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### Robust generalization of matrix rank

I am looking for robust generalizations of matrix rank. Think of the the following problem: A big matrix of low rank is perturbed by random noise, such that it becomes a full-rank matrix. Is there a ...
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### Are periodic billiard trajectories stable on a manifold with strictly convex boundary?

Let $(M,g)$ be a compact Riemannian manifold with strictly convex boundary. Let $\gamma:S^1\to M$ be a periodic billiard trajectory (geodesic in the interior and reflects specularly at the boundary). ...
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### What is the technical difference between a deformation and a perturbation?

What is the technical difference between a deformation and a perturbation? Do they exist in somewhat different categories?
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### Perturbation method of a boundary value problem

Let $u(x, \epsilon, \theta)$ be the solution of $$u''+(\epsilon \cos(x)+\theta-u)u=0$$ with boundary conditions $u'(0)=0$ and $u'(\pi)=0$. Here $\theta\in [0, 1]$. I tried to put the solution in ...
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### Separating the spectrum of a Hermitian matrix

Given Hermitian matrix $A$, I would like to perturbate it so that its eigenvalues become well-separated. Specifically, let $A$ be some Hermitian matrix, and let $G$ be a Gaussian matrix, with each ...
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### Distribution of the spectrum of a perturbed matrix

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ Hermitian matrix, with well-separated eigenvalues $\lambda_1 > \lambda_2 ... > \lambda_n$, with $|\lambda_i-\lambda_j|>\epsilon$, for all $i \neq j$. Let $G$ be a ...
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### analytic approximation of a non-negative matrix by a sequence of positive matrices

Let $L \in \{0,1\}^{n \times n}$ be a non-negative matrix whose row sum is 1. ($L$ stands for "limit"). It is known that there exists a unique $r \times r$ principal minor of $L$ that is a permutation ...
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### Error bound on matrix vector multiplication

I am multiplying a matrix $A$ with vector $p$. However, the matrix $A$ isn't accurate. Some (a very small fraction) of the element's value is changed from $a_{i,j}$ to {0,$-a_{i,j}$, $2a_{i,j}$}. ...
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### What is known rigoruously about the semiclassical (k to infinity) limit of WRT invariants?

To each closed $3$-manifold $N$, there is a corresponding Witten--Reshetikhin--Turaev invariant $Z_k(N)$ depending on an integer $k$ (the level) and a Lie group $G$ (and perhaps we'll just concentrate ...
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### enlarge the separation between two matrices

The separation between two square matrices $A$ and $B$, often used as a measure of the sensitivity of invariant subspace problems, is defined as  \operatorname{sep}(A,B)=\min_{X\neq 0}\frac{\left\...
### submultiplicity of matrix norm. Is $||AB||_F \leq ||A||_2||B||_F$?
Let $||\cdot||_F$ and $||\cdot||_2$ be the Frobenius norm and the spectral norm. I'm reading Ji-Guang Sun's paper 'Perturbation Bounds for the Cholesky and QR Factorizations' from BIT 31 in 1991. ...