16
votes
1answer
803 views

How to prove that every polynomial in an infinite family is irreducible over Q?

Consider the bivariate polynomial $$p(X,Y) = X^5 - (2 Y + 1) X^3 - (Y^2 + 2) X^2 + Y (Y-1) X + Y^3.$$ For every integer $y \ge 4$, I conjecture that $p(X,y)$ is irreducible in $\mathbb{Q}[X]$. How can ...
7
votes
3answers
213 views

Uniform bound for the number primes $p$ s.t. a polynomial has a root modulo $p$

It is well known that for a given polynomial $f \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ the number of primes $p$ s.t. $f$ has a root modulo $p$ is infinite. In fact, one can even write down a formula for the density of ...
1
vote
0answers
185 views

A question about the Sylvester determinant

I am writing an invited article related to the diophantine equations like the abc-conjecture by the way of the determinant of the Sylvester matrix. We know that Sylvester never really finalize some ...
3
votes
1answer
254 views

Counting solutions modulo primes

Let $P(x)$ be an irreducible polynomial in $\mathbb{Z}[x]$ of degree $n.$ By $N(k,x)$ we denote the number of primes up to $x,$ such that $P(x)$ has exactly $k$ solutions in $\mathbb{Z}_p.$ Is it ...
3
votes
0answers
113 views

Question related to the number of rational curves on a hypersurface

The following is from a PhD thesis "Algebraic Circle Method" by Thibaut Pugin, which I am currently reading. Let $k$ be a finite field of order $q$. Let $\mathfrak{X} \subseteq \mathbb{P}^n_k$ be ...
2
votes
0answers
124 views

Number of rational curves on varieties over finite fields

Let $k$ be a finite field. Let $P_r$ be set of degree $r$ binary forms over $k$. We define $$ \mathcal{M}_r = \{ (x_0, ..., x_n) \in P_r^{n+1} : x_0^d + ... + x_n^d = 0 \text{ and the }x_i \text{'s ...
5
votes
2answers
537 views

Would such polynomial identity exist? (related to sum of four squares)

Let $f_1,f_2,f_3,f_4,f_5 \in \mathbb{Q}[x]$ be linear and coprime and not all constant. Is it possible $ f_1^2+f_2^2+f_3^2+f_4^2=f_5^2$? I suppose the answer is negative. If this is possible, ...
1
vote
0answers
75 views

Irreducibility of reflexive compositions of polynomials (II)

Given an unknown polynomial $p \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$, write on the blackboard a finite expression that defines a polynomial $q \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ by using only constants $1, x, p$ of the ring ...
2
votes
0answers
147 views

square-free parts of values of polynomials

Given a polynomial $f(x) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ of degree $d$, consider the following three sets: $$N_1(x) = \#\{k \leq x: f(k) \text{ is square-free}\}$$ $$N_2(x) = \#\{n \leq x: n = f(k) \text{ is ...
9
votes
3answers
1k views

An algebraic number is not a root of unity?

This problem is related to my study of the Burau representation of the braid group $B_3$: I was trying to show that certain "congruence subgroups" are of infinite index. There is an approach that ...
34
votes
2answers
768 views

A curious identity related to finite fields

To three elements $a_1$, $a_2$, $a_3$ in the finite field $\mathbb F_q$ of $q$ elements we associate the number $N(a_1,a_2,a_3)$ of elements $a_0\in \mathbb F_q$ such that the polynomial ...
4
votes
2answers
282 views

Can a polynomial be almost always divisible by a member of a finite set of primes?

