
votes
2answers
184 views

$L^{\infty}$ polynomial approximation

In short: For a given smooth or continuous function, how can we obtain the best $L^{\infty }$ approximating polynomial? Jackson (1911) proved that there is a best approximating polynomial in the $L^{\...
2
votes
0answers
65 views

Carlitz factorials and Euler-like series

Let $q$ be a power of a prime $p$. For every $i\in\mathbb N$, one denotes $D_i=\prod_{\substack{h\in\mathbb F_q[T]\text{ monic}\\\deg h=i}}\limits h$. For $n\in\mathbb N$, write $$n=n_0+n_1q+\cdots+...
3
votes
1answer
209 views

Polars of algebraic curves and surfaces

I asked this on Math.StackExchange, but received no response, so trying here ... A paper I'm reading says the following ... With homogeneous coordinates $\mathbf{x} = [x,y,z,w]$, let $F(\mathbf{x}...
3
votes
0answers
101 views

An operator derived from the divided difference operator $\partial_{w_0}$

Some main definitions and basic facts of divided differences: In the symmetric group $S_n$, let $s_i$ denote the adjacent transposition $(i,i+1),i\in \{1,2,\cdots,n-1\}.$ Since $S_n$ is generated by ...
3
votes
1answer
73 views

Prime ideal ramified in extension if and only if certain polynomial divides another one?

Let $k$ be a field of characteristic $ \neq 2$, and let $f \in k[T]$ be a polynomial of degree $\ge 1$ which is square free. Let $K$ be the quadratic extension $k(T)(\sqrt{f})$ of $k(T)$. I know that ...
3
votes
1answer
131 views

Non-zero coefficients of primitive polynomials

Let $R$ be the finite field with $q$ elements, and let $m,n\in \mathbb{N}$ be positive integers $\geq 2$. I want to prove that there exists a primitive polynomial $$F(x) = x^{mn}-\sum\limits_{j=0}^{...
3
votes
0answers
258 views

Why is solving polynomial systems NP hard?

Solving polynomial systems is known to be a NP hard problem; however it is not completely clear to me where this complexity comes from. My interest is in the case of systems of multivariate ...
1
vote
0answers
56 views

Uniform limit of m-homogeneous polynomials over compact subsets of a Banach Space

I am trying to solve problem 1.2.A from Mujica's book "Complex Analysis in Banach Spaces". We denote by $\mathcal{P}_a(^mE;F)$ the space of all $m-$homogeneous polynomials from $E$ into $F$, i.e, the ...
6
votes
4answers
427 views

The coefficient of a specific monomial of the following polynomial

Let the real polynomial $$f_{a,b,c}(x_1,x_2,x_3)=(x_1-x_2)^{2a+1}(x_2-x_3)^{2b+1}(x_3-x_1)^{2c+1},$$ where $a,b,c$ are nonnegative integers. Let $m_{a,b,c}$ be the coefficient of the monomial $x_1^{...
6
votes
0answers
190 views

Density of polynomials in $C^k(\overline\Omega)$

Let $\Omega$ be an open and bounded subset of $\mathbb{R}^2$ and let $C^k(\Omega)$, $1\leq k<\infty$, be the space of functions $f$ with continuous derivatives of order $\leq k$ in $\Omega$, ...
3
votes
0answers
75 views

Sign of bivariate polynomial evaluated over two algebraic numbers

I would like to compute the sign of a bivariate polynomial $f$ evaluated over two algebraic numbers $a$, $b$. The numbers are in "isolating interval representation" meaning that each one is defined by ...
13
votes
0answers
400 views

Solving polynomial systems with homotopy. Where is the bottleneck?

I have a polynomial system with $n+k$ unknowns ($n+k$ can be greater than 8), that is known to have a limited number of isolated solutions. I want to solve this system numerically, but if I plug it ...
9
votes
0answers
185 views

Weyl Groups as Galois groups

I am looking for explicit examples (for all positive integers $n \ge 5$) of degree $2n$ even polynomials $f(x)=h(x^2)$ over the field $\mathbb{Q}$ of rational numbers such that the Galois groups of $...
0
votes
0answers
68 views

Extremum of the cyclic sum of polynomial ratios (same degree)

I've noticed a few times (probably nothing new) that cyclic sums (assuming $x, y, z > 0$) like: $\frac{x^2+y^2}{yz} + \frac{y^2+z^2}{zx} + \frac{z^2+x^2}{xy}$, where in each of the 3 ratios, all ...
3
votes
1answer
194 views

system of complex equations

I am working on a system of complex equations The question is the following: Let $a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_N\in \mathbb{C}$ such that $$\sum_{j=1}^N \sum_{q=0}^{N-1-k} {N-1 \choose q} {N-1 \choose k+q} |a_j|...
0
votes
0answers
67 views

A question about divided differences

I want to ask a question about divided differences. Let $n\equiv0,1 \pmod 4$ is a positive integer. We know that for any polynomial $f\in \mathbb{Z}[x_1,x_2,\cdots,x_n]$, $$\partial_{w_0}(f)=\left(\...
2
votes
3answers
190 views

Isolating roots of polynomial system

I would like to isolate the regions which contain the roots of a system of two bivariate cubic polynomials. I thought I would project the solutions onto $x$ and $y$ axis by means of resultant ...
3
votes
0answers
68 views

Reducible polynomial compositions

Let $f(x)$ be a polynomial of degree $n\geq 2$ with integer coefficients. Then there always exists a polynomial $g(x)$ such that $f\circ g(x)$ is reducible. Namely, let $g(x)=f(x)+x$; then $f\circ g(x)...
1
vote
0answers
70 views

