A perfect number is a positive integer that is equal to the sum of its proper positive divisors.

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### On attempting a proof for $r > 1$, if $M = {2^r}{b^2}$ is an even almost perfect number which is not a power of two

(Preamble: I first thought that this question might be more appropriate for MSE. However, I posted it here nonetheless in the hope that someone with that brilliant idea can help with answering my ...

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### Is it possible to have an even superperfect number and an odd superperfect number whose product is an almost perfect number?

A number $n \in \mathbb{N}$ is said to be superperfect if
$$\sigma(\sigma(n)) = 2n.$$
A number $m \in \mathbb{N}$ is said to be almost perfect if $$\sigma(m) = 2m - 1.$$
Here is my question:
Is ...

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### On even almost perfect numbers other than powers of two

(Note: This question is an improved version of and has been cross-posted from this MSE post.)
Let $\sigma(x)$ denote the sum of the divisors of $x$. If $\sigma(x) = 2x - 1$, then we call $x$ an ...

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### Has it been proved that odd perfect numbers cannot be triangular?

(Note: This question has been cross-posted from MSE.)
Euclid and Euler proved that every even perfect number is of the form $m = \frac{{M_p}\left(M_p + 1\right)}{2}$ where $M_p = 2^p - 1$ is a prime ...

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### If $N = {q^k}{n^2}$ is an odd perfect number given in Eulerian form, is $n^2$ solitary?

(Note: A similar question was asked in MSE two months ago.)
Let $\sigma(x)$ be the sum of the divisors of the natural number $x$, and denote the abundancy index $\sigma(x)/x$ by $I(x)$.
Here is my ...

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### If $N = qn^2$ is an odd perfect number, is it possible to have $q + 1 = \sigma(n)$?

The title says it all.
Question
If $N = qn^2$ is an odd perfect number with Euler prime $q$, is it possible to have $q + 1 = \sigma(n)$?
Heuristic
From the Descartes spoof, with quasi-Euler ...

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### Is $n=6$ the only integer satisfies ${\sigma}_x(n) \equiv 0\bmod{n}$ for every odd integer $x > 0$ and $2 (\bmod n)$ if $x$ is even integer?

After a few computations in wolfram alpha about the divisor function for some values of $n$ to look the behavior of $\sigma_x(n)\bmod n$ for $\,n=6,\,$ i got this result : $\sigma_x(6)=0 \bmod 6$ for ...

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### Is $\liminf \frac{\sigma_{k}(({2}^{m-1})({2^m-1}))}{\phi_{k}(({2}^{m-1})({2^m-1}))}$ finite for every $k$?

I would like to check if this limit :$$\liminf \frac{\sigma_{k}(({2}^{m-1})({2^m-1}))}{\phi_{k}(({2}^{m-1})({2^m-1}))}$$ finite for every $k$?
where :$\phi_{k}$ is iterating Euler - totient function ...

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### If $N = {q^k}{n^2}$ is an odd perfect number given in Eulerian form, is $n$ a square?

(I have asked a similar question in MSE four days ago, but did not receive any answers. I have therefore cross-posted it to this site, hoping to get some responses.)
An odd perfect number $N$ is ...

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**1**answer

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### If $N = {q^k}{n^2}$ is an odd perfect number given in Eulerian form, is $n$ squarefree?

(I have asked a similar question in MSE around a week ago, but did not receive any responses. I have therefore cross-posted it to this site, hoping to get some answers.)
An odd perfect number $N$ is ...

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### Diagonal argument for even perfect numbers

Following this, let's define the notion of perfect sequence as follows:
$(u_{i})_{i}$ is a perfect sequence if and only if it is the sequence of divisors of an even perfect number in increasing order ...

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### On odd perfect numbers $N = q{p^{2a}}{m^2}$ satisfying certain conditions

Let $N = q{p^{2a}}{m^2}$ be an odd perfect number, satisfying the conditions
$$\sigma(m^2) = p^{2a}$$
$$\sigma(p^{2a}) = q$$
and
$$q + 1 = 2{m^2}.$$
Note the following:
$p^a m < q$
$q$ is ...

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### If $q^k n^2$ is an odd perfect number with Euler prime $q$, are the following statements known to hold in general? [closed]

(Note: This has been cross-posted to MSE. However, I feel that it is more likely to receive a good answer here, because I believe that it is a research-level question. For the mathematicians who ...

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### Collecting sufficient conditions for Sorli's conjecture on odd perfect numbers [closed]

Sorli's conjecture predicts that, for an odd perfect number $N$ given in the Eulerian form $N = {q^k}{n^2}$ (where $q$ is prime with $\gcd(q, n) = 1$ and $q \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$), the condition ...

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**0**answers

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### A question on (odd) perfect numbers

I have asked this question in MSE a few weeks back, but did not receive any responses. I have cross-posted it to MO, hoping that it is appropriate for this site.
Let $\sigma(x)$ be the (classical) ...

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### On odd perfect numbers $N$ given in the Eulerian form $N = {q^k}{n^2}$, Part II

I posted this question on MSE two days ago, but did not receive any responses. I have cross-posted it on MO, hoping it gets more attention here and that it is appropriate for this site.
A positive ...