Special case of Bunyakovsky conjecture Let $f(x)$ be non-constant irreducible polynomial with integer coefficients, no fixed prime factor and positive leading coefficient. Let $S$ be a finite set of ...
7
votes
1answer
236 views

Reducibility of polynomials maps

Motivated by this question. Let $f \in \mathbb{Q}[x]$ or$f \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ . Consider the sequence $f(x),f(f(x)), \ldots f^n(x)$. If some $f^k(x)$ is reducible, the rest iterates will be ...
1
vote
0answers
52 views

Irreducibility of reflexive compositions of polynomials

Let $m$ be a positive integer. For $k = 1, 2, 3, ... m$, fix $g_k(x_1, ..., x_{k + 1}) \in \mathbb{Z}[x_1, ..., x_{k + 1}]$. For any polynomial $p(x) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$, let $P_0(x) = p(x), P_1(x) ...
3
votes
2answers
262 views

Irreducible polynomials in $\mathbb{Q}_p((X))[Y]$

I'm looking for some criteria for the irreducibility of polynomials with coefficients in $\mathbb{Q}_p((X))$. In particular, is the polynomial $Y^2+1$ irreducible over $\mathbb{Q}_3((X))$? And how ...
6
votes
0answers
77 views

Irreducibility testing and factoring

It is a result of van Hoeij and Novicin (Algorithmica, 2012) that factoring polynomials of degree $d$ over the integers can be done in $O(d^6 + d^4 \log^2 A)$ time, where $A$ is the coefficient bound. ...
1
vote
0answers
215 views

When $x^n - (x+a)^{n-k} (x+b)^k$ is irreducible?

Fix a nonzero integer $a$ and a positive integer $k$. I'm looking for some criterion to establish for which nonzero integers $b$ and $n \geq 2$ the polynomial $$f(x) := x^n - (x+a)^{n-k} (x+b)^k$$ is ...
2
votes
2answers
213 views

Irreducible Polynomials from a Reccurence

This question is inspired by a recent one : Let $c$ be a variable and define a sequence by $a_0=0$ $a_1=1$ and $a_{n+1}=a_{n}c-a_{n-1}$ . So $$\begin{align*} a_2 &= c \\ a_3 &={c}^{2}-1= ...
10
votes
3answers
588 views

Probability of coprime polynomials

Given positive integer $N$, we choose $m_1, m_2, n_1, n_2$ independently and with equal probabilities from $\{0,1,\ldots,N\}$, and let $f_1 = x^{m_1} + (1+x)^{n_1}$ and $f_2 = x^{m_2} + (1+x)^{n_2}$ ...
0
votes
0answers
79 views

Lower-Upper bounds on the cardinality of a set

Let $S$ be a finite set which is a subset of $\{(\alpha ,\beta ):\alpha , \beta \in \mathbb{Z}, \alpha\geq 0, \beta \geq 0\}$ and $ T(x,y)=\sum_{(\alpha ,\beta ) \in S} h_{\alpha, \beta} ...
3
votes
1answer
220 views

Menon’s identity

I also put this question in stackexchange, but remained unanswered. http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/506996/menons-identity Let $G$ be a group of order $n$. Consider an action of $U_n$, the ...
5
votes
2answers
296 views

On $a^4+nb^4 = c^4+nd^4$ and Chebyshev polynomials

In a 1995 paper, Choudhry gave a table of solutions to the quartic Diophantine equation, $a^4+nb^4 = c^4+nd^4\tag{1}$ for $n\leq101$. Seiji Tomita recently extended this to $n<1000$ and solved ...
4
votes
3answers
308 views

Set of primes dividing polynomials and composition

For a non-constant polynomial $A \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$, let $\mathcal{P}(A)$ denote the set of prime numbers $p$ which divide $A(n)$ for some integer $n$. If $\mathcal{P}(A) \subseteq \mathcal{P}(B)$ for ...
7
votes
3answers
355 views

How few terms may appear in a polynomial with given (cyclotomic) roots and nonnegative coefficients?

