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1
vote
3answers
179 views

Koebe–Andreev–Thurston theorem - where can I find a proof?

Koebe–Andreev–Thurston theorem (known also as the circle packing theorem) says that any planar graph can be realized by a set of (interior-) disjoint disks corresponding to vertices, such that two ...
26
votes
2answers
578 views

Term for “uncheckable constructions”

Is there a term for "uncheckable geometric constructions"? Say, Angle Trisection and Doubling the Cube are checkable; i.e., if the answer is given one can do finite Compass-and-straightedge ...
4
votes
1answer
180 views

Panning for gold nuggets: a type of isoperimetric problem

Let $C$ be a unit-radius circle in the plane. Suppose you have a total length $L$ of string available, and your task is to connect chords of $C$ using no more than $L$ of string to minimize the ...
6
votes
4answers
171 views

Inside-out polygonal dissections

A dissection of a polygon $P$ is a partition of $P$ into a finite number of pieces, which can then be rearranged (via planar translations and rotations) and joined (without overlap) to form a new ...
0
votes
2answers
151 views

Determine the boundary points of a set of points [closed]

I have a set of points $S=\{(x_1,y_1),(x_2,y_2),\ldots,(x_n,y_n)\}$. Then how to find the boundary points (which is a subset of $S$) of $S$? There are methods like convex hull, concave hull and ...
4
votes
0answers
106 views

Optimal planar net for catching convex shapes

Imagine you want to make a net out of string to filter and catch objects of a certain size, minimizing the length of string employed. (This actually arises in filtering biological impurities from ...
6
votes
2answers
311 views

Are angles between points enough to decide the realizability?

Let n points in the plane be given whose coordinates we don't know. Assume, however, that for any triple of the points we know the angle. Question: Can we decide whether the n points are realizable ...
6
votes
0answers
115 views

A forked plane continuum

I came up with this question while trying to solve the following MO one: Does every connected set that is not a line segment cross some dyadic square? Suppose $C$ is a plane continuum (i.e. a ...
0
votes
0answers
51 views

Intersection points of closed curves inscribed in a convex polygon

Suppose that I have two distinct simple closed curves, $C_1$ & $C_2$, and each is inscribed in a convex polygon, D. By inscribed, I mean tangent to each side of D. In particular, I am most ...
10
votes
1answer
181 views

Schoenberg's Rational Polygon Problem

"A polygon is said to be rational if all its sides and diagonals are rational, and I. J. Schoenberg has posed the difficult question, ‘Can any given polygon be approximated as closely as we like by ...
1
vote
0answers
38 views

Non-Convex Polygons with “Antipodal Visibility”

by "antipodal visibility" of planar, simple polygons I mean the following property: if two points $p$ and $q$ on the polygon's boundary divide the polygon's boundary into two polylines of equal ...
2
votes
2answers
109 views

Maximum possible number of similar three-colored triangles

I want to maximize the number of similar triangles with vertices from three fixed sets, one vertex from each set. For example, if you fix two points $X$, $Y$ (i.e. two sets with only one member), then ...
-3
votes
2answers
110 views

Hexagon Formed by connecting Trisections of triangle sides [closed]

Is there a theorem for the area of the hexagon formed by connecting the points formed when the sides of a triangle are trisected? It appears that the ratio of the area of the triangle to the area of ...
1
vote
1answer
59 views

A quantity associated to a triangle

Let $\Delta ABC$ be a triangle in the plane. Let $P_{1}, P_{2}, P_{3}$ be the intersection points of bisectors, medians and altitudes, respectively. We define the quantity: \begin{equation} Q(\Delta ...
2
votes
1answer
199 views

The points of half area of a triangle

Let $S$ be a simply connected Riemannan surface . Suppose $\Delta ABC$ is a triangle on $S$. The Area of a triangle is denoted by $\mathcal{A}$. A point $P$ in the interior of $\Delta ABC$ is ...
2
votes
1answer
189 views

Distribution of area of randomly placed circles

I've searched the web now for ages to try and find a paper on the asymptotic distribution of the area of the union of randomly placed discs on the plane. Ideally, I would be looking for the discs to ...
6
votes
1answer
136 views

Hiding $k$ disks inside a larger disk

Suppose one has $k$ unit-radius disks, and the goal is to hide them inside a disk of radius $R \gg k$. The detection probes are rays along a line. (Think of the disks as tumor cells, and the rays as ...
3
votes
0answers
159 views