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### Does there exist an integer that is both solitary and almost perfect?

This question is an offshoot from the following MSE post. I hope that it is appropriate for this site.
Let $\sigma(x)$ be the sum of the divisors of $x$.
An integer $a$ is said to be solitary if ...

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**2**answers

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### Improving the bound $q < n\sqrt{3}$ for an odd perfect number $N = {q^k}{n^2}$ given in Eulerian form [closed]

(Note: This was cross-posted from MSE.)
Let $N = {q^k}{n^2}$ be an odd perfect number given in Eulerian form (i.e., $q$ is prime with $q \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(q, n) = 1$).
Therefore, ...

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### A Problem Concerning Odd Perfect Number

Briefly, prove that every odd number having only three distinct prime factors cannot be a perfect number.
I know there are results much stronger than the one above, but I am looking for an answer ...

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### Is there an odd integer $x < 105$ for which it is known that $x \nmid N$, if $N$ is an odd perfect number?

Is there an odd integer $x < 105$ for which it is known that $x \nmid N$, if $N$ is an odd perfect number?
I have asked the same question in MSE, but did not get any answers. I was wondering if ...

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### Solutions of $rad(\sigma(m))=2rad(m)$

For $m$ a positive integer greater than $1$, let $rad(m)$ be the product of all distinct primes dividing $m$. If $n$ is an odd perfect number (conjectured not to exist), one would have $\sigma(n)=2n$, ...

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### An equation involving perfect numbers

Let $s,x_1,x_2,\cdots, x_s$ be natural numbers not neccesarily distinct.
I am interested in solving the equation $$(x_1+x_2+\cdots +x_s)^s=2^s(x_1\cdot x_2\cdots x_s)^2$$
Some Notes:
I have found ...

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334 views

### Who is attributed with the conjecture that every multiply-perfect number greater than $1$ is even?

I know that Descartes is considered to be the first to ask whether or not odd perfect numbers exist ($n$ such that $\sigma(n)=2n$, where $\sigma(n)$ is the sum of divisors of $n$), and he also ...

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### Any results towards the irrationality of the sum of reciprocals of perfect numbers? [closed]

This question is a follow up to my comment to Sum of the reciprocal of perfect numbers. I would like to know which results have been published about the possible irrationality of the sum of ...

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### Determine whether if $n$ is a primitive pseudoperfect (semiperfect) number, then $\sigma(n)<2^{\sigma_0(n)}$

Determine whether if $n$ is a primitive pseudoperfect (semiperfect) number, then $\sigma(n)<2^{\sigma_0(n)}$.
$\sigma_k(n)$ is the division function and $\sigma(n)=\sigma_1(n)$. A number is ...

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### Are all known $k$-multiperfect numbers (for $k > 2$) not squarefree?

I asked the following question in MSE four ($4$) days ago, but so far nobody has posted an answer.
The gist of the question is as follows:
Are all known $k$-multiperfect numbers (for $k > ...

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### What are the divisors of $2n^2 - \sigma_{1}(n^2)$ for composite $n$?

What are the divisors of $2n^2 - \sigma_{1}(n^2)$ for composite $n$?
Here, $\sigma_{1}$ is the classical sum-of-divisors function. For example, $\sigma_{1}(3^2) = 1 + 3 + {3^2} = 13$.
(The function ...

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### What is the latest progress in the research on Odd Perfect numbers? [closed]

What is the latest progress in the research on Odd Perfect numbers? I may be wrong, but I found a little on Perfect numbers in the latest issues of SCI journals. Is it really so? I would like to have ...

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### Generalized quasi-perfect numbers

A number $n \in \mathbb{N}$ is called quasi-perfect if $\sigma(n) = 2n+1$, where $\sigma$ is the sum of divisors function. It is known that if $n$ is quasi-perfect, then it must be the square of an ...

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### Proof of the Infinitude of Odd Primitive Pseudoperfect Numbers

I'm interested in the infinitude of odd primitive pseudoperfect numbers. Richard K. Guy's book "Unsolved Problems in Number Theory 3rd edition" says that P. Erdős proved the infinitude of odd ...

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### Integers n such that sigma(n)=omega(n)n and omega(n) divides n

Are there other integers $n$ than even perfect numbers such that $\sigma(n)=\omega(n)n$ and $\omega(n)\vert n$?
Thanks in advance.

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### On J. T. Condict's Senior Thesis on Odd Perfect Numbers

I am trying to locate a copy of J. T. Condict's senior thesis on odd perfect numbers:
J. Condict, On an odd perfect number's largest prime divisor, Senior Thesis, Middlebury College (1978).
I am ...

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### Re: Mordell's Equation $y^2 = x^3 + k$ and Perfect Numbers

I have already tried a somewhat exhaustive search of the literature, but couldn't find anything close to the problem that I am working on.
My question is: When does Mordell's Equation
$$y^2 = x^3 ...

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**2**answers

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### On Sorli's Conjecture Re: OPNs (Circa 2003)

In the PhD dissertation titled "Algorithms in the Study of Multiperfect and Odd Perfect Numbers" (hyperlinked here) and completed in 2003, Ronald Sorli conjectured that the exponent $k$ on the Euler ...