Given $W \subset \mathbb C$, let $S_W$ be the set of polynomials in $\mathbb R[x]$ that vanish on $W$ and have only nonnegative coefficients. Warm-up question: It's clear that if $W$ contains a ...
1
vote
0answers
153 views

Every antisymmetric (alternating) polynomial is divisible by Vandermonde product

I am looking for a proof of the statement: Every antisymmetric (alternating) polynomial is divisible by Vandermonde product, yielding a symmetric polynomial in the result. The statement is really ...
1
vote
1answer
144 views

If $F(a_1,\ldots,a_k)=0$ whenever $a_1,\ldots,a_k$ are integers such that $f(x)=x^k-a_1x^{k-1}-\cdots-a_k$ is irreducible, then $F\equiv0$

I'm trying to understand a proof of the following theorem (from section II of Hall's paper An Isomorphism Between Linear Recurring Sequences and Algebraic Rings): If $F(a_1, \ldots, a_k)$ is a ...
0
votes
1answer
156 views

Integral points on genus 0 curves related to polynomial identities

Consider the identity $$(x+1)^5+(y+1)^5 = (2x + 6y) ( -x +y )^4 + f(x,y)$$ where $f(x,y)=-x^5 + 2*x^4*y + 12*x^3*y^2 - 28*x^2*y^3 + 22*x*y^4 - 5*y^5 + 5*x^4 + 5*y^4 + 10*x^3 + 10*y^3 + 10*x^2 + ...
9
votes
3answers
698 views

Why is the gcd so large in an identity related to the $abc$ conjecture?

Consider the identity $$ (x+z)^5+(y-z)^5 = (-3 x + 4 y)^2 (x + y)^3 + (x+y) f(x,y,z) $$ Where $f(x,y,z)=(-8*x^4 + 5*x^3*y + 24*x^2*y^2 - 9*x*y^3 - 15*y^4 + 5*x^3*z - 5*x^2*y*z + 5*x*y^2*z - 5*y^3*z + ...
27
votes
3answers
1k views

Are surjectivity and injectivity of polynomial functions from $\mathbb{Q}^n$ to $\mathbb{Q}$ algorithmically decidable?

Is there an algorithm which, given a polynomial $f \in \mathbb{Q}[x_1, \dots, x_n]$, decides whether the mapping $f: \mathbb{Q}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{Q}$ is surjective, respectively, injective? -- And ...
5
votes
2answers
141 views

Collision polynomials

Consider $P_n(x)$ polynomials defined through the recurrence relations $$P_n(x)=2(1-x)P_{n-1}(x)-(1+x)^2P_{n-2}(x),$$ with $P_0(x)=1$ and $P_1(x)=1-3x$. In fact, the explicit solution of these ...
8
votes
1answer
333 views

Least prime $p$ such that an irreducible polynomial of degree $n$ has no root modulo $p$?

This question is inspired by an old question of Greg Kuperberg, about how small is the first prime $p$ which makes a given monic polynomial $P$ with integral coefficient have a (simple) root modulo ...
30
votes
2answers
1k views

A question on maps from $\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$ to itself

Let $p\geq 3$ be a prime number, and let $u:\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}\to \mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$ be a map such that, for all $l\in \mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$,$l\neq 0$, the map $k\mapsto u(k+l)-u(k)$ is a ...
1
vote
2answers
141 views

Polynomials giving Lower Degree Elements in an Algebraic Number Field

My earlier related question Lower Degree Elements in an Algebraic Number Field has been given a clean answer for the first part. My present question is below: Take a number field ...
18
votes
3answers
936 views

Freeness of a Z[x]-module

Definition: Call a mapping $f: \mathbb{Z} \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}$ a generalized polynomial if for any distinct integers $m$ and $n$ we have $(m - n)|(f(m)-f(n))$. It is easy to check that polynomial ...
18
votes
5answers
613 views

Bass' stable range of $\mathbf Z[X]$

Let $n$ be a positive integer and $A$ be a commutative ring. The ring $A$ is said to be of Bass stable range $\mathrm{sr}(A)\leq n$ if for $a, a_1, \dots, a_n \in A$ one has the following implication: ...
1
vote
0answers
263 views

When integer polynomials take integer values, does their GCD also take integer values?