Boundary of an open, bounded and convex set in $\mathbb{R} ^n$

Let $U$ be an open, bounded and convex set in $\mathbb{R} ^n$. Since $\partial U$ is a rectifiable set it follows that up to a set of $H^{n-1}$-measure zero $\partial U$ is contained in a countable ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Maximum crossings of curvature-constrained curve

Let $C$ be a curve in the plane whose curvature is everywhere $\le 1$. If $C$ has length $L$, what is the largest number of proper self-crossings of $C$ as a function of $L$? For example, the curve ...
1
vote
1answer
122 views

Vertices of Curves and Eigenvectors of Hessian

This might be a trivial question, but I can't seem to figure it out. Suppose I have an implicitly defined curve in the plane given by $f(x,y) = t$. This curve is strictly convex, and feel free to ...
1
vote
0answers
84 views

What is the projective dual of a planar graph?

Everybody learns the usual definition of the dual of a planar graph when edges are preserved and faces are mapped to vertices. Everybody learns the projective duality. What if we apply it to a ...
6
votes
1answer
159 views

Integral straight-line embeddings of planar graphs

Wikipedia says (in the article on Fáry's theorem), "Heiko Harborth raised the question of whether every planar graph has a straight line representation in which all edge lengths are integers. The ...
3
votes
1answer
193 views

Generalization of notion of convexity

I am searching for the correct term for the following, if it exists. A set $X\subset \mathbb{R}^2$ is called $r$-convex if for any two points $x_1, x_2\in X$ such that there exists an arc of radius ...
5
votes
2answers
386 views

Geometric explanation of Hutton's formula?

$$\frac{\pi}{4} = 2 \tan^{-1} \frac{1}{3} + \tan^{-1} \frac{1}{7} \;.$$ Is there some geometric construction that explains this beautiful equation (known as Hutton's formula)? Perhaps a "proof without ...
3
votes
2answers
310 views

Points contained in a disk [closed]

I have a question, but not sure how to prove this. We are given $n$ points in the Euclidean plane such that there exists no disk of radius $a$ which contains all of the points. Conjecture: There ...
11
votes
2answers
385 views

Triangle with largest perimeter in a convex region

What is the largest value of $r$ such that the following statement is always true? "Let $C$ be a convex region with area $1$. There must exist a triangle contained in $C$ whose perimeter is at least ...
12
votes
1answer
361 views

Probability that random cubic polynomials meet in a square

Let $p_1(x)$ and $p_2(x)$ be cubic polynomials with random coefficients in $[-1,1]$. I wanted to compute the probability that $p_1$ and $p_2$ share at least one point within the square $[-1,1]^2$. Of ...
12
votes
3answers
368 views

Characterization of discs

Let $D$ be a bounded simply connected region (open subset homeomorphic to the disc) in the plane, containing the origin. Suppose that for every line $L$ through the origin the intersection ...
5
votes
1answer
127 views

Maximal regions with given diameter

Let us call a bounded region $D$ in the plane maximal if the conditions $D\subset D'$ and $\mathrm{diam} D'=\mathrm{diam} D$ imply $D'=D$. Is it possible to describe all maximal regions? The only ...
3
votes
1answer
173 views

Planar linkage that traces a circle from its exterior?

Q. Is there a linkage in the plane that traces out a circle $C$ in such a manner that the interior of the disk bounded by $C$ is never intersected by any link througout the motion? What I ...
13
votes
0answers
396 views

Blocking light with mirrored convex objects

There is a long-unsolved problem posed by Janos Pach, sometimes known as the enchanted forest problem, which asks if it is possible to block a point light source in the plane from reaching infinity by ...
32
votes
0answers
482 views

Extending a line-arrangement so that the bounded components of its complement are triangles

Given a finite collection of lines $L_1,\dots,L_m$ in ${\bf{R}}^2$, let $R_1,\dots,R_n$ be the connected components of ${\bf{R}}^2 \setminus (L_1 \cup \dots \cup L_m)$, and say that {$L_1,\dots,L_m$} ...
19
votes
5answers
820 views

Lightray trapped between two mirror disks: Computation formulation?

I would like to calculate the angle of a ray $r$ from a given point $p$ such that it gets "stuck" reflecting between two congruent mirror-disks. For why there is such a ray, see the (amazing!) answer ...
3
votes
1answer
84 views

Generalizations of Directly Similar Theorem?