Roots of generalized homogeneous polynomials

A polynomial $P(\xi)$ of $n$ real or complex variables is homogeneous of order $m$ with respect to $\lambda \in \mathbb{Z}_{+}^n$ if $$P(\xi) = \sum\limits_{\substack{(\alpha, \lambda) = m \\ \alpha \...
0
votes
2answers
501 views

Independence in mathematics

While trying to think about possible interesting notions of algebraic independance over a skew field, I am wondering where in mathematics appears the notion of being independent, or free over ...
1
vote
0answers
65 views

Solving the sextic equation using univariate analytic functions and arithmetic operations

Inspired by the top answer to this MO question, I would like to push the limit of the Hermite-Brioschi-Kronecker theorem. Suppose we only allow solutions to be expressed in terms of basic arithmetic ...
4
votes
0answers
249 views

Algebraic curves that enclose and exclude given points in the plane

Q1. Given two finite sets $R,G$ of points in $\mathbb{R}^2$, $|R|=r$ red points and $|G|=g$ green points, is it always possible to find a simple closed algebraic curve $C(x,y)=0$ that encloses ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Particular functional equation for a polynomial

Let $P\in\mathbb C[X]$ be with degree $d\ge1$ and $q>1$. Can we find polynomials $P_i\in\mathbb C[X]$ and an integer $n\ge1$ such that $$\sum_{i=0}^nP_i(X^{p_i})P(q^iX)=0,$$ where $p_k$ denotes the ...
0
votes
1answer
57 views

Congruences of abelian monoids which can be extended to (ideal) congruences of polynomials

Some weeks ago I asked the same question at [math.stackexchange][1] but I have not gotten any feedback. The flavour of the question (but see the details later) is about whether to understand ...
5
votes
0answers
169 views

Solving a Laurent polynomial functional equation

I'm considering a set of functional equations: For a given $\phi(x)\in\mathbb {Z}[x,\frac {1}{x}] $ with $\phi(x)=\phi(\frac{1}{x}) $, $f(x)f(\frac {1}{x})+\phi (x)g(x)g(\frac {1}{x})=1, $ where $f(x)...
1
vote
1answer
68 views

Positive solutions to simultaneous real quadratic equations

I have a system of $n$ quadratic equations with $n$ unknowns. It can be written as $diag(x)Ax=1$ $x$ is an $n$-vector, $A$ is $n\times n$, real, symmetric and positive definite, the diagonal ...
15
votes
1answer
373 views

Is the number of representations as the sum of two elements of a polynomial sequence always small?

Let $f(x) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ be a degree $d>1$ polynomial with integer coefficients. Define $$r(n) := | \{x,y \in \mathbb{Z} : f(x)+f(y) = n \}|. $$ My question is: Is it true that $r(...
4
votes
2answers
301 views

Inverse of a polynomial map

Ax-Grothendieck Theorem states that if $\mathbf K$ is an algebraically closed field, then any injective polynomial map $P:\mathbf K^n\longrightarrow \mathbf K^n$ is bijective. Question 1. What does ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

Regularized integral and asymptotic expansion

Let $f:(0, \infty) \longrightarrow (0, \infty)$ be a monotonously increasing function (in fact, a step function) and let $P$ be a polynomial of degree $N$. Suppose I know that for some $k$, the limit $...
1
vote
0answers
79 views

Relation to Ehrhart polynomial with Uniqueness

A set of relative prime, positive integers $A = [a_1, \dots, a_d]$ describe the restricted partition function $$ p_A(n) = \# \{(m_1,\dots,m_d)\in\mathbb{Z}^d: \textrm{ all }m_j \geq 0, \sum_{j=1}^d ...
3
votes
1answer
191 views

Symmetry Group of a Polynomial

Given a polynomial $P \in \mathbb{Z}[X_1,\ldots,X_n]$, is there a poly-time algorithm which computes the group of permutations of variables that leaves $P$ unchanged? (Clearly, the trivial $O(n!)$-...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

Division of multivariable polynomials by an ideal

Let $K$ be a commutative field and consider an ideal $I$ of $K[X_1,\dots,X_n]$. Is there a well behaved "reduction modulo I", in the following sense : Given a well-ordering $\leq$ on the set of ...
3
votes
1answer
92 views

ideal generated from a truncated “real radical-like” set are still real radical?

Suppose $\mathbb{R}[X]$ is the normal multivariate polynomial ring where $X = x_1...x_n$. $\mathbb{R}[X]_t$ is the truncated ring such that $\mathbb{R}[X]_t =\left\{f: f \in \mathbb{R}[X], deg(f) \leq ...
4
votes
2answers
98 views

Is there a critical point of a polynomial $f$ within every disc having as diameter the line segment between two zeros of $f$?

Consider a generic complex polynomial $f$ (i.e. one with pairwise distinct zeros [EDITed:] and with pairwise distinct zeros of $f'$) and define for every pair of zeros an open disc which has as ...
2
votes
0answers
169 views

Hilbert series of the weight 0 sub-algebra of the algebra of functions on GL(N)

Let $A$ be the algebra of polynomials in $N^2$ variables $x^i_j$, $i,j=1,\dots,N$. It is $\mathbb{Z}^N$ graded, with $\text{weight}(x^i_j)=e_i-e_j$. Here $(e_1,\dots,e_n)$ is the standard basis of $\...