Suppose you have two polynomials $P$ and $Q$ with integer coefficients. Let their GCD (more specifically, the smallest integer multiple of the GCD in $\mathbb Q$ such that all the coefficients are ...
3
votes
0answers
245 views

$a^5+b^5=c^5+d^5$ and polynomial identities

No nontrivial integer solutions to $$ a^5+b^5=c^5+d^5 \qquad (1)$$ are known. (1) has infinitely many solutions in an extension of $\mathbb{Z}$ (root of $9-15x+37x^2 $ ) resulting from genus 0 curve ...
7
votes
0answers
215 views

When adding a constant makes a multivariate polynomial reducible?

Given a multivariate polynomial $f(x_1,\dots,x_n)$ with integer coefficients, how to find an integer $m$ (if it exists) such that $f(x_1,\dots,x_n) + m$ factors into polynomials of smaller degrees? ...
9
votes
2answers
584 views

When polynomial f(x^2) can be factored as g(x)·g(-x) ?

In relation to my question Expression for the sum of square roots of zeros of a polynomial How to characterize polynomials $f(x)$ with rational coefficients such that $f(x^2)=g(x)\cdot g(-x)$ where ...
1
vote
2answers
179 views

Transformation of a bivariate polynomial into a homogeneous one

For a given a bivariate polynomial $P(x,y)$ with rational coefficients: Q1. How compute such (invertible) substitutions of its variables that would transform the polynomial into a homogeneous one? In ...
6
votes
0answers
333 views

How many values a polynomial map misses?

Let $F$ be a field. For a uni-variate polynomial $f(x)$ over $F$,let $M_f(F)$ denote the number of values that $f$ misses, that is, the cardinality of the subset $F - f(F)$ in $F$. Assume that $f$ is ...
3
votes
1answer
128 views

Decision problem wrt Pairs of Polynomials with Integer Coefficients

Given two arbitrary polynomials $G(x)$ and $H(y)$, with integer coefficents, are there any circumstances in which it is possible to decide whether or not $G(x) = H(y)$ has solutions with $x, y \in ...
11
votes
0answers
496 views

Is OEIS A007018 really a subsequence of squarefree numbers?

A comment in A007018 a(n) = a(n-1)^2 + a(n-1), a(0)=1 claims Subsequence of squarefree numbers (A005117). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Nov 15 2004 Is it really so? As far as I know, it is open problem ...
0
votes
1answer
272 views

Polynomial version of the conjecture about Power free-values of polynomials

The conjecture about Power free-values of polynomials is: Let $F(X)$ be a polynomial with integer coefficients and no repeated roots. For any $\epsilon > 0$, there exists a constant ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Forbidden polynomial identities by the abc conjecture

The Mason–Stothers theorem states Let $a(t), b(t)$, and $c(t)$ be relatively prime polynomials such that $a + b = c$, with coefficients that are either real numbers or complex numbers. Then ...
0
votes
1answer
262 views

Cyclotomic polynomial question [closed]

To avoid case distinction overload, I also call (say) $Z^3-Z^4$ cyclotomic. Just divide out the $Z=0$ solutions in the following if they offend. In the following, all exponents are assumed to be ...
0
votes
2answers
162 views

power sums are enough for rationality? [closed]

If I have k algebraic integers like a_1, ..., a_k such that the sum of their n-power are integer for n=1, ...m can we deduce that a_1, ..., a_k are integers? how large m should be? (how many power ...
5
votes
3answers
844 views

Is there any theorem like implicit function theorem in $\mathbb{Q}$ ?

My qeustion is that, is there any theorem like implicit function theorem in $\mathbb{Q}$ ? More precisely, let $p(\bar{x},\bar{y})$ be in $\mathbb{Z}[\bar{x},\bar{y}]$ such that in $\mathbb{Q}$, for ...
3
votes
1answer
470 views

When does a polynomial split over Q?

If P(x) is a polynomial in Q[X], is there any iff theorem that states all the roots of P(x) are rational based on the coefficients?! In another words, what could you impose on the coefficients to ...
17
votes
2answers
788 views

Cyclotomic polynomials with coefficients $0,\pm1$

Let me begin with what looks like a joke. According to a Bourbaki member, the following conversation occurred during a meeting dedicated to polishing the but-last version of an Algebra Bourbaki ...