There is an attractive theorem that says that if two plane figures are directly similar, then so is any convex combination of them. Below, $P_1$ and $P_2$ are directly similar polygons: they have the ...
6
votes
0answers
176 views

Reversing shortest paths among unit disks

Twas the night before Christmas, and throughout M.O. Not a question was posted, not even by Joe. Well, let me remedy that. :-) Let the plane contain a number of ...
5
votes
1answer
159 views

Shortest curve with given convex hull

Suppose $S\subset\mathbb{R}^2$ is compact and convex. Suppose $\Gamma:[0,1]\to S$ is a continuous curve that passes through every extreme point of $S$, i.e., the convex hull of $\Gamma([0,1])$ is $S$. ...
3
votes
1answer
196 views

Map from a convex polygon that increases distance

At the risk of asking an extremely stupid question, suppose that $P\subset\mathbb{R}^2$ is a convex polygon with area $1$ that contains the origin, and let $r$ denote the farthest distance between the ...
15
votes
1answer
438 views

Is the perimeter of an ellipse with integer axes irrational?

Let $Q$ be an ellipse with integer-length axes $a$ and $b$: $$ \frac{x^2}{a^2} + \frac{y^2}{b^2} = 1 \;.$$ The perimeter of $Q$ is given by the complete elliptic integral of the 2nd kind, $E(\;)$: $4 ...
19
votes
1answer
262 views

Hidden points in polygons

Let $h(n)$ be the largest number of mutually invisible points that can be located in a polygon $P$ of $n$ vertices. Two points $x$ and $y$ are mutually invisible if the segment $xy$ contains a point ...
22
votes
3answers
700 views

Tetrahedron insphere iteration

I know that iterating the following incircle construction approaches an equilateral triangle in the limit:       Starting with any triangle $T$, one forms $T'$ by connecting ...
4
votes
1answer
166 views

Soddy-type relation for Steiner chains

For Steiner $n$-chains of circles of radii $r_1,\dots,r_n$ tangent to an inner circle of radius $r_-$ and an outer circle of radius $r_+$, is there a Soddy-type relation between the $n+2$ quantities ...
25
votes
3answers
956 views

About the ratio of the areas of a convex pentagon and the inner pentagon made by the five diagonals

Question : Letting $S{^\prime}$ be the area of the inner pentagon made by the five diagonals of a convex pentagon whose area is $S$, then find the max of $\frac{S^\prime}{S}$. ...
3
votes
0answers
64 views

A small planar set containing a large family of curves

A beautiful construction described in [1] shows a compact connected plane set of measure zero containing circles (circumferences) of every radius between zero and one. A corollary to a theorem proved ...
4
votes
0answers
162 views

$L_1$ and $L_\infty$ Voronoi diagrams and tropical geometry: Connection?

I just realized that there is a visual similarity between Voronoi diagrams in the $L_1$ and $L_\infty$ metrics (two images below)     Left: O'Rourke, "Computing Relative Neighborhood graph ...
19
votes
2answers
789 views

Erdős, Harary, Tutte's “dimension of graph”: Progress in last 48 yrs?

I just ran across this delightful paper by an amazing triumvirate: Paul Erdős, Frank Harary, and William Tutte. "On the dimension of a graph." Mathematika 12.118-122 (1965): 20. (Cambridge link) ...
12
votes
2answers
451 views

Sets of evenly distributed points in the Euclidean plane

Is there a set $P \subset \mathbb{R}^2$ of points in the Euclidean plane whose intersection with every convex subset of $\mathbb{R}^2$ of area $1$ is nonempty but finite? If the answer is yes, can ...
5
votes
3answers
999 views

Finding an invisible circle by drawing another line

A friend of mine taught me the following question. He said he found it on a book a few years ago. Though I've tried to solve it, I'm facing difficulty. Question: You know on a plane there is an ...
2
votes
2answers
170 views

Three questions concerning lattice points on sphere surfaces

Pardon my ignorance of this topic. Q1. In which dimensions $d$ is it the case that, for every natural number $n$, there exists a sphere having exactly $n$ lattice points on it ...
6
votes
1answer
133 views

2-layer tilings with a center-of-gravity constraint

I've encountered a tiling problem with a physical constraint that might place it outside the literature on tiling. "Tiling" is a bit of a misnomer; it is a special type of cover. All the tiles are ...
6
votes
1answer
159 views

Proof of a statement from Steele's “Probability theory and combinatorial optimization”

I am reading "Probability theory and combinatorial optimization" by J.M. Steele and am hung up on a statement made in Section 2.2 of Chapter 2, "Easy size bounds", in which it is stated (paraphrasing ...